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Religion is a socio-cultural system that places behaviour and practice, morality, ideologies, texts, consecrated places, prophecies, ethics, or organization as to the humanity of the supernatural, transcendental or spiritual elements. However, there is no scientific consensus about what constitutes a religion.
Different religions may not include various elements, ranging from the divine, the sacred, Faith, is a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for life". Religious ceremonies may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration of a deity, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, Public service or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred stories and stories that can be saved in the Scriptures, and symbols and shrines, which aimed mainly to give the meaning of life. Religion can contain symbolic stories, sometimes telling followers to be true that has a side goal of explaining the origin of life, the Universe, and everything. According to tradition, faith, in addition to the grounds, seen as a source of religious belief.
There are around 10.000 different religions around the world, but about 84% of the world population are connected to one of the five largest groups of religion, namely Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism or folk religion. Non-institutional religiosity demographic includes those who are not identificeret himself with any particular religion, atheists, and agnostics. While non-institutional religiosity has grown around the world, many of non-institutional religion still have different religious beliefs.
The study of religion involves a wide range of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific research. Theory of religion offer different explanations of the origin and functioning of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious life and faith.
1. The concept and etymology. (Понятие и этимология)
Religion O.Fr. religion, religious community, L. religionem nom. religious "respect sacred, reverence gods, sense of justice, moral obligation, sanctity", "obligation, the bond between man and the gods") is derived from the Latin religiō, the ultimate origin of which is unclear. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects LEGO to read, i.e. again with LEGO in the sense to choose to go again or to examine carefully. The definition of religion, Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of the rites of worship of the gods." Julius Caesar used religious means "the obligation of an oath" in the discussion of captured soldiers an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religious elephant that they worship the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare to bind, to connect, apparently, prefixed re-ligare, i.e. again or re-ligare, which was made famous by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutions, IV, V, 28. The medieval usage alternates with the appointment of the bonded communities like monastic orders: "we hear about the religion of the Golden Fleece, knight of the religion of Avys".
In classical antiquity, in a broad sense religious meant conscientiousness, sense of justice, moral obligation, or duty anything. In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root of religious aware of himself as an individual virtue of worship in everyday contexts, not as a doctrine, practice, or actual source of knowledge. In General, religious referred to the broad social commitments to anything, including relatives, neighbors, rulers, and even to God. Religious is most often used by the ancient Romans in the context of the relationship to the gods, but as a number of common emotions such as indecision, caution, anxiety, fear, a sense of attachment, limited, inhibited, which arose from the increased attention in any worldly context. The term was also closely associated with other terms like scrupulus which means "very accurately" and some Roman authors associated with the term superstitio, which means too much fear or anxiety or shame, sometimes religious. When the religious came into English about 1200 years, as a religion, it took the meaning "of life to observe the monastic vows" or monastic orders. The disunity of the concept of religion, where religious things were separated from the things you have not used before 1500 years. The concept of religion was first used in 1500-ies to highlight the domain of the Church and the civil authorities.
In Ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religious in late antiquity. The term is sometimes used in classical Greece, but became more frequently used in the writings of Josephus in the first century of our era. It was used in everyday contexts and can mean several things from a respectful fear, excessive or harmful distracts the attention of other countries practices, for the cult practices. It is often contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia, which meant too much fear.
The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails a different set of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language. This use began with the texts of the 17th century due to such events, the splitting of Christianity during the Protestant reformation and globalization in the age of the study, which involved contact with many foreign cultures non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term "religion" to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion in non-Western cultures distorts what people do and believe.
The concept of religion emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that the ancient sacred texts such as the Bible, the Koran, and others dont have word or even the concept of religion in the original language, not the people or the culture in which these sacred texts were written. For example, no exact equivalent of religion in Hebrew, and Judaism does not clearly distinguish between religious, national, racial, or ethnic origin. One of its Central concepts is halahai walk or path is sometimes translated as the law that guides religious practice and belief and many aspects of everyday life. Even though the beliefs and traditions of Judaism in the ancient world, the ancient Jews saw Jewish identity as an ethnic or national identity and does not entail a mandatory system of beliefs or rituals regulated. In the 1st century ad, Josephus used the Greek term ioudaismos, which today is translated as Judaism, although he used it as an ethnic term, not one based on a modern abstract notion of religion as a set of beliefs. It was in the 19th century that Jews began to see their traditional culture as a religion similar to Christianity. The Greek word threskeia, which was used by Greek writers such as Herodotus and Josephus, in the New Testament. Threskeia is sometimes translated as religion in todays translation, however, this term is understood as worship in the medieval period. In the Koran the Arabic word DIN is often translated as religion in modern translations, but until the mid-1600s, the translators expressed DIN the law.
The Sanskrit word Dharma, sometimes translated as "religion", also means law. Throughout classical South Asia, the study of law consisted of concepts such as penance through piety and ceremonial as well as practical traditions. Medieval Japan at first had a similar Union between Imperial law and universal or Buddha law, but later became independent sources of power.
Across America, native Americans never had a concept of "religion" and any suggestion otherwise is a colonial imposition on Christians.
Although the traditions, sacred texts and practices have existed throughout history, most cultures do not coincide with Western concepts of religion as they do not separate everyday life from the sacred. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the terms Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism and world religions first appeared in the English language. No one identifying themselves as Hindu, Buddhist, and other similar conditions up to 1800 years. "Indian" has historically been used as a geographical, cultural and later a religious identity for indigenous people of the Indian subcontinent. Throughout its long history, Japan had no concept of religion, because there is no corresponding Japanese word, nor anything close in meaning, but when American warships appeared off the coast of Japan in 1853 and forced the Japanese government to sign treaties demanding, among other things, freedom of religion, the country had to contend with this Western idea.
