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★ Photography ..


Timeline of photography technology

1932 – "flowers and trees", the first color car...



Self-image of an artist, drawn, painted, photog...


Architectural photography

Architectural photography is the photographing ...


Digital photography

Digital photography uses cameras containing arr...


Macro photography

Macro photography, extreme close-up photo, usua...


Documentary photography

Documentary photography usually refers to one o...


★ Photography

Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by using a photosensitive material such as photographic film. It is used in many fields of science, industry and business, as well as more direct uses for art, film and video production, leisure, hobby and mass communications.

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during exposure. With the help of electronic image sensor, this produces an electric charge of each pixel, which are processed automatically and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion invisible latent image which later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending purpose photographic material and processing method. Negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on paper, known as print, or with a photographic enlarger or contact printing.


1. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός phōtos, genitive phōs from φῶς, "light" and γραφή graph "representation through lines" or "drawing", together means "drawing with light".

Several people may have coined a new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of words, photos, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834. This statement is widely known but not yet acknowledged at the international level. The first use of the word Franco-Brazilian inventor became widely known after the research of Boris scythe in 1980.

The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of February 25, 1839, contained an article entitled pictures, discussed several priority claims – especially Henry Fox Talbot – about Daguerres of the invention. The article is the earliest known appearance of this word in public print. It was signed "J. M." is thought to have been the Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. Astronomer sir John Herschel is also credited with the word, independent from Talbot, in 1839.

The inventor Nicephore Niepce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre did not seem to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to the process as "Heliography" Niepce, "photogenic drawing" / "Talbotype" / "Calotype" Talbot and the daguerreotype Daguerre.


2.1. History. Technology precursors. (Технология прекурсоров)

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries concerning to see the images and capture the image. The discovery of the camera obscura "dark chamber" in Latin, which provides image scene dates back to Ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described the pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anfimov of thrall used a type of camera obscura in his experiments.

The Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham 965-1040 Alhazen invented the camera obscura, and the first real pinhole camera. The invention of the camera was to be traced in the work of Ibn al-Haytham. While the effect of the light passing through the eye of a needle described earlier, Ibn al-Haytham gave the first correct analysis of the "camera obscura", including the first geometric and quantitative characteristics of the phenomena, and was the first to use the screen in a dark room so that the image on the one hand, the bore surface can be projected on the screen from the other side. He also was the first to understand the relationship between the focal point and pinhole and conducted the first experiments with sequential images, laying the foundations for the invention of photography in the 19th century.

Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura formed dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. The hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and a laterally reversed, upside down image on a sheet of paper. The Renaissance artists used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western art. This is a box with a hole that allows light to pass through and create an image on a sheet of paper.

The birth of photography, then, was concerned with inventing means to capture and save images in the camera obscura. Albert the Great 1193-1280 discovered silver nitrate, and Georg Fabricius 1516-1571 discovered silver chloride and methods described in Ibn al-Haythams book of optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how the light will end the influence of some chemical, photochemical in 1694. In the Book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de La Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.

Around 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image from the camera obscura with a photosensitive substance. He used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects on the surface under direct sunlight, and even the shadow copies of paintings on glass, reported in 1802 that "the images formed by the camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in average, the effect on silver nitrate." The shadow images eventually darkened all over.


2.2. History. The invention. (Изобретение)

The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicephore Niepce, but it was destroyed in attempt to print from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the view from the window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature.

Because Niepces photography camera requires a very long shutter speed of at least eight hours and probably several days, he asks to dramatically improve your bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. In collaboration with Louis Daguerre, he worked after the effect of processing methods produced visually superior results, and replaced the bitumen with a more light sensitive resin, but hours exposure in the chamber are still needed. With regard to possible commercial use, partners have chosen to complete secrecy.

