★ Cinema of Russia
The cinema of Russia began in the Russian Empire, widely developed in the Soviet Union and in the first years after its collapse, the Russian film industry would remain a recognized. In the 21st century, Russian cinema has become popular internationally with hits such as House of fools, Night watch and brother. Moscow international film festival started in Moscow in 1935. Nika award is the main annual national film award in Russia.
1. Cinema Of The Russian Empire. (Кинематограф Российской Империи)
The first films seen in the Russian Empire was brought to the lumière brothers, who exhibited films in Moscow and St. Petersburg in may 1896. In the same month, the operator of the lumière Camille CERF removed the first film in Russia, recording the coronation of Nicholas II in the Kremlin.
Alexander Drankov produced the first Russian feature film Stenka Razin, based on events told in a popular folk song and directed by Vladimir Romashkov. Ladislas Starevich took the first Russian animated film and the first stop motion puppet film with a plot in 1910 – Lucanus Сervus. Among the notable Russian filmmakers of the era were Aleksandr Khanzhonkov and Ivan Mozzhukhin, who made the defense of Sevastopol in 1912. Yakov Protazanov made departure of a Grand old man, a biographical film about Lev Tolstoy.
During the First world war, imports declined drastically, and Russian filmmakers turned out anti-German, nationalistic films. In 1916, 499 films were made in Russia more than three times the number just three years earlier.
The Russian revolution brought more change, a number of films with anti-tsarist themes. The last significant film of the era, made in 1917, father Sergius would become the first new film release of the Soviet era.
2.1. Cinema of the Soviet Union. Early Soviet cinema 1917-1953. (Раннее советское кино 1917-1953)
Although Russian was the dominant language in films during the Soviet era, cinema of the Soviet Union covers the films of the Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR, Ukrainian SSR and, to a lesser degree, Lithuanian SSR, Byelorussian SSR and Moldavian SSR. For most of the history of the Soviet Union, with notable exceptions in the 1920s and the end of 1980-ies, the content of the film was severely limited and subject to censorship and bureaucratic state control.
The development of the Soviet film industry was innovative and linked to the constructivist art movement. In 1922-3, film PH was the first Soviet film journal and reflects the constructivist views of its editor, Alexei Gan.
Like most Soviet art in the 1920-ies, the films examines the main social and political events of the time. Probably one of the most important films of this period was Sergei Eisensteins Battleship Potemkin, not only because his description of the events leading to the 1905 revolution, but also innovative cinematic techniques such as the use of jump-cuts to achieve political goals. Other notable movies from this period include Vsevolod Pudovkins mother 1926 and Dziga Vertovs man with a movie camera 1929.
However, with the consolidation of Stalinist power in the Soviet Union, and the emergence of socialist realism as state policy, which carried over from painting and sculpture to cinema, the Soviet film became subject to almost total state control.
Popular films released in the 1930-ies include the musicals the circus, Jolly fellows, and Volga-Volga starring the leading actress of that time Lyubov Orlova.
In the 1930-ies and 1940-ies Eisenstein made two historical epics Alexander Nevsky in 1938 and Ivan the terrible 1944.
Immediately after the end of world war II, a Soviet color films, such as "Stone flower", 1947, Ballad of Siberia, 1947, and Cossacks of the Kuban 1949 was released. Soviet films achieved significant success since 1950-ies, partly because, like the movies of other countries of the Eastern bloc, for reflecting the tension between independent creativity and state-directed solutions.
2.2. Cinema of the Soviet Union. Late Soviet cinema 1953-1991. (Позднего советского кино 1953-1991)
In the late 1950s and early 1960s Soviet film-makers received a less constricted environment, and while censorship remained, films which began to be recognised outside the Soviet bloc such as ballad of a soldier which won the 1961 BAFTA for Best film in 1958, the "Palme dor" Dor victory Flying cranes. The 1957 is considered one of the best films of the 1950s, it also became the Foundation of the bard movement. However, some important films have not received a wide release, the Story of Asya Klyachina 1966, the Commissioner of 1967, brief encounters 1967.
The most critically acclaimed Russian Director of the 1960s and 1970s years was Andrei Tarkovsky, who directed a pioneering art-house films Ivans childhood, Andrei Rublev, Solaris, Mirror and Stalker.
The most popular Soviet films of that era were comedies, such as carnival night, 1956, the Irony 1976, abduction, kidnapping, Caucasian style 1967, Operation y and other Shuriks adventures 1965, the Twelve chairs 1976, walking the streets of Moscow 1964, Gentlemen of fortune 1971.