According to the philologist Max müller in the 19th century, the root of the English word religion, religious Latin, originally meant reverence for God or the gods, careful pondering of divine things, piety which Cicero derived mean diligence. Max müller characterized many other cultures around the world, including Egypt, Persia and India as having a similar power structure at this point in history. What is now called the old religion, they would have only called the law.
2. Definition. (Определение)
Scientists are unable to agree on a definition of religion. There are, however, two General systems definition: sociological / functional and phenomenological / philosophical.
2.1. Definition. Modern Western. (Современная Западная)
Religion is a modern Western concept. Parallel concepts not found in many current and past cultures there is no equivalent term for religion in many languages. Scientists have found it difficult to reach an agreed definition, some will refuse definition. Others argue that regardless of its definition, should not apply to non-Western cultures.
A growing number of scientists have expressed reservations about ever defining the essence of religion. They note that the way we use today the concept is a particularly modern design, which has not been understood for most of history and in many cultures outside the West or even in the West until after the peace of Westphalia. Macmillan encyclopedia of religions States:
The very attempt to define religion, to find some distinctive or possibly unique essence or set of qualities that distinguish the religious from the rest of human life, is primarily a Western concern. The attempt is a natural consequence of the Western speculative, intellectualistic, and scientific disposition. It is also a product of the dominant Western religious mode, what is called the Judeo-Christian climate or more accurately, the theistic inheritance from Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In the theistic belief in this tradition, even when downgraded culturally, the formation of the dichotomous Western view of religion. That is, the basic structure of theism is, in fact, the distinction between the transcendent deity and all else, between the Creator and his creation, between God and man.
Anthropologist Clifford Geertz defined religion as
to some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for life. When more or less distinct patterns of behavior are built around this depth dimension in a culture, this structure constitutes religion in its historically recognizable form. Religion is the organization of life around the depth of experience - varied in form, completeness and clarity in accordance with the surrounding culture.
2.2. Definition. Classic. (Классический)
Friedrich Schleiermacher in the late 18th century defined religion Das schlechthinnige Abhangigkeitsgefuhl, which is usually translated as "feeling of absolute dependence."
His contemporary Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel disagreed thoroughly, defining religion as "the Divine Spirit realizes itself through finite spirit."
Edward Burnett Tylor defined religion in 1871 as "belief in spiritual beings". He argued that the reduction of definition means belief in a Supreme deity or judgment after death or idolatry and so on, exclude many peoples from the category of religious, and thus "has an error definition of religion, and with specific developments than deeper motive which underlies them". He also claimed that belief in spiritual beings exists in all known societies.
In his book "the varieties of religious experience", the psychologist William James defined religion as "the feelings, acts and experiences of individual men in their solitude, so far as they perceive themselves in relation to others that they may consider divine." The term divine James meant "any object that is God, whether it be a concrete deity or not" to which the individual feels impelled to respond with solemnity and gravity.
Sociologist Emile Durkheim in his seminal book the Elementary forms of the religious life, defined religion as "a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things". Sacred things he meant things "set apart and forbidden - beliefs and practices which unite into one moral community called a Church all those who adhere to them". Holy things are not restricted to gods or spirits. On the contrary, a sacred thing can be "a stone, a tree, a spring, a pebble, a piece of wood, a house, in a word, anything can be sacred". Religious beliefs, myths, dogmas and legends are the representations that Express the nature of these sacred things, and dignity and powers that are attributed to them.
The echoes of James and Durkheims definition can be found in the writings of, for example, Frederick ferré who defined religion as "the way to assess more fully and intensively". Similarly, for the theologian Paul Tillich, faith is "the state of being ultimately concerned", which "is itself religion. Religion is the substance of the Earth, and the depth of the spiritual life of the people."
When religion is considered from the point of view of sacred, divine, intense, or ultimate goal, it is possible to understand why the results of scientific research and philosophical criticism, for example, Richard Dawkins does not necessarily disturb its adherents.
3.1. Aspects. Beliefs. (Убеждения)
According to tradition, faith, in addition to the grounds, seen as a source of religious belief. The relationship between faith and reason, and their use as the perceived support of religious belief, was an object of interest for philosophers and theologians.
3.2. Aspects. Mythology. (Мифология)
The word myth has several meanings.
- The metaphor of spiritual potentiality in man.
- A person or thing having only an imaginary or unverifiable existence, or.
- The traditional story of ostensibly historical events that serves to unfold part of the worldview of people or explain a practice, belief or natural phenomenon.
Ancient polytheistic religions, such as Greece, Rome, Scandinavia usually categorized under heading mythology. Religion pre-industrial peoples, or cultures in development, also called myths anthropology religion. The term myth can be used pejoratively both religious and non-religious people. Defining other peoples religious stories and beliefs in mythology, one implies that they are less real or true than ones own religious stories and beliefs. Joseph Campbell noted that "mythology is often thought of as other peoples, religions, and religion can be defined as misinterpreted mythology."
In sociology, however, the term myth has a non-pejorative sense. No, a myth is defined as a story that is important for the group whether it is objectively or reliably true. Examples include the resurrection of their real-life founder of Jesus, which, to Christians, explains the way in which they are freed from sin, is a symbol of forces of life over death, and is said to be a historic event. But from a mythological Outlook whether event actually happened, it doesnt matter. Instead, the symbolism of the death of the old life and the beginning of a new life is important. Believers may not accept such symbolic interpretations.
