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★ Pink Family - p ..




Pink Family
                                     

★ Pink family

The Caryophyllaceae, commonly called the Pink family or carnation, family of flowering plants. It is included in the dicotyledon order Caryophyllales in the APG III system, which, together with 33 other families, including Amaranthaceae, Cactaceae, and Polygonaceae. Is a big family, with 81 genera and about 2.625 known species.

This cosmopolitan family of mostly herbaceous plants is best represented in temperate climates, has several species growing on tropical mountains. Some of the most famous includes carnations and pinks Dianthus, and firepink and. campionat Lychnis and Silene. Many species are grown as ornamental plants, and some species are widespread weeds. Most species are native to the Mediterranean and bordering regions of Europe and Asia. The number of genera and species in the southern hemisphere is rather small, although the family do not contain bryozoans Colobanthus quitensis in Antarctica worlds South dicot, which is one of the two flowering plants found in Antarctica.

The name is derived from Caryophyllus, Carnation obsolete synonym.

                                     

1. Description. (Описание)

Despite its size and somewhat dubious, mutual relationships, this family is rather uniform and easily recognizable.

Most of them are herbaceous annuals or perennials, wilt above ground every year. Some species of shrubs or small trees such as some species of Acanthophyllum. Most of the plants not succulent, ie, having fleshy stems or leaves. The nodes on the stem are swollen. Leaves almost always opposite, rarely whorled. The blades are entire, petiolate and often prescribed. These stipules are not shell-shaped.

In hermaphroditic flowers are terminal, blooming singly or in branched or forked cyme. The inflorescence is usually dichasial at least in the lower part, which means that in the axil of each peduncle the main stalk of the terminal flower in the cyme, two new single-flower branches grow on each side and below the first flower. If the terminal flower is present, it can result in monochasia, monoparous i.e. cymes with a single flower on each axis of the inflorescence. In extreme cases, this leads to a Single flower, for example, or Githago Arenaria. The flowers are regular and mostly with five petals and five sepals, but sometimes with four petals. The sepals may be free from each other or the organization. The petals may be entire, fringed or deeply incised. The cylindrical Cup may be overstated, as in Silene. The number of stamens five or 10 or more rarely four or eight, and mostly isomerous with the perianth. Superior gynaeceum and two to five members of the carpels of a compound pistil syncarpous and, i.e., these carpels organizations in the connection of the ovary. The ovary has one chamber inside the ovary. Fruit can be an utricle with one seed, or capsule, containing several seeds.

                                     

2. Systematics. (Систематика)

Currently, Amaranthaceae and Caryophyllaceae of the sister groups and considered closely related.

Earlier, the clove was recognized as the sister family to all other members of the suborder Caryophyllineae because they have anthocyanins, and not betalain pigments. However, cladistic analyses indicate that Caryophyllaceae evolved from ancestors that contained betalain, reinforcing betalain as an accurate synapomorphy of the suborder.

This family is traditionally divided into three subfamilies:

  • Paronychioideae: with fleshy stipules; petals or apart.
  • Silenoideae: without stipules, petals of the organization.
  • Alsinoideae: no stipules; petals not of the Organization.

The latter, however, are the basal class of rather primitive members of this family, not closely related but simply retaining many plesiomorphic traits. Instead of a subfamily, most ought to be treated as genera incertae Sedis, but Corrigiola and Telephium can serve as the basis for recognition of Corrigioleae. In the Alsinoideae on the other hand, seem to form two distinct clades, perhaps less some misplaced genera. Finally, Silenoideae appear monophyletic at least for the most part, if some of the taxa misplaced in Alsinoideae are moved there, you may find that Caryophylloideae would apply to the revised delimitation.

However, hybridization between many members of this family thriving, especially in Silenoideae / Caryophylloideae - and some of the lines origin has been found to be very complex and not easy to succumb to cladistic analysis.

                                     
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