Niepce died in 1833 and Daguerre then moved the experiments on the light-sensitive silver halides, which niépce had abandoned many years ago due to his inability to take images that he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerres efforts resulted in what would later be called dagerotipii. Basic elements - silver plated sensitized by iodine vapor, the developed mercury vapor, and "fixed" with hot saturated salt water - in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the first confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn transport on a busy Boulevard, which appears deserted, one man, his boots polished stood sufficiently still for several minutes of exposure to be visible. The existence of Daguerres process was publicly announced, without details, on 7 January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France agreed to pay Daguerre pension in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as a gift from France, which happened when all the instructions were made public on 19 August 1839. In the same year the American photographer Robert Cornelius is credited with taking the earliest surviving photographic self-portraits.

In Brazil, Hercules Florence, apparently, began working silver-salt-paper process in 1832, later calling it photography.

Meanwhile, British inventor William Fox Talbot, he managed to get a crude, but fairly permanent silver images on paper 1834-y, but kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerress invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto secret method and improve on it. First, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot paper photos, typically require many hours of exposure in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process which used the chemical development of the latent image to reduce the impact necessary to compete with the daguerreotype. In its original and calotype forms, Talbot process, in contrast to the Daguerres, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies, it is the basis of most chemical photography up to the present day, as the daguerreotypes may be reproduced in rephotographing them with a camera. Talbot famous tiny paper negative of a Bay window at Lacock Abbey, one of several camera photos, he did in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.

In France, Hippolyte Bayard invented his own method of producing direct positive prints on paper and claimed that they invented photography earlier than Daguerre and Talbot.

British chemist John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later known as "the blueprint." He was the first who used the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot that it can be used to "repair" the silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

In March 1851 the Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. He became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in 1870-x years, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process ambrotype positive image on glass, or Tintype positive image metal and glass negative that was used to make positive prints on a protein or salt paper.

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention was awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1908.

Glass plates were the means for most original photo with the camera in the late 1850s to the General introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890-ies. Although convenience is very popular Amateur photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and considerably worse optical quality than their glass plate equivalents, and until the late 1910-ies they were not available in the large formats preferred by most professional photographers, so in the new environment is not immediately and completely replace the old one. Because of the excellent dimensional stability of glass, the use of plates for some scientific applications such as astrophotography, continued in the 1990-ies, and in the niche field of laser holography, it continues in 2010-ies.


2.3. History. The film. (Фильм)

The Harter and Driffield began pioneering work on the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their work enabled the first quantitative measure of film sensitivity must be developed.

The first flexible roll film was sold to George Eastman, founder of Kodak in 1885, but this original "film" was actually a coating on a paper basis. As part of the processing of the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to support a hardened gelatin. The first transparent plastic roll film then in 1889. It was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose "celluloid", now usually called "nitrate film".

Although cellulose acetate or "safety film" was introduced by Kodak in 1908, at first it found only a few special applications as alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantage of considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper. The transition was not completed for x-ray films until 1933, and although the film has not been used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate film remained standard for theatrical 35 mm motion pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951.

Films remained dominant form of photography until early 21st century when advances in digital photography have attracted consumers in digital formats. Although modern photography is dominated by digital users, film continues to be used by enthusiast and professional photographers. Expressive "look" of film photography compared to digital images, probably due to a combination of factors, including: 1. the differences in spectral and tonal response of the S-shaped density in the exposure of the N&,D curve of the film and a linear characteristic curve for digital CCD sensors) with a resolution of 2 and 3 continuity tone.


2.4. History. Black and white. (Черный и белый)

Originally all photographs were monochromatic, or black and white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its low cost and "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark areas define black-and-white photograph. It is important to note that monochromatic pictures are not necessarily composed of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of gray, but can involve shades of one particular hue depending on the process. The process of cyanotype, for example, creates an image composed of blue tones. The process of printing protein used for the first time more than 170 years ago, produces brownish tones.

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence well processed silver halide based materials. Some full color digital images are processed using different techniques to create black and white results and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to save some of the photographs taken in color which are satisfactory in their original form, sometimes presented as black-and-white or monochrome colours of the images they appear more effective. Although colour photography has long been dominated by black-and-white images are still produced, mainly for artistic reasons. Almost all digital cameras have the option to shoot in black and white, and almost all software for image editing, you can selectively combine or cancel the color channels RGB for the black-and-white image with one shot in color.