3.3. Aspects. Worldview. (Мировозрение)
Religion sacred stories and myths, which can be saved in the Scriptures, and symbols and shrines, which aimed to explain the meaning of life, the origin of life or the Universe.
3.4. Aspects. Practice. (Практика)
The practice of a religion may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, sacred music, religious art, sacred dance, Public service or other aspects of human culture.
3.5. Aspects. Public organization. (Общественная организация)
Religions have a social basis, as a living tradition, which is carried out by lay participants, or with an organized clergy, and a definition of what such accession or membership.
4. Academic research. (Научные исследования)
A number of disciplines examining the phenomenon of religion: theology, comparative religion, history of religions, evolutionary origin of religion, anthropology of religion, psychology of religion, including the neurobiology of religion and psychology of religion, law and religion and the sociology of religion.
Daniel L. pals mentions eight classical theories of religion, focusing on various aspects of religion: animism and magic, E. B. Tylor and John. Fraser, the psychoanalytic approach of Sigmund Freud, and further, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Mircea Eliade, E. E. Evans-Pritchard, and Clifford Geertz.
Michael city Strausberg gives an overview of the contemporary theory of religion, including cognitive and biological approaches.
4.1. Academic research. Theory. (Теория)
Sociological and anthropological theories of religion generally attempt to explain the origin and functions of religion. These theories define what they represent as universal characteristics of religious beliefs and practices.
4.2. Academic research. The origin and development. (Происхождение и развитие)
The origin of religion is uncertain. There are a number of theories regarding the subsequent origins of religious practices.
According to anthropologists John Monaghan and Peter just, "many of the great world religions appear to have begun revitalization movements some sort, as the vision of a charismatic prophet fires imaginations people seeking more comprehensive answer to their problems than they feel is provided by everyday beliefs. Charismatic individuals originated in many times and places in the world. It seems that the key to long term success - and many movements come and go with little long-term effect - has relatively little in common with the prophets, who appear with surprising regularity, but more to do with the development group supporters who able institutionalize movement."
The development of religion has taken different forms in different cultures. Some religions focus on belief, while others emphasize practice. Some religions focus on the subjective experience of the religious person, while others believe that the activities of the religious community to be most important. Some religions claim to be universal, believing their laws and cosmology to be binding for everyone, while others are designed to only be implemented for a clearly defined or localized group. In many places religion has been associated with public institutions such as education, hospitals, families, government and political hierarchies.
Anthropologists John Monoghan and Peter just state that "it seems apparent that one thing religion or belief helps us do deal problems human life that are significant persistent and intolerable. One of the important ways in which religious beliefs to do this by providing a set of ideas about how and why the world is put together that allows you to contain the unrest and to cope with the trouble."
4.3. Academic research. Cultural systems. (Культурные системы)
While religion is difficult to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who simply called it a "cultural system". A critique of Geertzs model by Talal Asad to classify religion as "an anthropological category". Richard Niebuhrs 1894-1962 five times the classification of the relationship between Christ and culture, however, means that religion and culture can be considered as two separate systems, although not without some interaction.
4.4. Academic research. Social constructionism. (Социального конструкционизма)
One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions, as systems of orientation, allowing to interpret reality and define human. Among the main supporters of this theory of religion are Daniel Dyubyuisson, Timothy Fitzgerald, Talal Asad, and Jason ānanda Josephson. Social constructivists argue that religion is a modern concept that developed from Christianity and was then applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures.
4.5. Academic research. Cognitive science. (Когнитивная наука)
Cognitive science of religion is the study of religious thinking and behavior from the perspective of cognitive and evolutionary science. The field employs methods and theories from a very broad range of disciplines including: cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, cognitive anthropology, artificial intelligence, cognitive neuroscience, neurobiology, Zoology and ethology. Scientists in this field seek to explain how human minds acquire, generate and transfer the religious thoughts, practices and diagrams using conventional cognitive abilities.
Hallucinations and delusions associated with religious content occurs in about 60% of people with schizophrenia. Although this figure varies in different cultures, this has led to theories about the number of influential religious phenomenon and the possible link with psychotic disorders. A number of prophetic experiences are consistent with psychotic symptoms, although retrospective diagnoses is almost impossible. Schizophrenic episodes are also experienced by people who have no belief in gods.
Religious content is also found in temporal lobe epilepsy, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The atheistic content are also common in temporal lobe epilepsy.
4.6. Academic research. The comparativism. (На компаративизм)
Comparative religion is the branch of study religions concerned systematic comparison doctrines and practices of the worlds religions. In General, the comparative study of religion yields a deeper understanding of the fundamental philosophical concerns of religion such as ethics, metaphysics, and the nature and form of salvation. The study of such materials is intended to give you a richer and deeper understanding of human beliefs and practices regarding the sacred, mystical, spiritual and divine.
In the field of comparative religion, a common geographical classification of the worlds major religions includes middle Eastern religion of Zoroastrianism, including the Iranian religions, the religions of India, East Asian religions, African religions of America, oceanic religions, and classical Hellenistic religions.
5. Classification. (Классификация)
In the 19th and 20th centuries academic practice comparative religion divided religious belief into philosophical defined categories called world religions. Some scientists are studying this topic of religion fall into three broad categories:
- Religions of indigenous peoples, which refers to smaller, culture or nation-specific religious groups, and.
- New religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths.
- World religions-a term which refers to transcultural, international religions.
