★ Cinema of Africa
African cinema is film production in Africa. It goes back to the early 20th century, when film was a major cinematic technology in use. In the colonial era, African life was shown only in white, colonial, Western filmmakers, who portrayed blacks in a negative way, as an exotic "other." No one of African film, there are differences between the countries of North Africa and sub-Saharan cinema and the cinemas of different countries.
The cinema of Egypt, one of the oldest in the world. Auguste and Louis lumière screened their films in Alexandria and Cairo in 1896 and first short film was made by the Egyptians in 1907. In 1935, the Misr film Studio in Cairo began to produce mostly formulaic comedies and musicals as well as films like Kamal Selim will 1939. Egyptian cinema has flourished in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, considered the Golden age. Station seed Youssef Chahines Cairo 1958 foreshadowed Hitchcocks psycho, and laid the Foundation for Arab film.
The Nigerian film industry is the largest in Africa in terms of value, number of films, income and popularity. He is also the second largest producer of films in the world. In 2016 Nigerias film industry contributed 2.3% of gross domestic product GDP.
1.1. History. The colonial era. (В колониальную эпоху)
In the colonial era, Africa was represented exclusively by Western filmmakers. In the first decades of the XX century Western filmmakers made films that depicted black Africans as "exoticized", "subordinate workers" or as "savage and cannibalistic". For example, to see the kings of the cannibal Islands, in 1909, Voodoo revenge 1913 and Congorilla 1932. Colonial films of the era portrayed Africa as exotic, with no history or culture. Examples abound and include jungle epics based on the Tarzan character created by Edgar rice Burroughs and the adventure film "the African Queen" in 1951, and various adaptations of H. rider Haggards novel king Solomons Mines in 1885. Much earlier Ethnography "aims at highlighting the differences between the indigenous population and the white civilized man, thus reinforcing colonial propaganda." Mark Allegrets the first film, Journey to Congo 1927 respectfully portrayed Masa people, particularly young African to entertain his little brother with a baby crocodile on a string. While Africans are portrayed as human, but not equal, map dialogue, for example, the traditional dance, as naive. His lover, the novelist andré Gide, accompanied by Allegra and wrote a book called Journey to Congo. Allegra later author zouzou, starring Josephine Baker, the first major film with a black woman. Baker caused a sensation in the Paris art scene, dancing in a Revue Negro clad only in the string of bananas.
In the French colonies Africans were prohibited by the Laval decree of 1934 from making their own films. Prohibition stunted the growth of film as a medium of African expression, political, cultural and artistic. Congo albert Mongita made the tutorial movie in 1951 and in 1953 Mamadou Touré did Mouramani based on folk tales about a man and his dog. In 1955, Paulin Soumanou Vieyra – originally from Benin, but educated in Senegal – along with his colleagues from LE group du cinéma "African", directed a short film in Paris, Afrique-sur-Seine, 1955. Vieyra was trained in film at the Institut des Hautes etudes cinematographiques IDHEC in Paris, and despite the ban on cinema in Africa, received permission to shoot the film in France. Considered the first film of Black Africa, Africa-sur-Seine explores the difficulties of being African in the 1950s in France.
Portuguese colonies got independence without the film production bases, as the colonial government was limited to colonialist propaganda, stressing the inferiority of the indigenous population. So little thought to the independence of developing an authentic African voice.
In the mid 1930-ies, the Bantu educational kinema experiment was conducted in an attempt to "educate the Bantu, mainly about hygiene. Only three movies from this project to survive, they are stored in the British film Institute.
Before the Declaration of independence of the colonies, a few anti-colonial films. Examples include statues also die Les statues meurent aussi by Chris Marker and Alain Resnais about European theft of African art. The second part of this movie was for 10 years, banned in France) Afrique 50 by rené Vauthier showed anti-colonial riots in Cote dIvoire and Upper Volta now Burkina Faso.
Also doing film work in Africa during this time was the French ethnographic filmmaker Jean Rusch, disputed from both French and African audiences. Documentaries such as the 1955 Jaguar, Les Maitres fous Noir 1958 UN MIA 1955, La "pyramid" the Human Comedy 1959. Documentaries Rouchs not explicitly anti-colonial, but the perception of the challenge to colonial Africa and to give a new voice to Africans. Although rush was accused by Ousmane sembene-and others to see the Africans as if they were insects," rush was an important figure in the development of African film and was the first person to work with Africans, many of whom had important careers in African cinema.
Because most of the films that were created before independence was openly racist in nature, African filmmakers of the independence era – like Ousmane sembene U. and Russian, among others – saw filmmaking as an important political tool for rectifying the erroneous image of Africans put forward by Western filmmakers and for reclaiming the image of Africa for Africans.