2.5. History. Color. (Цвет)

Colour photography was explored beginning in the 1840-ies. Early experiments in color required very long exposures of hours or days for camera images and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed white light.

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using three color separation principle first published by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855. The basis of virtually all practical color processes, maxwells idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image. Transparent print image can be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. Color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s years.

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky active use of this color separation technique, using a special camera which successively exposed three color filtered images different parts oblong plate. Because its impacts were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared like a bright Ghost the projected or printed images.

The introduction of color photography is difficult due to the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which are mostly sensitive to Blue, only slightly sensitive to green and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made possible add sensitivity green yellow even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvement of the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced once prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

Autochrome., the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome. the dish included a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of starch which allowed three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After autochrome. the plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points, merging in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome. plates were one several varieties additive color screen plates and films in the market between 1890 and 1950-ies.

Kodachrome, the first modern "Integral tripack" or "monopack" color film was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multilayer emulsion. One layer was sensitive to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part, and the third was only one. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, Magenta and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

Agfas similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were included in the emulsion layers during manufacture which greatly simplified processing. Currently Available color films still employ a multilayer emulsion and the same principles as close as possible to Agfas product.

Instant color film used special camera which give a unique finished color print was introduced to Polaroid in 1963 only a minute or two after the exposure.

Colour photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form film non-digital color photography in connection with the introduction of automated photo printing equipment. After the transition period, around 1995-2005, color film was relegated to a niche market of inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. The film is still the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive "look".


2.6. History. Digital. (Цифровой)

In 1981 Sony unveiled the first consumer camera use charge coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While Mavica saved images to disk, the pictures are displayed on the TV screen, and the camera was not fully digital.

The first digital camera to record and save images in digital format was the Fujix DS-1P, Fujfilm created in 1988.

In 1991, Kodak introduced the DCS 100, first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost preclude the use other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

Digital image using an electronic image sensor to record an image in the form of a set of electronic data, not as chemical changes on film. An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative means. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively in film based on difficult photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than 99% of photographs taken around the world using a digital camera, all using smartphones.


2.7. History. Synthesis. (Синтез)

Synthesis photo is part of computer graphics in CGI, where the filming process is modeled on the real pictures. In CGI, the creation of digital copies the real universe, the process requires a visual representation of these universes. The synthesis of photography is the use of analog and digital photographs in the digital space. With the characteristics of a real photo, but not limited to the physical constraints of the real world, a synthesis of photography allows artists to move in areas beyond the reach of real photos.


3. Methods. (Методы)

A large variety of photographic methods and media used in the process of image capture in the photos. They include cameras, stereoscopy, dualphotography, full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media, light field photos, and other imaging techniques.


3.1. Methods. Camera. (Камеры)

Camera imaging device, and a photographic plate, photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor capture medium. The corresponding media may be of the plate or film, or digital, magnetic or electronic memory.

Control photographers the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" on the plate or film or RAW file digital cameras which after appropriate processing, is converted into a usable image. Digital cameras use electronic image sensor based light sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device CCD or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor CMOS technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be played on paper.

Camera or camera obscura is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century artists. Photographed, however, must be lighted. Cameras can vary from small to very large a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed in another room where it is properly lit. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used in the process chamber.

As soon as photographic materials became "fast" sensitive enough for taking candid or secret pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch the Ticka camera or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

Film cameras this type of camera which requires a fast sequence of photographs to the media. Unlike the camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, a video camera takes a series of images, each of which is called "frame". This is achieved by the intermittent mechanism. Frames are subsequently replayed in a film projector at a certain speed, called framerate the number of frames per second. During viewing, the face, eyes and brain merge the separate photographs to create the illusion of motion.


3.2. Methods. Stereoscopic. (Стереоскопический)

The photos, both monochrome and color, you can collect and display two side-by-side images simulating human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion. While known colloquially as "3-D" photography, the more accurate term is stereoscopy. Such cameras have long been realized using film and digital electronic methods including cellphone cameras.