Recent studies argue that not all types religion necessarily separated mutually exclusive philosophies, and furthermore that the utility of ascribing a practice to a certain philosophy, or even calling a particular practice is religious, not cultural, political, or social in nature, limited. The current state psychological study about nature religiousness suggests that it is better to consult of religion in largely invariant phenomenon should distinguished from cultural norms, i.e. religion.
5.1. Classification. Morphological classification. (Морфологическая классификация)
Some scholars classify religions as universal religions that seek to gain international recognition and to actively look for new converts, or ethnic religions that are identified with a particular ethnic group and do not seek converts. Others reject the distinction, pointing out that all religious practices, whatever their philosophical origin, are ethnic because they come from a particular culture. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Jainism are universal religions, and Hinduism and Judaism are ethnic religions.
5.2. Classification. Demographic classification. (Демографическая классификация)
The five largest religious groups by world population, estimated to be $ 5.8 billion and 84% of the population, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism relative numbers for Buddhism and Hinduism dependent extent syncretism and traditional folk religion.
In a global survey in 2012 of surveyed 57 countries and reported that 59% of the population identified as religious, 23% are not religious, 13% as convinced atheists, and decreased by 9% identify as religious compared to 2005 average from 39 countries. The results of the poll in 2015, found that 63% of the globe identified as religious, 22% not religious, 11% as convinced atheists. On average, women are more religious than men. Some people follow multiple religions or multiple religious principles at the same time, regardless of whether or not the religious principles they follow traditionally allow for syncretism.
6. Specific religions. (Конкретных религий)
Abrahamic religions-monotheistic religions which believe they descend from Abraham.
Taoism and Confucianism. (Даосизм и конфуцианство)
- Taoism and Confucianism, as well as Korean, Vietnamese and Japanese religion influenced by Chinese thought.
6.1. Specific religions. Abrahamic. (Авраамические)
Abrahamic religions-monotheistic religions which believe they descend from Abraham.
6.2. Specific religions. Judaism. (Иудаизм)
Judaism is the oldest Abrahamic religion, originating in the ancient people of Israel and Judah. The Torah is the fundamental text, and is part of a larger text known as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. He supplemented the oral tradition in written form in later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. In Judaism there are several sects, most of which emerged from rabbinic Judaism, which believes that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on mount Sinai in the form of written and oral Torah historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups. Was scattered the Jewish people after the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 70 C. e. Today, there are about 13 million Jews about 40 per cent living in Israel and 40% in the US. The largest Jewish religious movements Orthodox Judaism Haredi Judaism and modern Orthodox Judaism, conservative Judaism and reform Judaism.
6.3. Specific religions. Christianity. (Христианство)
Christianity is based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth of the 1st century, as presented in the New Testament. The Christian faith is essentially faith in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of God, as Savior and Lord. Almost all Christians believe in the Trinity, which teaches the unity of Father, Son Jesus Christ and Holy spirit as three persons in one Godhead. Most Christians can describe their faith of Nicaea. As a religion in Byzantium in the first Millennium in Western Europe during the time of colonization, Christianity spread throughout the world. Major split of Christianity, by number of adherents:
- Eastern Christianity, including Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, and the Church of the East.
- The Catholic Church headed by the Bishop of Rome, and the lords of the world in communion with him, this communion of 24 Churches Sui of law, including in 23 the Latin Church and Eastern Catholic churches such as the Maronite Catholic Church.
- Protestantism separated from Catholic Church 16th century Protestant reformation and split into thousands of denominations. Major branches of Protestantism include the Anglican Church, Baptists, Calvinism, Lutheranism, Methodism, and although each of them contains many different denominations and groups.
There are also smaller groups, including:
- "Jehovahs witnesses", founded in the late 1870-ies of Charles Taze Russell.
- Restorationism, the belief that Christianity should be restored in contrast to reformed along the lines of what is known about the Apostolic early Church.
- Latter-day saints movement, founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820-ies.
6.4. Specific religions. Islam. (Ислам)
Islam based on the Quran, one of the Holy books considered by Muslims God has revealed, and the teachings of the hadith of the prophet Muhammad, a major political and religious figure in the 7th century ad. Islam is based on unity of all religious philosophies and accepts all of the Abrahamic prophets of Judaism, Christianity and other Abrahamic religions before Muhammad. It is the most widely practiced religion Southeast Asia North Africa, West Asia and Central Asia, and in Muslim countries also exist in parts of South Asia, Africa South of the Sahara and South-Eastern Europe. There are also several Islamic republics, including Iran, Pakistan, Mauritania, Afghanistan.
- Ahmadiyya adherents believe that the awaited Imam Mahdi and the promised Messiah has arrived, believed to be Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Ahmadi.
- Sunni Islam is the largest denomination in Islam and follows the Quran, hadith AR: the plural of hadith which record the Sunnah, while the emphasis on the sahabah.
- There is also a Muslim revivalist movement, such as Muwahhidism and Salafism.
- Shiites-the second largest denomination of Islam and its adherents believe that Ali the successor of Muhammad, and further emphasis on family Muhammads.
Other denominations of Islam include nation of Islam, Ibadi, Sufism, Quranism, Mahdavia, and secular Muslims. Wahhabism is the dominant Muslim schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
6.5. Specific religions. Other. (Другие)
While Judaism, Christianity and Islam, it is considered that the three Abrahamic religions, there are smaller and newer traditions that also claim the designation.
For example, the Bahai Faith is a new religious movement that has major Abrahamic religions and other religions, for example, Eastern philosophy. Founded in the 19th century in Iran, he teaches the unity of all religious philosophies and accepts all prophets of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, as well as other prophets, Buddha, Mahavira, including its founder baháulláh. It is an offshoot of onward transmission. One of its divisions is the Orthodox baháí faith.