1.2. History. After independence and the 1970-ies. (После провозглашения независимости и 1970-х годов)
The first African film that received international recognition was Ousmanes Sembene La Noire de. also known as black girl. He showed the despair of an African woman who worked as a maid in France. He received the Jean Vigo prize in 1966. Originally a writer, Sembene turned to cinema to reach a wider audience. He is still considered the "father of African cinema." Sembenes native Senegal continues to be the most important place of African film production for more than a decade.
With the creation of the African fespaco festival in Burkina Faso in 1969, African film created its own forum. FESPACO now takes place every two years, alternating with the film festival of Carthage in Tunisia.
Panafrican Federation of Directors of the Federation Panafricaine de fans, or FEPACI was formed in 1969 to promote the African film industry from the point of view of production, distribution and exhibition. Since its inception, FEPACI was seen as a critical partner of the Organization of African unity, OAU, now the African Union. FEPACI looks at the role of film in political-economic and cultural development of African States and the continent as a whole.
Med Hondos Soleil o, shot in 1969, was immediately recognized. No less politically engaged than Sembene, he chose a more controversial filmic language to show what it means to be a stranger in France with the "wrong" skin color.
1.3. History. 1980-ies and 1990-ies. (1980-х и 1990-х годов)
Suleyman Cisses Yeelen, Mali, in 1987, was the first film made by a Black African to compete at Cannes. Cheick Oumar Sissokos Guimba Mali, 1995 was also well received in the West.
Many films of the 1990-ies, including a quarter of Mozart, Jean Pierre Bekolo, Cameroon, 1992, are situated in the globalized African metropolis.
Nigerian cinema is experiencing a tremendous growth in the 1990-ies in connection with the increasing availability of home video cameras in Nigeria, Nollywood soon in the Nexus for West African movies in English. 1844 nollywood produced films in 2013 alone.
The last cinema in Kinshasa was closed in 2004. Many former cinemas were converted in the Church. In 2009, the UN Agency for refugees screened breaking the silence in South Kivu and Katanga. The film deals with rape in a Congolese civil war.
However, a 200-seat theater MTS cinema House, built in 2016 in Brazzaville. In April 2018, the construction of a new cinema in Brazzaville.
Hosted the first summit of the African film in South Africa in 2006. It was followed by FEPACI 9th Congress.
African movie "Oscar" was launched in 2004, noting the growth of the local film industry in Nigeria, and the development and dissemination of film culture in Africa South of the Sahara.
1.4. History. 2000s and 2010s years. (2000-е и 2010-е годы)
Contemporary African cinema deals with a wide variety of topics related to contemporary issues and universal human problems.
Migration and relations between African and European countries is a common theme among many African films. Sissakos film Abderrahmane waiting for happiness depicts the Moorish city struggling against foreign influence through the return journey of migrants from Europe. Migration is also an important theme in Mahamat Saleh Harouns film ASI season in France, which shows the journey of a family from the Central African Republic, seeking refuge in France. Harun is part of the Chadian Diaspora in France, and uses the film to explore aspects of the experience of foreign.
Afrofuturism growing genre, including Africans on the continent and in the Diaspora who say science or speculative fiction stories involving Africa and African peoples. Neill Blomkamps district 9 is a well-known example, depicting an alien invasion of South Africa. Kahius Wanuri Pumzi a short film depicts a futuristic fictional Maitu community in Africa 35 years after world war III.
Of Directors, including Harun and Kahiu expressed concern about the lack of cinema infrastructure and appreciation in various African countries. However, organizations such as the Changamoto arts Fund to provide more resources and opportunities for African filmmakers.
1.5. History. Topics. (Темы)
African cinema like cinema elsewhere in the world, covers a variety of topics. In Algiers in 1975, the pan-African Federation of filmmakers FEPACI adopted Share of the Charter du African style African style, which recognizes the importance of post-colonial and neo-colonial realities of African cinema. Filmmakers began referring to the neo-colonial African societies. "The situation in contemporary African society we live in which they are dominated on several levels: political, economic and cultural terms". African filmmakers stressed their solidarity with progressive filmmakers in other parts of the world. African cinema is often seen a part of the Third movie.
Some African filmmakers, for example, Ousmane sembene, try to give the African the history of African people by remembering the resistance to European and Islamic domination.
The African filmmaker is often compared to traditional Griots. As Glotov, the task of the filmmakers-to Express and reflect a collective experience. Patterns of African oral literature often recur in African movies. African film is also influenced by traditions from other continents such as Italian neorealism, Brazilian cinema Novo and the theatre of Bertolt Brecht.