"Osterns", the Soviet Union in the Western genre, were also popular. Examples include Ostern White sun of the desert 1970, the headless Horseman 1972, Armed and dangerous 1977, man from Boulevard des Capucines 1987.
The amount of the world war II drama, made in 1970-e and 1980-e years was the world famous, some of which are the release of 1971, 1972 the dawns here are quiet, They fought for the Motherland 1975, 1977 the ascent and come and see 1985.
In 1980-ies famous Russian Director Andrei Konchalovsky was the first Director to succeed in Hollywood. In America he led the Marias lovers, runaway Train and tango and cash.
With the onset of perestroika and glasnost in the mid 1980-ies there were Soviet films, which began to engage in previously censored topics such as drug addiction, the Needle, and sexuality and alienation in Soviet society, Little Vera.
Several Soviet films won an Oscar, War and peace, Dersu Uzala, Moscow does not believe in tears.
Some of the most popular actors of the Soviet period was Innokenty Smoktunovsky, Oleg Yankovsky, Andrey Mironov, Nikita Mikhalkov, Vladimir Vysotsky, Vasily Lanovoy, Tatiana Samoilova, Margarita Terekhova, Barbara Brylska, Yelena Koreneva.
3.1. New Russian cinema. 1990-ies. (1990-х годов)
Russian movie of the 90s years has acquired new features and themes. Many films of the time were engaged in Stalinism.
The security officer directed by Alexander Rogozhkin drama set in the period of the red terror and told the story of the leader of the Cheka, who is gradually becoming insane. It was shown in "UN certain regard" at the Cannes film festival 1992.
In the drama Burnt by the sun 1994 Nikita Mikhalkov is a small village in the countryside, at a time when Stalinism is beginning to break their idyll to back off and change their personalities and destinies. The film won the "Oscar" for Best foreign film and Grand jury prize at the Cannes film festival 1994.
In the context of Russian history of the Second world war Pavel Chukhrai filmed the thief is a 1997 film about a mother who falls in love with a criminal who is impersonating an officer. The film was awarded with 6 national prizes Nika, received a special prize in Venice and was nominated for "Oscar".
One of the first commercially successful post-Soviet films-crime drama brother Director: Aleksey Balabanov. It was shown in the "UN certain regard" at the Cannes film festival in 1997.
Valery Todorovskys the land of the deaf 1998, Comedy film written by Renata Litvinova parodied Russia 90-ies. He described the journey of two friends caught in the struggle between two clans - the deaf and hard of hearing. It was entered into the 48th Berlin international film festival.
In 1997, Aleksandr Sokurov had his international breakthrough with the Arthouse drama mother and son. He won the special silver St. George at the Moscow international film festival 20th in 1997.
The 1998 film Khrustalev, the car! Director Alexei German has described the last days of Stalins Russia. It was introduced in 1998 at the Cannes film festival.
The co-producer of famous film East / West 1999 cast: Sandrine Bonnaire and Catherine Deneuve told the story of immigrant families living in Stalins USSR.
A satirical melodrama Dmitry Meskhiev, Womens property 1999 describes the romance between a young student and old actress who is terminally ill. Her death causes the protagonist to face the bitter loneliness. The film featured actor Konstantin Khabensky in the role.
Cult crime Comedy 8 ½ 1999 $ starring Ivan Okhlobystin and Fyodor Bondarchuk was a satirical take on the 1990-ies Russia. He told the story Director of television advertisements who falls in love with a girl bandits.
3.2. New Russian cinema. 2000s
Andrew Zvyagintseva the return of the 2003 Golden lion award recipient, shows a test with two brothers when their father suddenly returns that reaches a deep almost-mystic pitch.
In 2003, "Russian ark" by Alexander Sokurov, was filmed in one 96-minute shot in the Russian Hermitage Museum is a fabulous narration that tells about classic Russian culture sailing in the Ark.
Night watch was one of the first blockbusters made after the collapse of the Soviet film industry, he was a 2004 supernatural Thriller Directed by: Timur Bekmambetov starring Konstantin Khabensky, based on the eponymous book by Sergei Lukyanenko. It was followed by the Sequel day watch 2006.
In parts of the novel by Boris Akunin set in pre-revolutionary Russia evolve around fictional Erast Fandorin adventures in three popular movies: 2002 Azazel, the Turkish gambit 2005 and the State Counsellor 2005.