Even smaller regional Abrahamic groups also exist, including Samaritanism primarily Israel and the West Bank, Rastafari movement primarily Jamaica, and the first Druze in Syria and Lebanon.
6.6. Specific religions. Taoism and Confucianism. (Даосизм и конфуцианство)
- Taoism and Confucianism, as well as Korean, Vietnamese and Japanese religion influenced by Chinese thought.
6.7. Specific religions. Chinese folk religion. (Китайская народная религия)
- Other folk and new religions of East Asia and Southeast Asia, such as Korean shamanism, Chondogyo, and Chang San-do in Korea, Shinto, Shugendo, the religion of the Ryukyus, and the Japanese new religions in Japan, Satsana Phi in Laos, CAO Dài, HOA Hảo, and Vietnamese folk religion in Vietnam.
- Chinese folk religion: indigenous religion of the Chinese, or, by metonymy, the entire population of the Chinese cultural sphere. It includes a syncretism of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, Wuism, as well as many new religious movements, such as Chen Tao, Falun Gong and Yiguandao.
6.8. Specific religions. Dharmic Indian. (Дхармический Индийского)
Indian religions are practiced and was founded on the Indian subcontinent. They are sometimes classified as the Dharmic religions, as they all feature Dharma, the specific law of reality and duties expected according to religion.
6.9. Specific religions. Hinduism. (Индуизм)
- Hinduism is primarily a self-termed Vaidika Dharma. It is a Synecdoche describing the similar philosophy of Vaishnavism, shaivism, and related groups practiced or founded in the Indian subcontinent. Concepts most of them share in common include karma, caste, reincarnation, mantras, yantras, and darshana. Hinduism is one of the oldest still-active religions, with origins possibly Dating back to prehistoric times. Hinduism is not a monolithic religion but a religious category containing dozens of separate philosophies combined Sanatana Dharma, which is the name by which Hinduism has been known throughout history its followers.
6.10. Specific religions. Jainism. (Джайнизм)
- Jainism Digambara or sky-clad is mainly practiced in South India. Their sacred books Samayasara Pravachanasara and wrote their prophets Kundakunda and Amritchandra as their original Canon is lost.
- Shwetambara Jainism or white clothes, mostly practiced in the West Indies. Their sacred books Jain Agamas, wrote his prophet Sthulibhadra.
- Jainism, taught primarily Rishabhanatha is the founder of Ahimsa is an ancient Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence, truth, and of anekantavada in all forms of living beings in this universe that helps them to eliminate all karma, and thus to gain freedom from the cycle of birth and death, samsāra, that is, to achieve Nirvana. Jains are found mostly in India. According to Dundas, outside of the Jain tradition, Mahavira, as historians date at about the same time with the Buddha in the 5th century BC, and historical Parshvanatha respectively, based on C. a 250-year gap, is in the 8th or 7th century BC.
6.11. Specific religions. Buddhism. (Буддизм)
- Theravada Buddhism, which is practiced mainly in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia alongside folk religion has absorbed some characteristics of Indian religions. It is based in a large collection of texts called the Pali Canon.
- Mahayana, or great vehicle, in which a multitude of doctrines that became known in China and are still relevant in Vietnam, Korea, Japan and to a lesser extent in Europe and the United States. Mahayana Buddhism includes such disparate teachings as Zen, pure land, and Soka Gakkai.
- Two notable new Buddhist sects Hoa Hảo and the Dalit Navayana Buddhist movement, which were developed separately in the 20th century.
- Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in the 6th century BC. Buddhists generally agree that Gotama aimed to help sentient beings end suffering dukkha, understanding the true nature of phenomena, thereby escaping the cycle of suffering and rebirth, samsāra, that is, to achieve Nirvana.
- Vajrayana Buddhism first appeared in India in the 3rd century of our era. Currently, the most noticeable in the regions of the Himalayas and throughout Asia Ms. Mikkyō.
6.12. Specific religions. Sikhism. (Сикхизм)
- Sikhism-panentheistic religion based on the teachings of guru Nanak and ten consecutive Sikh gurus in 15th century Punjab. It is the fifth largest organized religion in the world, with approximately 30 million Sikhs. Sikhs should embody the qualities of a Saint-Sipāhī - Holy-warrior, to control those internal vices and be able to be constantly immersed in virtues clarified in the Guru Granth Sahib. The basic beliefs of sikhi are faith in Waheguru - represented by the phrase IK ōankār, meaning one God, who prevails in everything, along with a praxis in which the Sikh is obliged to engage in social reform through the pursuit of justice for all people.
6.13. Specific religions. Indigenous and folk. (Коренных и народные)
Religions indigenous or folk religions refers to a broad category of traditional religions that can be characterized by shamanism, animism and ancestor worship, where traditional means "indigenous, that of the aborigines or the base, which was transmitted from generation to generation.". These religions that are closely associated with a specific group of people, ethnicity or tribe, they often have formal creeds and sacred texts. Some religions are syncretic, fusing diverse religious beliefs and practices.
- Folk religions of America: native American religions.
- Australian aboriginal religions. (Австралийских аборигенов религий)
Folk religions are often omitted as a category in surveys even in countries where they are widely practiced, e.g. in China.
