★ Rocket - outer space .. Info | About | What's This? | goo

★ Rocket - outer space ..

Launch vehicle

Booster, booster-rocket propelled vehicle used ...

Ballistic missile

A ballistic missile is on a ballistic trajector...

Aster (missile family)

A series of rocket Aster, including the Aster 1...

Burya

The storm was a supersonic Intercontinental cru...

Dongfeng (missile)

Dongfeng series, usually abbreviated missiles D...

Zuni (rocket)

Zuni 5-inch folding-fin aircraft rocket, or jus...

★ Rocket

Rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust consists entirely of gunpowder in the rocket. Rocket engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward simply expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and therefore can operate in a vacuum.

In fact, rockets operate more efficiently in space than in atmosphere. A multistage rocket capable of achieving escape velocity from Earth and therefore can reach an unlimited maximum height. Compared to airbreathing engines, missiles, light and powerful and capable of generating large accelerations. To control their flight, the rockets rely on momentum, profiles, auxiliary jet engines, propeller thrust, momentum wheels, deflection of the flow of exhaust gases, fuel consumption, spin, or gravity.

Rockets for military and recreational purposes dates back at least 13th century China. Significant scientific, interplanetary and industrial use did not occur until the 20th century, when rocketry was the enabling technology of the space age, including setting foot on Earths moon. Rockets are used for fireworks, equipment, ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human space flights and space exploration.

Chemical rockets are the most common type of high reactive power, typically creating a high speed exhaust gases due to the combustion of the fuel with the oxidant. Stored fuel can be a simple pressure of one gas or liquid fuel, which explains that in the presence of a catalyst monopropellants, two liquids that spontaneously react on contact, the hypergolic fuel components, two liquids that must be ignited to react, and the combination of the fuel with the oxidizer, solid fuel, or solid fuel with a liquid oxidizer hybrid fuel system. Chemical rockets store a large amount of energy in an easy form, and can be very dangerous. However, careful design, testing, construction and use minimizes risks.

1. History. (История)

The first gunpowder-powered rocket was developed in medieval China during the song dynasty in the 13th century. The Mongols adopted Chinese missile technology and inventions spread through the Mongol invasions to the middle East and Europe in the mid 13th century. The rockets recorded use of Navy songs in military training dates back to 1245. Internal-combustion rocket propulsion was mentioned in 1264, while noting that "Earth-rat" type of firework frightened the Empress-mother Gongsheng on the celebration, organized to honor her son the Emperor Lizong. Later missiles will be included in a military treatise of the Huolongjing, also known as fire Drake manual, written by the Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu in the mid 14th century. This text mentions the first known multistage rocket, the fire-dragon emerging from the water Huo long Chu Shui, believed to have been used by the Chinese Navy.

Medieval and early modern missiles used in the military as an incendiary weapon in sieges. Between 1270 and 1280, Hasan al-Rammah wrote al-furusiyyah WA al-manasib al-harbiyya the book of military horsemanship and ingenious war devices, which included 107 gunpowder recipes, 22 of them for missiles. In Europe, Konrad Kyeser described rockets in his military treatise Bellifortis around 1405.

The name "Rocket" comes from the Italian Rocchetta, which means "coil" or "small spindle", this because of the similarity to the shape of bobbins or spools used to hold thread in the spinning wheel. Fronsperger Leonard and Conrad Haas adopted the Italian term German language in the mid-16th century, the "rocket" appears in English in the early 17th century. Artis Magnae Artilleriae Pars prima, an important early modern work on rocket artillery, by Casimir Siemienowicz, was first printed in Amsterdam in 1650.

Rocket Mysorean rockets were the first successful iron-cased, developed in the late 18th century in the Kingdom of Mysore is a part of India under the rule of Hyder Ali. The Congreve rocket was a British weapon designed by sir William Congreve in 1804. This missile was directly based on the Mysorean rockets used a compressed powder and was fielded in the Napoleonic wars. It was the Congreve rockets that Francis Scott key had in mind when he wrote for the "rockets red glare", and in captivity on a British ship that was besieged Fort McHenry in 1814. Together Mysorean and British innovation increased the effective range military rockets from 100 to 2.000 meters.

The first mathematical treatment of the dynamics of rocket engines associated with William Moore in 1813. The rocket was built in 1815, Alexander Dmitrievich Zasyadko platforms that allowed missiles to fire a volley of 6 missiles at the same time, and gun-laying device. William Hale in 1844 greatly increases the accuracy of rocket artillery. Edward Mounier boxer to further improve the missiles convex in 1865.

