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★ Sport ..


Sports at the Universiade



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★ Sport

Sport includes all forms of physical activity, low or games which, through casual or organized participation, at least in part to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills for the implementation with the participants, and in some cases, entertainment for the audience. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between one contestant, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in a team or competing as individuals. In some sports, such as racing, many participants can compete, simultaneously or sequentially, with one winner, in others, the encounter between the two sides, each trying to outdo the other. Some sports allow you to "bind" or "tie", in which there is one winner, others provide draw methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests can be arranged in the tournament to produce a champion. Many sports leagues make annual champion, arranging games in the regular sports season, and in some cases-offs.

Sport is generally recognized as a system of activities based in physical athleticism and physical dexterity with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic games recognize only sports meeting this definition, and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without physical element from the category Sports. However, a number of competitive, but not physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The international Olympic Committee through ARISF recognises, like chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports Federation Association, recognizes five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts checkers, go and Xiangqi, and limits the amount of mind games which can be admitted as sports.

Sports usually governed set rules or customs which serve to ensure fair competition and allow consistent decisions of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing the first line. It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting activity, including objective and subjective measures such as technical performance and artistry.

Reports of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or published in sports news. Sport is also an important source of entertainment for non-participants, spectator sport drawing large crowds at sporting venues, while also reaching wider audiences through broadcasting. Sports betting are in some cases strictly regulated, and in some cases occupies a Central place in the sport.

According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth in 2013 to 620 billion dollars. The worlds most affordable and practice the sport of running, while football is the most popular sport.


1.1. The meaning and use. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word "sport" comes from the old French desport means "leisure", with the oldest definition in English around 1300 being "that people find fun and interesting."

Other meanings include gambling and events for the purpose of gambling, Hunting, and games and activities, including those that require training. Rogets defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation.


1.2. The meaning and use. Item. (Пункт)

The singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, e.g. "children taking part in sports", "sports" used to describe different types of activities e.g. "football and Rugby are the most popular sports in England". American English uses "sports" for both terms.


1.3. The meaning and use. Definition. (Определение)

A precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement, by definition, is "SportAccord", which is the Union of all largest international sports federations, and therefore the de facto representative of international sport.

The SportAccord uses following criteria determining sport should:

  • To be in no way harmful to any living creature.
  • Do not rely on the equipment of one provider in addition to branded games such as football.
  • There is an element of competition.
  • Do not rely on "luck" element specifically designed into the sport.

They also recognize that sport can be primarily physical, such as Rugby or athletics in the first place, against such as chess or go, mostly self-propelled, such as Formula 1 or Canoeing in the first place, of coordination, such as billiard sports, and first animal-for example, horse riding.

The inclusion of mind sports in the definitions of sport was not universally accepted, leading to lawsuits from the governing bodies in respect of the denied funding of sport. While the SportAccord recognizes a small number of sports, without any further sport.

An increase in the use of the term "sport" to a wider dialing and physical problems, such as video games, also called eSports, especially in connection with large scale of participation and organised competition, but they are not widely recognized by major sports organizations. According to the Council of Europe, European sports Charter, article 2.I, Sport means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation aimed at expressing or improving physical and mental wellbeing, forming social relationships or achieving results in competitions at all levels."


1.4. The meaning and use. The competition. (Конкурс)

There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element sport almost all professional sport involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee IOC and SportAccord.

Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include physical activity. For example, the Council of Europe include all forms physical exercise including competed just for fun.

In order to increase participation and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, was the introduction of non-competitive physical activity traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often contradictory.

In competitive events, participants are evaluated and classified based on their "result" and often divided into groups of comparable indicators, such as gender, weight and age. The measurement result may be objective or subjective, and corrected with "faults" or penalties. In the race, for example, the time to complete the course is an objective measurement. In gymnastics or diving the result is considered by the panel of judges, and therefore subjective. There are many shades of judging between Boxing and mixed martial arts, where victory is assigned to the judges if neither competitor has lost at the end of the match.


2. History. (История)

Artifacts and structures suggest sports in China as early as 2000 BC. Gymnastics appears have been popular Chinas Ancient past. Monuments to the pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in Ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, jump, and fight. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection with the fighting skills. Among other sports that originated in Ancient Persia are Polo and jousting.

A wide range of sports were already established by the time Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced substantially different. Sports became an important part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia.

Sport increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialization has brought increased leisure time, allowing people to attend and follow spectator sports and participate in sporting events. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communications. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in the popularity of sports, as sports fans follow the exploits of professional athletes – all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with Amateur participation in sports. Since the beginning of the 21st century there has been increasing debate about whether transgender athletes should have the opportunity to participate in sporting activities that correspond to them after transmission of gender identity.


3.1. Fair play. Sportsmanship. (Физподготовка)

Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, ethical behavior and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat.

Sportsmanship expresses aspiration, or spirit, that activity will use for its own benefit. Known sentiment sports journalist Grantland rice, that "its not that you won or lost but how You played the game" and the modern Olympic creed expressed its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "the most important thing. its not the winning but the taking part" are typical expressions of this sentiment.