3.3. Methods. Dualphotography

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene on both sides of the photographic device at the same time, for example, camera to back to back dualphotography, or two network cameras Portal-the plane dualphotography. Camera dualphoto can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thereby adding an additional layer of narrative in a single image.


3.4. Methods. Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared. (Полного спектра, ультрафиолетового и инфракрасного)

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and is used in various photographic opportunities with 1960-ies. New technological trends in digital photography opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices through the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions.

Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all visible and near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors sensitive from about 350 Nm to 1000 Nm. To off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and ultraviolet, which otherwise would be detected by the sensor, narrowing the allowable range from about 400 Nm to 700 Nm.

Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared Pass or a wide spectral transmission filter-allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. No hot mirror red, green and blue or cyan, yellow and Magenta color micro-filters placed over sensor elements pass varying amounts of blue window, UV and infrared in the first place, red and less green and blue micro-filters.

Using the full range of photography to art photography, Geology, forensics and law enforcement.


3.5. Methods. Light field. (Световое поле)

Digital methods of shooting and processing the image of the display allowed the new technology of "light field photography", also known as synthetic aperture photography. This process allows you to focus on various depths of field to be selected after photograph has been captured. As explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the "light field" is understood as 5-dimensional, with each point in 3-D space, having features of more than two angles that define the direction of each ray passing through this point.

These additional vector attributes can be captured visually through the use of microlenses at each pixel in the 2-dimensional image sensor. Every pixel final image actually selection from each sub array located under each microlens, as identified in the post-image focusing algorithm of capture.


3.6. Methods. Other. (Другие)

In addition to the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For example, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electric charges, and not of the photographic medium, hence the term Electrophotography. Photograms are images produced with the shadows the objects cast on the photographic paper without using a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the scanner glass image to create digital images.


4.1. Types of photography. Amateur. (Любительское)

Amateur photographer is a person who practices photography as a hobby / passion and not necessarily for profit. The quality of some Amateur work is comparable to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often prevalent in photographic subjects which have little prospects of commercial use or reward. Amateur photography grew in the late 19th century with the popularization of hand-held camera. Currently it is widely spread through social networks and implemented on different platforms and equipment, the use of cell phone. Good photos can be taken with a cell phone, which is the key tool for making photos more accessible to all.


4.2. Types of photography. Commercial. (Коммерческие)

Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light, the money can be paid to the theme of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

  • Photographing the crime scene consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robbery and murder. Black and white camera or an infrared camera can be used to capture specific details.
  • Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as. in this video collected, is generally done with an advertising Agency, design firm or team on corporate design.
  • Product 360 photo shows a series of photographs to create the impression of a rotating object. This method is typically used by websites of electronic Commerce to help customers to view products.
  • Photo property specializiruetsya on the production of photos showing the property, for the sale of such photographs requires the use of a wide angle lens and extensive knowledge in the field of photography images with high dynamic range.
  • Concert photography focuses on capturing candid images as artist or band and also the atmosphere, including the crowd. Many of these photographers work freelance and on contract through a contractor or the user to cover a certain show. Concert photos are often used to promote an artist or group In addition to place.
  • Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advertising purposes.
  • Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertising photography. Fashion photography in Harpers Bazaar, emphasises clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body shape. Glamour photography is popular in Advertising and mens magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes naked.
  • Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context accepted documentation news.
  • Food photography can be used for editing, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills.
  • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the image.
  • Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of animals.
  • Landscape photography depicts locations.
  • Paparazzi is a form of photojournalism in which the photographer captures candid images of athletes, celebrities, politicians and other prominent people.

4.3. Types of photography. Art

During the 20th century, as documentary photography and art photography became the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States handful photographers including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, the F. Holland day, Edward Weston, who devoted his life to the promotion of photography as a fine art. First, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, romantic look. In response to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the group F / 64 to promote straight photography as a deliberate thing-in-itself, not an imitation of something else.

The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues regularly discussed, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of images. If the photo is true art, then photography in the context of art should be reformulated, for example, to define which component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The dispute began with the earliest images "written with light", Nicephore Niepce, Daguerre, and others among the first photographers was met with success, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.