The life of the Orthodox monastery and their Christian miracles are described in the 2006 film the Island by Pavel Lungin. The film was screened out of competition at the 63rd Venice film festival and received the "Golden eagle" and the award "Nika".
One of Russias all-time biggest box office hit was Timur Bekmambetovs romantic Comedy the Irony of fate 2, directed in 2007 as a continuation of the 1976 film.
2008 musical film hipsters, Stilyagi Director Valery Todorovsky is about the youth life in the 1950s the Soviet Union was successful at the box office. He received the "Golden eagle" and the award "Nika" for best picture.
3.3. New Russian cinema. 2010 years. (2010 года)
In 2010 in the anthology Comedy "Christmas Tree" was produced by Timur Bekmambetov, has been released. It spawned five sequels and one spin-off.
How I ended this summer by Alexei Popogrebskis film, shot in remote Chukotka won Berlin film festival Golden bear in 2010.
In the same year, the Arthouse film silent souls, Aleksey Fedorchenko won the Golden Osella at the Venice film festival for best cinematography.
One of the most successful films with Hollywood actors was a Comedy Vykrutasy 2011 where Milla Jovovich plays the main female role.
In recent years, the most important Russian Director to enter Hollywood is Timur Bekmambetov, producer and Director of blockbusters. In the US he directed Abraham Lincoln: vampire Hunter 2012, and Ben-Hur 2016.
Epic war Stalingrad Director Fedor Bondarchuk in 2013 set a new box-office records in Russia and abroad.
In 2014, Andrew Zvyagintseva "Leviathan" was included in Cannes film festival 2014 and nominated For best foreign picture in the 87th Oscars. He won the Golden globe for best foreign language film.
Andrei Konchalovsky received the Silver lion for best Director at the 73rd Venice film festival for his black-and-white Holocaust drama Paradise in 2016. Previously, he received the Silver lion for Postmans White nights in 2014.
The crew disaster film directed by Nikolai Lebedev with actor Danila Kozlovsky has been a big success at the box office in 2016.
In 2017 the sports drama is vertically directed by Anton Megerdichev is the most profitable film in the period of 2010-ies.
Since 2003, the animation industry in Russia began to produce films that are in demand in the domestic market and abroad. Some pictures of the snow Queen 1, 2, 3, Masha and the Bear, giggles, Dobrynya Nikitich and Zmey Gorynych.
In recent years, many Russian films received wide releases in China, and an increase in the number of the planned Russian-Chinese co-production. The best films produced in Russia and China Viy 2: Journey to China starring Jackie Chan and Arnold Schwarzenegger, snow Queen 3: Fire and ice and Quackerz.
The most popular actors of the 2000s-2010s years: Konstantin Khabensky, Danila Kozlovskiy, Aleksey Serebryakov, Kseniya Rappoport, Fedor Bondarchuk, Elizaveta Boyarskaya, Sergey Bezrukov, Yevgeny Mironov and Ivan Okhlobystin.
4. The production of Russian films. (Производство российских фильмов)
There are about 400 private manufacturing companies. They do not have their own capabilities to create movies, which is why they rent premises and equipment from qualified partners. There are 35 studios 9 of them-the state, which are the main service for rental of space. In Studios there are 107 small pavilions. There are 23 private companies in the Russian market, who rent their equipment of all kinds for the production teams.
4.1. The production of Russian films. The leading manufacturing companies in the market. (Ведущих производственных компаний на рынке)
The list consists of the cinema Fund of Russia. This allows the company to receive state financial support. In 2017, the number of market leaders was increased to 10 companies.
- The direction of film run by Anatoly Maximov.
- "Central partnership" is part of the holding OJSC "Gazprom".
- Non-stop production Alexander Rodnyansky, Sergey Melkumov.
- Profit Igor Tolstunov. (Компанию "Профит" Игоря Толстунова)
- Running STV Sergei Selyanov.
- VBD group. (ВБД Груп)
- Enjoy movies in the conduct of the brothers Andreasyan and Georgy Malkov.
- Company start Bazelevs Timur Bekmambetov.
- Start trite Nikita Mikhalkov.
- Art pictures Studio Fyodor Bondarchuk and Dmitry rudovsky.