3.2. Fair play. Cheating. (Обман)

The basic principles of sport that the result should not be predetermined, and that both sides should have an equal opportunity to win. Regulations are in place to ensure fair play, but participants can break the rules to gain an advantage.

Members can cheat in order to unreasonably increase their chances of winning, or to achieve other benefits such as financial gain. Widespread gambling on the results of sports fixtures creates the motivation for match fixing, when a participant or participants deliberately to achieve a certain result, and not just play to win.


3.3. Fair play. Doping and drugs. (Допинг и наркотики)

The competitive nature of sport encourages some participants to attempt to enhance their effectiveness with the help of medicines, or through other means such as increasing the volume of blood in their bodies through artificial means.

All sports recognized by the IOC and SportAccord required implement testing programme looking list banned drugs, with suspensions or bans done on participants who test positive for banned substances.


3.4. Fair play. Violence. (Насилие)

Violence in sports involves crossing the border between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting or hooliganism of fans in particular is a problem in some national and international sports competitions.


4.1. Part. Gender participation. (Гендерное участие)

Womens participation in sport continues to grow along with the possibility of participation and the value of sports for child development and physical fitness. Despite the successes over the last three decades a gap persists in the enrollment figures between male and female players. Female players account for 39% of the total number involved in us interscholastic athletics. Gender balance has been accelerating from a 32% increase in 1973-74 to a 63% increase in 1994-95. Hessel 2000.


4.2. Part. Youth participation. (Участие молодежи)

Youth sports gives children opportunities for fun, socialization, forming peer relationships, physical fitness and athletic scholarships. Activists for education and the fight against drugs encourage youth sports as a means to increase educational participation and combating drug trafficking. According to the Center for research injury and policy at Nationwide childrens hospital, the biggest risk for youth sports is death or serious injury, including concussion. These risks arise from running, basketball, soccer, volleyball, football, gymnastics and hockey. Youth sport in the United States is the industry 15 billion dollars, including equipment to private training.


4.3. Part. Participation of persons with disabilities. (Участие лиц с ограниченными возможностями)

The sport of disabled and adaptive sports or parasports, sport played by people with disabilities, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many of them are based on existing sports modified to meet the needs of persons with disabilities, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports. However, not all disabled sports are adapted, a few of the sports that were specifically created for persons with disabilities do not have analogues in able-bodied sport.


4.4. Part. The involvement of the viewer. (Вовлечение зрителя)

The competitive element in sport, along with the aesthetic appeal of some sports, result in the popularity of people attending to watch sport games. This led to the specific phenomenon of spectator sport.

Both Amateur and professional sports attract spectators, as at a sports venue, and through broadcast media, including radio, television and Internet broadcasting. Both in-person and viewing remotely can incur sometimes substantial charge, such as an entrance ticket, or pay-per-view broadcasting channels.

It is common for popular sports to attract large broadcast audiences, leading to rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the rights to show certain fixtures. The world Cup attracts a global television audience of hundreds of millions, in the final of 2006, attended by a worldwide audience of over 700 million, and in 2011 cricket world Cup final attracted about 135 million only in India.

In the United States in the championship game of the NFL, the super bowl has become one of the most popular TV shows of the year. The super bowl is a de facto national holiday in America, the audience was so great that in 2015, the advertising space has announced that it has sold for 4.5 million dollars per 30-second slot.


5. Amateur and professional. (Любительские и профессиональные)

Sports can be Amateur, professional or semi-professional basis, depending on the participants an incentive for participation, usually by payment of wages or salary. The participation of Amateurs in sport at lower levels is often called "mass sports".

The popularity of spectator sport as a recreation for non-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in its own right, and this incentive is the highest paying professional sport culture, where high performance, participants are awarded a pay much higher than average wages, which may amount to millions of dollars.

Some sports, or individual competitions in the sport retain policy allowing only Amateur sport. The Olympic games started principle Amateur competition those who practiced sport professionally considered have unfair advantage over those who engage in it only as a hobby. In 1971, Olympic athletes were allowed to receive compensation and sponsorship, and in 1986 the IOC decided to make all professional athletes eligible to participate in the Olympic games, with the exception of Boxing and wrestling.


6. Technology. (Технология)

Technology plays an important role in modern sport. With it being a necessary part of some sports such as motorcycling, it is used in others to improve performance. Some sports also use it to allow the off-field decision-making.

Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied in various fields, including the performance of an athlete, such as the use of video analysis to fine tune technique, or equipment, such as improved running shoes or low swimwear. Sports engineering as a discipline in 1998 with an increasing focus not only on design but also the use of technology in sports, from Analytics and big data to wearable technology. In order to control the impact of technology on fair play, governing bodies frequently have specific rules established to control the impact of technical advantage between participants. For example, in 2010, of the entire body, nontextile swimsuits were banned by FINA, as they contributed to the performances of the swimmers.