William Leitch first proposed the concept of using missiles to provide manned space flight in 1861. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky later, in 1903, conceived the idea, and a widely developed body of theory, which served as the basis for the subsequent development of cosmonautics. In 1920, Professor Robert Goddard of Clark University published proposals for the improvement of rocket technology, a method of reaching extreme heights. In 1923, Hermann Oberth 1894-1989 published to die the rocket ZU Den Planetenraumen "the rocket into interplanetary space"

Modern rockets originated in 1926 when Goddard attached a supersonic de Laval nozzle in the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. These nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, hypersonic, highly directed jet of gas, more than twice the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2% to 64%. The use of liquid fuel instead of gunpowder greatly improved the effectiveness of rocket artillery during the Second World War and opened up the possibility of manned space flight since 1945.

In 1943, the V-2 rocket began in Germany. In parallel with the German missile programs, rockets were also used on aircraft, either for assisting horizontal take-off Rato vertical takeoff Bachem BA 349 "natter" or to power the me 163, see list of world war II guided missiles of Germany. Missiles allies of the programmes was less technologically advanced, relying mostly on unguided missiles like the Soviet Katyusha rocket. The Americans captured a large number of German scientists, rocket scientists, including Wernher von Braun in 1945, and brought them to the United States under operation Paperclip. After World War II scientists used rockets to study high-altitude conditions, by radio telemetry of temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, detection of cosmic rays, and further techniques, note too the Bell x-1, the first crew to break the sound barrier in 1947. Independently, in the Soviet unions space program research continued under the leadership of chief designer Sergey Pavlovich Korolev, 1907-1966.

During the missiles of the cold war became extremely important militarily with the development of modern ICBMs Intercontinental ballistic missiles. The 1960s saw the rapid development of rocket technology particularly in the Soviet Union and the United States, for example, the X-15. Rockets were used for space exploration. American crew programme project mercury, project Gemini and later the Apollo programme culminated in 1969 with the first crew landing on the moon – using equipment launched the rocket Saturn V.

2. Types. (Типы)

Vehicle configurations

Rockets are often constructed in the archetypal thin "rocket" shape that takes off vertically, but there are actually many different types of rockets including:

• Reactive torpedoes. (Реактивные торпеды)
• Rocket sleds. (Ракетные сани)
• The system activities, such as ejection seats and launch system.
• Jet jetpacks. (Реактивный реактивные ранцы)
• Tiny models such as rockets, balloon rockets water skyrockets or small solid rockets that can be purchased at a hobby store.
• Rocket train. (Ракетный поезд)
• Rocket bike. (Ракетный велосипед)
• Jet aircraft, including missiles helped the takeoff of conventional aircraft – Rato.
• Space rockets such as the enormous Saturn V used for the Apollo program.
• Missiles. (Ракеты)
• Jet cars. (Реактивные автомобили)
• Space probes. (Космические зонды)

3. Design. (Дизайн)

The design of the rocket can be as simple as a cardboard tube filled with black powder, but to make an effective, accurate missile involves overcoming a number of problems. The main difficulties include cooling the combustion chamber, pumping the fuel in the liquid fuel, and controlling and correcting the direction of movement.

3.1. Design. Components. (Компоненты)

The rockets consist of a propellant, a place to put fuel, such as fuel tank and injectors. They may also have one or more rocket engines, directional stabilization devices and structure, as a rule, the monocoque to hold these components together. Rockets intended for high speed use in the atmosphere also have an aerodynamic fairing such as a nose cone, which usually holds the load.

As well as These components, rockets can have any number of other components, such as wings rocketplanes, parachutes, rockets, wheels, cars, and even, in some sense, man, rocket, strap. Vehicles frequently possess navigation systems and guidance systems, which typically use satellite navigation and inertial navigation systems.

3.2. Design. Engines. (Двигатели)

Rocket engines employ the principle of jet propulsion. Rocket engines power rockets come in a wide variety of different types, the full list can be found in rocket engine. Most current rockets are chemically powered rockets, as a rule, internal combustion engines, but some use the decomposition of the unitary fuel, which emit hot exhaust gas. A rocket engine can use gas, fuel, solid fuel, liquid fuel, or a hybrid mixture of solid and liquid. Some rockets use heat or pressure that is supplied from another source than the chemical reaction of propellants, such as steam rockets, thermal rockets, solar, nuclear thermal rocket engines or simple pressure rockets, such as missiles of water or jets of cold gas. With a fuel, a chemical reaction starts between fuel and oxidizer in the combustion chamber and the resulting hot gases are accelerating in a rocket engine nozzle or nozzles on the rear end of the rocket. The acceleration of these gases in the engine having the power of "pull" on the combustion chamber and nozzle, moving the vehicle in accordance with Newtons Third law. This is because the pressure times the chamber wall is unbalanced opening the nozzle, it is not the case in any other direction. The shape of the nozzle and generates a force directing the exhaust gases along the axis of the rocket.

3.3. Design. Propellant. (Пропеллент)

Propellant is mass that is stored, usually in some form of fuel tank or casing, before it can be used as a driving mass which is ejected from the jet engine in the form of a liquid engine to create thrust. For chemical rockets often the propellants are a fuel such as liquid hydrogen or kerosene burned oxidizer, such as liquid oxygen or nitric acid for the production of large amounts of very hot gas. The oxidant or kept separately and mixed in the combustion chamber, or the mixture, as in solid rockets.