In Mauritania CINEPARC Ribat al-Bahr under the open sky drive-in theater is located in Nouakchott, the only one of its kind in Africa. In addition to the projection schedule, in a new app for iOS and Android provides you the largest international movie database, where you can find information such as a summary of the plot, the cast and crew, production team, critics, comments, opinions, fan stuff, and more about movies, TV shows, and all film work.
2. List of cinemas by region. (Список кинотеатров по регионам)
North Africa. (Северная Африка)
- Cinema Of Tunisia. (Кино Туниса)
- Movie Algeria. (Фильм Алжир)
- Cinema Of Egypt. (Кино Египта)
West Africa. (Западной Африке)
- Ghana Movie. (Кино Гана)
- Movie Mauritania. (Фильм Мавритания)
- Movie Liberia. (Фильм Либерии)
- Cinema Of Nigeria. (Кино Нигерии)
- Cinema Of Burkina Faso.
- Cinema Of Niger. (Кино Нигера)
- Cinema Of Senegal. (Кино Сенегала)
East Africa. (Восточной Африке)
- Movie Sudan. (Фильм Судан)
- Eritrea Movie. (Фильм Эритрея)
- Cinema Of Kenya. (Кино Кении)
- Movie Tanzania. (Фильм Танзании)
- Movie Ethiopia. (Фильм Эфиопии)
- Movie Djibouti. (Фильм Джибути)
South Africa. (Южная Африка)
- Movie South Africa. (Кино Южной Африке)
- Movie Botswana. (Фильм Ботсвана)
- Movie Namibia. (Фильм Намибия)
- Cinema Madagascar. (Кинотеатр Мадагаскар)
3. Women Directors. (Женщин-Директоров)
Recognized as one of the pioneers of Senegalese cinema and theater developed on the African continent as a whole, the ethnologist and filmmaker Safi faye was the first African woman film Director to gain international recognition. Fayes first film arriving passerby was released in 1972 and after this letter Kaddu Beykat from my village, the filmmakers First feature film was released in 1975. Fay continues to be active with several released during the second half of the 1970s until the end of my last job in 1996 film Mossane.
Sarah maldoror is a French film Director and the daughter of immigrants from guadaloupe was recognized as one of the pioneers of African film in the Diaspora. She is the founder of Les Griots, the troubadours, the first drama company in France made for actors of African and Afro-Caribbean origin. Initially in theatre, she continued to live in the State Institute of cinematography of the Russian Federation, VGIK, in Moscow. In 1972, maldoror is shot her sambizanga 1961-74 film about the war in Angola. Surviving African women of this war are the subject of the documentary movie Les Oubliees the forgotten women, Anne-Laure folly 20 years later. The bomb also worked as assistant Director on the Battle of Algiers 1966 directed by gillo Pontecorvo.
In 1995, Wanjiru Kinyanjui made the film the Battle of the sacred tree in Kenya.
In 2008, Manouchka Kelly Labouba became the first woman in the history of Gabon movie to direct a feature film. Her short film Le divorce deals with the impact of modern and traditional values on divorce of young couple of the Gabonese.
Kemi Adetiba, hitherto a music video Director, made her directorial debut in 2016 with the wedding. The film is about the events related to the celebration of an aristocratic wedding, became the most successful Nollywood film in the history of his native Nigeria.
Wanuri Kahiu is a Kenyan film Director, best known for the movie from a whisper which was awarded for best Director, best screenplay and Best film at the Africa movie Academy awards in 2009. Almost 10 years after the release of whisper, the film Kahius Rafiki, and coming-of-age romantic drama about two teenage girls in modern Kenya. The film made headlines, in part for its selection at the Cannes film festival, but also for its study of sexuality that do not sit well with the government of Kenya.
Rungano Nyoni, known for the world famous art film Im not a witch, Zambia, Welsh Director and screenwriter. Born in Zambia and grew up in Wales, Nyoni entered graduate school at the University of Arts in London, with the owners acting in 2009. Her filmography as a Director, Whether as a Director and / or screenwriter will also include short films: in 2009, a list, a short, Mwansa the Great, 2011, short, listen, 2014, quick, and she was also one of the Directors of the International film project Nordic factory 2014. She has received numerous awards including a BAFTA for outstanding debut of a British Director, Im not a witch.
In 2019, Azza Sheikh Malainine became the first woman in the history of cinema Mauritanias to direct a feature film. Her film SOS examines the impact of modern safety and security in Mauritania.
4. Films about African cinema. (Фильмы про африканского кино)
- Sembene!, Director: Samba Gadjigo and Jason Silverman, 2015.
- The Spell Of The Drum - Philip Cesar, Guinea-Bissau.
- La Belle movie - Director: Cecilia Zoppelletto, Kinshasa.
- This Is Nollywood Director Franco Sacchi 2007.