4.2. The production of Russian films. List highest-grossing films. (Самых кассовых список фильмов)
According Kinopoisk.ru, highest-grossing Russian films, as in the beginning of 2018, are as follows:
4.3. The production of Russian films. The most expensive Russian films. (Самых дорогих российских фильмов)
Below is the list of the 12 most high-budget Russian films in the history of rental without taking into account inflation. The figures contained in the January 13, 2018.
5. Remarkable cinematography school. (Замечательной школой кинематографии)
- Cinematography of the self-proclaimed oldest film school in the world.
- Moscow International Film School.
- New York film Academy, Moscow campus.
- The Cinema of the Russian Empire Pre - reform Russian orthography: Синематографъ Россійской Имперіи roughly spans the period 1907 - 1920, during which
- Russian Cinema Fund Analytics, known as Cinema Fund Фонд Кино Officially Federal Fund for Economic and social support of the Russian Cinematography
- cinema socialist realism, which was different from the one before or after the existence of the Soviet Union. Upon the establishment of the Russian Soviet
- The cinema of Mongolia has been strongly influenced by the cinema of Russia which differentiates it from cinematic developments in the rest of Asia.
- America Cinema of Europe Cinema of Oceania Cinema of Afghanistan Cinema of Albania Cinema of Algeria Cinema of Argentina Cinema of Armenia Cinema of Australia
- Rossiya Theatre Russian Театр Россия formerly known as the Pushkinsky Cinema Russian Кинотеатр Пушкинский is monument of architecture and currently
- A list of the most notable films produced in the Cinema of Russia Russia since beginning to produce films in the late 1890s, has experienced three political
- The Russian State Symphony Cinema Orchestra Russian Российский государственный симфонический оркестр кинематографии is an orchestra under the control
- Cinema Glory Russian Кинотеатр Слава was a Moscow theater landmark in Moscow and Perovo District. It was set on fire twice most recently on February
- The cinema of Moldova developed in the early 1960s during the Soviet period, experiencing a flowering of about a decade and a half. Stagnation followed
- determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras and movements. The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back
- dominated by Siberian Russian cinema and is thus considered part of European cinema East Asian cinema is typified by the cinema of Japan, China, Hong Kong
- Cinema of Europe refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Europe. Europeans were the pioneers of the motion picture industry
- statutory goals of the associated professional creative figures of Russian cinema working in the audiovisual field. The founding congress of the Union was
- The cinema of Armenia was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established by government decree. The first Armenian
- Nariman Narimanov, Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan, signed a decree nationalizing Azerbaijan s cinema The People s Education Commissariat
- the Russian Futurism movement within Russia with its influences being seen in cinema literature, typography, politics, and propaganda. The Russian Futuristic
- Ukrainian Association of Cinematographers and takes place in Ukraine and Russia Pokrov, international festival of Christian Orthodox cinema held in Kyiv 2003
- The cinema of Georgia has been noted for its cinematography in Europe. Italian film director Federico Fellini was an admirer of the Georgian film: Georgian
- TV series and overall television. The first notable case of the boycott of the Russian cinema was announced on 11 April 2014 when some movie theaters in
- filmmakers of all genres, Polish productions tend to be more inspired by American film. The first cinema in Poland then occupied by the Russian Empire
- architecture, painting, cinema animation and politics, which all have had considerable influence on world culture. Russia also has a rich material culture
- The Rodina Cinema Russian Кинотеатр Родина, romanized: Kinoteatr Rodina, lit. Cinema Motherland is an historic cinema building in Lenina Street
- In parallel to what happened in other Soviet republics, a cinema of Tajikistan was promoted by the Soviet state, and declined in the first years after
- The Cinema of Iran Persian: سینمای ایران also known as the Cinema of Persia, refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety
- affected the Italian film industry from 1916 to 1919. It influenced Russian Futurist cinema and German Expressionism. Vita futurista Futurist life directed
- verite may refer to: Cinema Verite 2011 film a film by HBO Films about the making of the television series An American Family Cinema Verite: Defining the
- The cinema of Pakistan or Pakistani cinema Urdu: پاک ستانی سینما refers to the filmmaking industry in Pakistan. Pakistan is home to several film studios
- Cinema of Latvia dates back to 1910 when the first short films were made. The first cinematic screening in Riga took place on May 28, 1896. By 1914 all
- Cinema of Nigeria Cinema of Senegal Cinema of Togo Cinema of Angola Cinema of Cameroon Cinema of Sudan Cinema of Eritrea Cinema of Ethiopia Cinema of
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