The increase in technology also allows many decisions in sports matches that must be accepted or considered outside the field with other officials using replays to make decisions. In some sports, players will now be able to challenge decisions by officials. In Association Football, goal-line technology makes decisions about whether the ball crossed the goal line or not. Technology is not mandatory, but is used in the world Cup 2014 in Brazil, and in 2015 FIFA womens world Cup in Canada and also in the Premier League from 2013-14, and the Bundesliga from 2015-16. In the NFL, the judge may ask for a review from the stand to analyze, or the coach may issue a challenge to review the play using instant replays. The final decision rests with the referee. Video referee known as a television match official TMO or can also use replays to facilitate decision-making in Rugby both League and Union. In international cricket, the judge may ask for a third judge for decision, and the third judge makes the final decision. Since 2008, the system of review of decisions for players to review decisions were implemented and used in ICC-run tournaments, and, if necessary, in other matches. Depending on the host broadcaster, a number of different technologies used in the trial, judge or comment of the player, including instant replays, Hawk-eye, hot spot and real time Snickometer. Eagle eye is also used in tennis to challenge the decisions of the referee.


7. Policy. (Политика)

Sports and politics can strongly influence each other.

Benito Mussolini used the 1934 world Cup, held in Italy, to demonstrate the fascist Italy. Adolf Hitler also used the summer Olympic games 1936 in Berlin and the Olympic winter games 1936 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, to promote the Nazi ideology of the superiority of the Aryan race and the inferiority of Jews and other "undesirables." Germany used the Olympics to give yourself a quiet way, and it was very actively preparing for war.

When apartheid was the official policy South Africa many sports people particularly Rugby Union adopted conscientious approach that they should not appear in a sporting event there. Some believe that it was an effective contribution to the final destruction of the policy of apartheid, others believe that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.

In the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Until mid 20th century person could not be allowed to play Gaelic football, hurling, or other sports administered Gaelic athletic Association GAA if she / he played or supported soccer, or other games seen to be of British origin. Until recently GAA continued ban playing football and Rugby at Gaelic venues. This prohibition, also known as 42 the rule is still enforced, but was modified to allow football and Rugby to play in Croke Park and was redeveloped in the Aviva stadium. Until recently, under rule 21 GAA also banned members British security forces and members of KCO playing Gaelic games, but the advent of the good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the final lifting of the ban.

Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sports, or in reporting: people compete in national teams, and the commentators and the audience will be able to take an objective view. Sometimes such tensions can lead to violent confrontation among players spectators within beyond sporting venue as the football war. These trends, considered by many to be contrary to the fundamental spirit of sport, performed for their own sake and for the implementation of its participants.

A very famous case when sports and politics collided was the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Masked men entered the hotel of the Israeli Olympic team and killed many of their men. This was known as the Munich massacre.

A study of elections in the USA showed that the result of sports events can affect results. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that when the team wins before the election, candidates will be able to increase its share of votes by 1.5 per cent. The loss had the opposite effect, and the effect is more for higher profile groups or unexpected wins and losses. In addition, when the "Washington Redskins" to win their last match before the election, the incumbent President has a better chance of winning, and if the Redskins lose, the opposition candidate has more chances to win, this became known as the Redskins rule.


7.1. Policy. As a means of controlling and suppressing the population. (Как средство контроля и подавления населения)

Etienne de La such, in his essay discourse on voluntary servitude describes sports glasses as a means for tyrants to control their subjects, distracting them.

Dont think there are any bird easily took the bait, any fish sooner fixed on the hook wormy bait, than are all these poor fools neatly tricked into slavery by the slightest feather passed, so to speak, before his mouth. Truly it is a wonder that they let themselves be caught so quickly at the slightest tickling of their fancy. Plays, farces, spectacles, gladiators, strange beasts, medals, pictures and other such opiates, these were for ancient peoples the bait toward slavery, the price of their liberty, the instruments of tyranny. These practices and enticements the ancient dictators so successfully lulled their subjects under the yoke, that the stupefied peoples, fascinated by the games, and vain pleasures flashed before their eyes, learned subservience as naively, but not so worthy, as little children learn to read by looking at bright picture books.


8. Religious views. (Религиозные взгляды)

Sport is an important form of worship in ancient Greek religion. The ancient Olympic games, called the Olympics were held in honor of the deity, Zeus, and included various forms of religious devotion to him and other gods. How many Greeks travelled to see the games, its a combination of religion and sport is a way of combining them.

The practice of sports competitions were criticized by some Christian thinkers as a form of idolatry, in which "people adore yourself, adore yourself, to sacrifice yourself and reward yourself". Sport is perceived by these critics as an expression of "collective pride" and "national self-deification," which exploits the human power worshipped by worship.

Tertullian condemns the athletic performances of his day, insisting on "the whole apparatus of the shows is based on idolatry." Shows, said Tertullian, excite the passions of alien cultivated a calm temperament Christian:

God has commanded us to decide calmly, gently, quietly, peacefully and with the Holy Spirit, because these things only according to the goodness of his nature, with his tenderness and sensitivity. Well, how can this be made to fit shows? The show always leads to spiritual agitation, since where there is pleasure, there is keenness of feeling giving pleasure its zest, and where the depth of feeling, there is rivalry giving in turn its zest to that. Then, too, where you have rivalry, you have rage, bitterness, anger, and grief, all the bad things that flow from them – all completely consistent with the religion of Christ.

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Encyclopedic dictionary

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