- Fespakistes Forest Directors: François Kotlarski, Eric Munsch, Burkina Faso / France, 2001.
- DAfrique camera, Director: Ferid Boughedir, Tunisia / France, 1983.
- Le Congo, Quel movie! - Director: guy Bomanyama-Zandu with, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
5. Film festivals. (Кинофестивали)
- The pan-African film festival, which will take place in Los Angeles.
- The festival of African cinema in new York.
- The African film festival of TAF held in Dallas in late June.
- Rwanda Hillywood film festival, held in Rwanda.
- Africa in motion, held in Edinburgh, Scotland at the end of October.
- International festival of the Sahara, FiSahara film, spent in the camps of Sahrawi refugees in Algeria.
- Africa world documentary film festival, which will take place in St. Louis.
- The festival, Silicon valley African film, which will be held in San Jose, CA.
- cinema of South Africa refers to the films and film industry of the nation of South Africa Many foreign films have been produced about South Africa usually
- a list of cinema of the world by continent and country. Cinema of Africa Cinema of Asia South Asian cinema Cinema of North America Cinema of South America
- The cinema of Burkina Faso is one of the more significant in Africa with a history that spans several decades and includes the production of many award - winning
- after the ban on gatherings was lifted. Media of Liberia Women of Africa Bringing art - house cinema to Liberia BBC News. Retrieved 10 February 2016
- The cinema of Nigeria, often referred to informally as Nollywood, consists of films produced in Nigeria its history dates back to as early as the late
- The Cinema of the Central African Republic refers to the film industry of the Central African Republic. As one of the world s poorest countries, the film
- world World cinema Asian cinema East Asian cinema South Asian cinema Southeast Asian cinema Cinema of Central Asia Cinema of Africa Bahrain Cinema com BahrainCinema
- Canada, England, South Africa and even Asian countries like India, where films are made in English but they are part of world cinema due to their marginal
- as Filmhouse Cinemas is a film exhibition company in Nigeria and a member on the Board of Trustees of the Cinema Exhibitors Association of Nigeria - CEAN
- Cinema of Algeria refers to the film industry based in the north African country of Algeria. During the era of French colonization, movies were predominantly
- The cinema of Senegal is a relatively small film industry which experienced its prime from the 1960s through to the early 1980s, but has since declined
- of African Cinema French: Camera d Afrique is a 1983 Tunisian documentary film directed by Ferid Boughedir, which looks back at 20 years of African
- Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America Solanas and Getino s manifesto considers First Cinema to be the Hollywood production model
- The Cinema of Niger began in the 1940s with the ethnographical documentary of French director Jean Rouch, before growing to become one of the most active
- The cinema of Morocco dates back to The Moroccan Goatherd by Louis Lumiere in 1897. Cinema in Morocco has a long history, stretching back over a century
- assembly of film professionals that desired to promote African cinema These film professionals, several of whom were women, began to establish organizations
- Cinemas of Angola: From the closed to the open space Cine Africa Retrieved 11 February 2016. The unique and distinctive architectural style of Angola s
- Cinema of Israel Hebrew: קולנוע ישראלי Kolnoa Yisraeli refers to film production in Israel since its founding in 1948. Most Israeli films are produced
- Africans in making films that taught religious virtues. These were the Congolese Center for Catholic Action Cinema CCCAC in Leopoldville and Africa
- active roles in the cinema and film. The oil boom of 1973 through 1978 also contributed immensely to the spontaneous boost of the cinema culture in Nigeria
- The Festival du Cinema Africain de Khouribga FCAK or African Film Festival in Khouribga is a film festival for African cinema held in Khouribga in Morocco
- New Nigerian Cinema also known as New Wave or controversially as New Nollywood is an emerging phase in Nigerian cinema in which there became a major
- Unir Cinema Revue du Cinema Africain was the first periodical entirely devoted to African cinema to come out of Francophone Africa Its impact established
- Accra - Ghana. Filmhouse Cinemas West Africa with 10 cinemas as at 2016, it is the largest cinema chain in West Africa in terms of location numbers. It
- The cinema of Lebanon, according to film critic and historian Roy Armes, is the only other cinema in the Arabic - speaking region, beside Egypt s, that
- The Union of Creators and Entrepreneurs of the Cinema and Audiovisual Industries of Western Africa UCECAO is an organization for cinema professionals
- Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment. The film industry of Brazil
- Iceland has a notable cinema film industry, with many Icelandic actors having gone on to receive international attention. The most famous film, and the
- Cinema for Peace is a Berlin - based organization that claims to raise awareness for the social relevance of films. Since 2002, the group has been inviting
- development of African cinema as means of expression, education and awareness - raising It has also worked to establish a market for African films and industry
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