Clive bell in his classic essay States of creativity that only "significant form" can distinguish art from non-art.

There should be one quality without which a work of art does not exist, possessing which in the least degree, no work is not entirely worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that evoke aesthetic emotion? What quality is common to STA. Sophia and the Windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giottos frescoes in Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible – significant form. In each, lines and colours combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions.

On 7 February 2007, Sothebys London sold the 2001 photograph 99 cent II Diptychon for an unprecedented $3.346.456 to an anonymous buyer, making it the most expensive at the time.

Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Despite what is depicted in photographs of real objects, the object is strictly abstract.


4.4. Types of photography. Photojournalism. (Фотожурналистика)

Photojournalism is a particular form of photography that uses images to tell the news. It is now generally understood only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photographer adherence to a rigid ethical framework which demands the job to be honest and impartial, and telling the story in a purely journalistic point of view. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the media, and to help people connect with others. Photojournalists must be well informed and aware of events happening right in front of their door. They deliver news in a creative format that is not only informative but also interesting.


4.5. Types of photography. Science and forensics. (Наука и криминалистика)

The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording scientific phenomena from first use Daguerres and Fox Talbot, such as astronomical events, eclipses, for example, small animals and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of the microscope in photomicroscopy and macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime and incidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861. Methods used in analysing photographs for use in court cases, are called forensic photography. Photos from the scene taken from three points of view. Great point of view, medium, and close-up.

In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the honorary Director of Kew Observatory, invented the first successful camera for continuous recording of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Different machines produce 12 - or 24 - hour photographic traces on the minute fluctuations in atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, atmospheric electricity, and three components of geomagnetic force. The camera was supplied many of the observatories around the world and some of them remained in use until the 20th century. Later Charles Brooke little have developed similar instruments for the Greenwich Observatory.

Science uses image technology that is derived from the design of the pinhole camera. X-ray machines similar in design to the pin hole cameras with high grade filters and laser radiation. Photography has become universal in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes and accidents. The method has been much extended using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography and spectroscopy. These methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved on since that time.

First picture of the atom was discovered in 2012, physicists from Griffith University, Australia. They used the electric field in the trap is an "ion" of the element ytterbium. The image was recorded on the CCD, electronic films.


5. Social and cultural consequences. (Социальные и культурные последствия)

There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her on photography 1977, Susan Sontag rejects the objectivity of photography. This is a very debated issue in the photographic community. Sontag argues "to photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting ourselves in a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge and therefore like power." Photographers decide what to photograph, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo, and these factors may reflect a particular socio-historical context. Along these lines, it can be argued that photography is a subjective form of representation.

Contemporary photography has raised a number of questions about its impact on society. In rear window, Alfred Hitchcocks 1954, of the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. Although the camera is of the observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observation.

The camera isnt rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, murder – all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted at a distance and with some detachment.

Digital imaging has raised ethical problems because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post-processing. Many photographers stated that they will not crop their pictures, or are forbidden combining elements of multiple photos to make "photomontages", passing them as "real" photography. Technology today has made image editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. However, recent changes in camera processing allows digital fingerprinting of photos to detect fraud for the purposes of forensic photography.

Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society. Further concern has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society as a whole has been enhanced. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that "to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically demons." Desensitization discussion goes hand debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to Censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to create reality.

One of the practices through which photography is society tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a "tourist gaze", in which local residents are established and defined by the camera lens. However, he also argued that there is a "reverse gaze" through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.

In addition, photography was the topic of many songs in popular culture.


6. The law. (Закон)

Photography is restricted and protected by law in many countries. Protection photographs typically achieved through granting copyright or the moral rights of the photographer. In the United States, the picture protected as a first amendment right, and everyone is free to photograph anything to see in public places so long as its in plain sight. In the UK, the recently adopted law on combating terrorism of 2008 increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, taking pictures in public places. In South Africa, anyone can photograph anyone without their permission, in public places, and only certain restrictions on what cant be photographed on the government to take anything classified as national security. Each country has its own laws.

Encyclopedic dictionary