6.14. Specific religions. Traditional African. (Традиционные Африканские)
African traditional religion encompasses the traditional religious beliefs of people in Africa. In West Africa, these religions are the religion of the akan, Dahomey background mythology, Efik mythology, Odinani, Serer religion ƭat roof, and the religion of Yoruba, and Bushongo mythology of the pygmy Mbuti mythology, Lugbara mythology, Dinka religion and mythology Lotuko, a native of Central Africa. South African traditions include Akamba mythology Masai mythology, Malagasy mythology San religion, Lozi mythology Tumbuka mythology, and the mythology of the Zulu. The Bantu mythology is found throughout Central, Southeast, and South Africa. In North Africa, these traditions include the Berbers and Ancient Egypt.
There are also notable African diasporic religions practiced in America, for example, Santeria, Candomble, Vodun, Lucumi, umbanda, and Macumba.
6.15. Specific religions. Iran. (Иран)
Iranian religions ancient religions whose roots go deeper Islamization of greater Iran. Today these religions practiced only minorities.
Zoroastrianism based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster in the 6th century BC. Zoroastrians worship the Creator Ahura Mazda. In Zoroastrianism, good and evil have different sources, with evil trying to destroy the creation of Mazda, and good trying to sustain it.
Mandaeism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. Sometimes labelled as Mandaeans the last Gnostics.
Kurdish religions include traditional beliefs Yazidi, Alevi, and AHL-e Haqq. Sometimes they are marked Yazdanism.
6.16. Specific religions. New religious movements. (Новые религиозные движения)
- Shinshūkyō is a General category for a variety of religious movements founded in Japan since the 19th century. These movements have almost nothing in common except the place of its creation. The largest religious movements centered in Japan include Soka Gakkai, Tenrikyo, and Seicho-no-Ie among hundreds of smaller groups.
- Raelism is a new religious movement founded in 1974, teaches that people were created by aliens. It is numerically the worlds largest UFO religion.
- CaO Dài is a syncretistic, monotheistic religion, established in Vietnam in 1926.
- The baháí faith teaches the unity of all religious philosophies.
- Wicca is a neopagan religion first became famous in 1954 by British civil servant Gerald Gardner, including the worship of the God and goddess.
- Satanism is a broad category of religions that, for example, worship Satan as a deity is Theistic Satanism or use Satan as a symbol of sensuality and earthly values on LaVey Satanism and the satanic temple.
- Eckankar is a pantheistic religion with the purpose of creation God an everyday reality in life.
- Noahidism is a monotheistic ideology based on the seven laws of Noah, and on their traditional interpretations within rabbinic Judaism.
- There are various neo-pagan movements that are trying to recreate or revive the ancient pagan practices. They include Heathenry, Hellenism, Kemeticism, and.
- Hindu reform movements such as Ayyavazhi, Swaminarayan faith and "Ananda Marga", examples of new religious movements within Indian religions.
- Unitarian universalism is a religion characterized by support for a free and responsible search for truth and meaning, not faith or theology.
- Druidry is a religion to promote harmony with nature and based on the practices of the druids.
- Scientology teaches that people are immortal beings who have forgotten their true nature. Its method of spiritual rehabilitation is a type of counseling known as auditing, in which practitioners aim to consciously experience and understand painful or traumatic events and decisions in their past to free themselves from their limiting effects.
- Some forms of parody religion or fiction-based religion as Jediism, Pastafarianism, Dudeism, "Tolkien religion", and others often develop their own Scriptures, traditions, and culture, and ultimately, how traditional religions.
Sociological classifications of religious movements suggest that within any religious group, a community can resemble various types of structures, including churches, denominations, sects, cults and organizations.
7.1. Aspects. The law. (Закон)
The study of law and religion, and is a relatively new area, with several thousand scholars involved in law schools and faculties, including political science, religion, and history since 1980. Scientists in the field are not only focused on strictly legal issues about religious freedom or the institution, as well as the study of religions as they are qualified through judicial discourse or legal understanding of religious phenomena. Exponents look at Canon law, natural law, state and law, often in comparative perspective. Experts have studied themes in Western history regarding Christianity and justice and mercy, rule and equity, and discipline and love. General topics of interest include marriage and the family, and human rights. Outside of Christianity, scholars have looked at law and religion links in the Muslim middle East and pagan Rome.
Research has focused on secularization. In particular, the question of the wearing of religious symbols in public places, such as headscarves that are banned in French schools, have received scholarly attention in the context of human rights and feminism.
7.2. Aspects. Science. (Наука)
Science acknowledges reason, empiricism, and evidence, and religions include revelation, faith and Holiness, while also recognizing the philosophical and metaphysical explanations to the study of the Universe. Both Science and religion are not monolithic, timeless, or static, since both are complex socio-cultural initiatives which have changed over time in different languages and cultures.
Concepts of science and religion is a recent invention: the concept of religion emerged in the 17th century in the midst of colonization and globalization and the Protestant reformation. The term science emerged in the 19th century natural philosophy, in the midst of attempts to identify more precisely those who studied the nature of science, and the phrase religion and science appeared in the 19th century due to the reification of both concepts. It was in the 19th century that the terms Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, and Confucianism arose for the first time. In the ancient and medieval world, the Latin etymological roots of both Science and religion the meanings of religious Territory was understood as an inner quality of personality and dignity, not as a doctrine, practice or actual sources of knowledge.
In General, the scientific method gets knowledge by testing hypotheses to develop theories, fact-finding or evaluation of experiments and thus only answers cosmological questions about the Universe that can be observed and measured. He develops the theory of the world that is better physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is subject to refinement or even rejection, in the face of additional evidence. Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as de facto truths in common parlance, as, for example, theories, General relativity and natural selection to explain respectively mechanisms gravity evolution.
Religion is not a method as such, partly because there are religions from different cultures, and is an attempt to find meaning in the world, and to explain the human place in it and relationship to it and to any posited entities. From the point of view of Christian theology and truth, people rely on reason, experience, Scripture and tradition to validate and evaluate what they experience and what they should believe. In addition, the religious model, understanding, and metaphor is also subject to change as scientific models.
As for religion and science, albert Einstein States in 1940: "science can only ascertain what is, not what should be, and outside its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary. Religion, on the other hand, deals only with evaluations of human thought and action, she can justifiably speak of facts and relationships between facts.now, even though the spheres of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other, nevertheless there exist between the two strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies. Though religion may be that which determines the goal, it nevertheless, learned from science, in the broadest sense, what means will contribute to the achievement of the goals it was created."
7.3. Aspects. Morality. (Мораль)
Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior should guide adherents in determining between right and wrong. They include triple EMS Jainism, z Judaisms, Islam, Sharia, Canon law Catholicisms Buddhist Eightfold Path, and Zoroastrianisms good thoughts, good words and good deeds of the concept, among others.
Religion and morality are not synonymous. Although this is "an almost automatic assumption." in Christianity, morality can be secular basis.
The study of religion and morality can be controversial due to ethnocentric views on morality, the inability to distinguish between in group and out group altruism, and inconsistent definitions of religiosity.
7.4. Aspects. Effect. (Эффект)
Religion has a significant influence on the political system in many countries. It is noteworthy that most Muslim countries adopt various aspects of Sharia, Islamic law. Some countries even define themselves in religious terms, such as the Islamic Republic of Iran. Thus, Shariah affects up to 23% of the global population, or 1.57 billion people who are Muslims. However, religion also influences the political decisions in many Western countries. For example, in the U.S., 51% of voters would be less inclined to vote for the candidate who did not believe in God, and only 6% more often. Christians make up 92% of the members of the U.S. Congress, compared to 71% of the population as at 2014. At the same time, while 23% of the adult U.S. population are non-institutional religiosity, only one member of Congress kyrsten not Sinema, D-Arizona, or 0.2% of the body who claims no religious affiliation. In most European countries, however, religion has a much smaller influence on policy, although it was much more important. For example, same-sex marriage and abortion have been banned in many European countries until recently, usually following the Christian Catholic doctrine. Several European leaders-ex-President of atheists, for example, Frances Francois Hollande and Prime Minister of Greece Alexis Tsipras. In Asia, the role of religion varies greatly between countries. For example, in India still is one of the most religious countries, religion still has a strong influence on policy, given that the Hindu nationalists were against minorities like Muslims and Christians, who have historically belonged to other castes. On the contrary, countries such as China or Japan, a largely secular and therefore religion has a much smaller impact on policy.
7.5. Aspects. Secularism. (Светскость)
Secularization-the transformation policy of the society from close identification with a specific religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions. The purpose of this is often upgrading or protection of religious diversity.
7.6. Aspects. Economy. (Экономика)
One study demonstrated a negative correlation between personal religiosity and the wealth of Nations. In other words, the richer a nation is, the less likely its inhabitants call themselves believers, whatever that word means to them, many people identificeret itself as part of religion is not atheism, but not identificeret themselves as believers).
Sociologist and political economist Max Weber has argued that Protestant Christian countries are wealthier because of their Protestant work ethic.
According to the study, starting in 2015, Christians occupy a very large amount of wealth 55% of total world wealth, and then the Muslim 5.8%, Hindu 3.3% Jews 1.1%. According to the same study revealed that followers according to the classification of atheism or other religions hold about 34.8% of total world wealth.
7.7. Aspects. Health. (Здоровья)
Researchers from the Mayo Clinic examined the relationship between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health effects. The authors reported that: "most studies have shown that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life even with an incurable disease and anxiety, depression, and suicide."
The authors follow-up study showed that the influence of religion on health is largely beneficial, based on the review of the relevant literature. According to academic James W. Jones, several studies have discovered "positive correlations between religious belief and practice and mental and physical health and longevity".
Analysis of the data of the sociological poll, the total 1998 United States, although in General confirming that religious activity was associated with better health and wellbeing, and also suggested that the role of the various aspects of spirituality / religiosity on health is much more complicated. The obtained results suggested that it may not be appropriate to generalize findings about the relationship of spirituality / religiosity and health from one form of spirituality / religiosity to another, across denominations, or to assume effects the same for men and women.
7.8. Aspects. Violence. (Насилие)
Critics like Hector Avalos Regina Schwartz, Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins argued that religion is inherently violent and harmful to society, by using violence to achieve their goals in ways that are endorsed and exploited by their leaders.
Anthropologist Jack David eller asserts that religion is prone to violence, claiming that "religion and violence are clearly compatible, but they are not identical." He argues that "violence is neither necessary nor exclusive religion" and that "virtually every form of religious violence has its nonreligious corollary".
7.9. Aspects. Animal sacrifices. (Животные жертвы)
Some do, but not all religions, animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal to appease or maintain favour with a deity. It was banned in India.
7.10. Aspects. Superstition. (Суеверие)
Greek and Roman pagans, who saw their relationship with the gods in political and social terms, scorned the man who constantly trembled with fear at the thought gods deisidaimonia, as a slave might fear a cruel and capricious master. The Romans called such fear of the gods superstitio. The ancient Greek historian Polybius described the superstitions in Ancient Rome as Rainier instrument, the instrument for maintaining the unity of the Empire.
Superstition is not rational is called the establishment of cause and effect. Religion is more complex and often consists of social institutions and has a moral aspect. Some religions may include superstitions or use magical thinking. The adherents of one religion sometimes think of other religions as superstition. Some atheists, Deists, and skeptics, as to religious belief as superstition.
The Roman Catholic Church considers superstition to be sinful in the sense that it means a lack of faith in the Divine Providence of God and, as such, is a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments. The catechism of the Catholic Church States that superstition "in some sense represents a perverse excess of religion" clause. #2110. "Superstition," he says, "is the deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, for example, when someone ascribes importance in some way magical certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or sacred characters to their external performance, except for internal dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition. Cm. Matthew 23:16-22" item. #2111
7.11. Aspects. Agnosticism and atheism. (Агностицизм и атеизм)
The terms atheist lack belief in gods and agnostic belief in the unknowability existence gods though specifically contrary to theistic religious teachings do not by definition mean the opposite of religious. There are religions that classify some of their followers as agnostic, atheistic or non-theistic. The true opposite of religious the word of the unbelievers. Irreligion describes absence any religion antireligion describes an active opposition or aversion toward religions in General.
7.12. Aspects. Interfaith cooperation. (Межконфессиональному сотрудничеству)
Because religion continues to be recognized in Western thought as a universal impulse, many religious practices are aimed at United in interfaith dialogue, cooperation, and religious peacebuilding. The first major dialogue was the Parliament of world religions in Chicago 1893 worlds fair, which reaffirmed the universal values and recognition diversity practices among different cultures. The 20th century has been especially fruitful in use of interfaith dialogue as a means of solving ethnic, political or even religious conflict Christian Jewish reconciliation representing a reverse in the attitude of many Christian communities towards Jews.
Recent interfaith initiatives include common words, released in 2007 and focuses on Muslim and Christian leaders, "peace dialogue S1", a common ground initiative between Islam and Buddhism, and under the auspices of the United Nations "world interfaith harmony week".
7.13. Aspects. Culture. (Культура)
Culture and religion are usually considered as closely related. Paul Tillich looked at religion as the soul of culture and culture as a form or framework of religion. In his own words:
Religion as the main goal-the meaning-giving substance of culture, and culture represents the totality of forms in which the main concern of religion expresses itself. In abbreviation: religion is the substance of culture is a form of religion. Such attention, of course, hampers the establishment of a dualism of religion and culture. Every religious act, not only in organized religion, but in the most intimate movement of the soul, is culturally formed.
Ernst Troeltsch, in the same way, looking at culture as the basis of religion and thought, therefore, transplanting a religion from its original culture to a foreign culture will actually kill him in the same manner that the transplantation of plants from natural soil in a foreign land would have killed him. However, there have been many attempts in the modern pluralistic situation to distinguish culture from religion. Domenic Marbaniang argued that the elements based on beliefs about the metaphysical nature of religious differ from controls based on nature and natural culture. For example, a language with its grammar is a cultural element in the sacralization of the language of the written specific religious Scripture is more often in religious practices. The same applies to music and art.
- Prehistoric religions are the religious beliefs and practices of prehistoric peoples. The term may cover Paleolithic religion Mesolithic religion Neolithic
- ethnic religion is a religion or belief associated with a particular ethnic group. Ethnic religions are often distinguished from universal religions which
- Iranian religions Indian religions East Asian religions African religions American religions Oceanic religions and classical Hellenistic religions Ibn
- Criticism of religion involves criticism of the validity, concept, or ideas of religion Historical records of criticism of religion goes back to at least
- Strictly speaking, psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of religious
- Philosophy of religion is the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions Philosophical discussions
- and an important aspect of religion Magic is prevalent in all societies, regardless of whether they have organized religion or more general systems of
- Religion in Japan is dominated by Shinto the ethnic religion of the Japanese people and by Buddhism. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008
- Mythology is the main component of Religion It refers to systems of concepts that are of high importance to a certain community, making statements concerning
- religion Religion organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence. Many religions
- Anthropology of religion is the study of religion in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across
- A state religion also called an established religion or official religion is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. A state with
- The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas. This period of religious history begins with the invention
- The Purepecha religion is the religion of the Purepecha people. Purepecha deities
- Historians of science and of religion philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others from various geographical regions and cultures have addressed
- not claim to be exclusive, and elements of each enrich popular or folk religion The emperors of China claimed the Mandate of Heaven and participated in
- Religion in Korea refers the various religious traditions practiced on the Korean peninsula. The oldest indigenous religion of Korea is the Korean folk
- Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology
- Religion in politics covers various topics related to the effects of religion on politics. Religion has been claimed to be the source of some of the
- folk religion simplified Chinese: 中国民间信仰 traditional Chinese: 中國民間信仰 pinyin: Zhōngguo minjiān xìnyǎng is the most widespread form of religion in China
- Civil religion also referred to as a civic religion is the implicit religious values of a nation, as expressed through public rituals, symbols such
- You may also be looking for a 1916 book by Max Weber, The Religion of India Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and
- Organized religion or organised religion - see spelling differences also known as institutional religion is religion in which belief systems and rituals
- Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. This article focuses on Native North Americans. Traditional
- A secular religion is a communal belief system that often rejects or neglects the metaphysical aspects of the supernatural, commonly associated with traditional
- and folkloristics, folk religion popular religion or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the
- Religion in Australia is diverse. Section 116 of the Constitution of Australia of 1901 prohibits the Commonwealth government from establishing a church
- A parody religion or mock religion is a belief system that challenges the spiritual convictions of others, often through humor, satire, or burlesque literary
- The study of women and religion typically examines the role of women within particular religious faiths, and religious doctrines relating to gender, gender
- Afro - American religion also known as African diasporic religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas in various nations
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