Sometimes the fuel is not burned but still undergoes a chemical reaction, and can be a monopropellant, such as hydrazine, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen peroxide, which can be catalytically decomposed to hot gas.

In addition, inert gas can be used with external heating, such as steam rocket solar thermal or nuclear thermal rockets.

For smaller, low performance rockets such as the engine orientation control where high performance is less necessary, and fluid under pressure is used as propellant that simply escapes the spacecraft at the propelling nozzle.

4. Uses

Rockets or other similar devices reaction carrying their own propellant must be used when no other beings or forces that the car can usefully employ for propulsion, such as in space. In these circumstances, it is necessary to carry all the fuel will be used.

However, they are also useful in other situations:

4.1. Uses Military. (Военные)

Some military weapons use rockets to propel warheads to their targets. The rocket and its payload together are generally called the missile when the weapon has a guidance system, not all missiles use rocket engines, some use other systems, such as aircraft or rocket if it is unguided. Anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles use rocket engines to engage targets at high speed at a distance of several miles, while Intercontinental ballistic missiles can be used to deliver nuclear warheads thousands of kilometers, and interceptors trying to stop them. Missiles were also tested for intelligence, such as ping-pong rocket, which was launched to look for enemy targets, however, the missile intelligence will never be in widespread use in the military.

4.2. Uses Science and research. (Наука и исследования)

Sounding rockets are commonly used for carrying documents that take readings from 50 kilometres 31 mi up to 1.500 kilometres 930 miles above the Earths surface.

Rocket engines are used for propulsion of rocket sleds by rail at very high speed. The world record for this is Mach 8.5.

4.3. Uses Space flight. (Космический полет)

More rockets, usually launched from a launch pad that provides stable support for a few more seconds after ignition. Due to their high exhaust speed of 2.500 to 4.500 m / s to 9.000 16.200 km / h, 10.100 5.600 to km / h - missiles, which are particularly useful at very high speed, such as the orbital speed of approximately 7.800 m / s 28.000 km / h, 17.000 miles per hour. Spacecraft delivered into orbital trajectories become artificial satellites that are used for many commercial purposes. Indeed, rockets remain the only way to launch spacecraft into orbit and beyond. They are also used for fast acceleration of the spacecraft when they change orbits or orbit for landing. In addition, the missile can be used to soften a hard parachute landing to landing to see the brake motor soft landing.

4.4. Uses Salvation. (Спасение)

The missiles were used to bring the line to a stricken ship so that a breeches buoy can be used to rescue those on Board. Rockets are used to launch the rocket.

Some manned rockets, in particular, the Saturn V and Soyuz rockets escape. This is a small, usually solid rocket that is capable of pulling the crew capsule away from the main vehicle towards safety at a moments notice. These systems were operated several times, both in testing and in flight, and operated correctly each time.

This was the case when the security of the Soviet nomenklatura successfully broke away on the L3 capsule during three of the four failed launches of the Soviet moon rocket, the vehicle of category N1, 3L, 5L and 7L. In all three cases, the capsule, though unmanned, was saved from destruction. Only three of the above-mentioned N1 rocket was functional security system. Outstanding car, 6L, the upper stages of the dummy and therefore no system of evacuation giving the H1 amplifier 100% success rate for exit from a bad start.

Successful escape crew capsule occurred when the Soyuz T-10 mission on the space station "Salyut-7", exploded on the pad.

Solid jet ejection seats are used in many military aircraft to propel the team to the safety of the vehicle for flight control lost.

4.5. Uses Hobbies, sports and entertainment. (Увлечения, спорт и развлечения)

A model rocket is a small rocket designed for low altitudes, for example, 100-500 m 330-1.640 feet for 30 g / 1.1 OZ model) and to be recovered in various ways.

According to the National Association of the United States code of rocket safety rockets, model rockets made of paper, wood, plastic and other lightweight materials. The code also contains recommendations for motor, launch site selection, launch methods, the location of the launch, recovery system design and deployment and more. From the beginning of 1960-ies, a copy of the model rocket safety Code fitted to most models of rocket kits and engines. Despite its inherent Association with extremely flammable substances and objects with a pointed tip traveling at high speeds, model rocketry historically has proven itself as a very safe hobby and has been credited as a significant source of inspiration for children who eventually become scientists and engineers.

Those who like to build and fly various model rockets. Many companies produce model rocket kits and parts but due to their inherent simplicity some hobbyists have been known to make rockets out of almost anything. Missiles are also used in some types of consumer and professional pyrotechnics. The water rocket is type of model rocket using water as reaction mass. Pressure vessel the engine of the rocket is usually used plastic soft drink bottle. Water is displaced by compressed gas, usually compressed air. This is an example of Newtons Third law of motion.

The scale Amateur rocketry can range from a small rocket launched in your own backyard to the rocket that went into space. Amateur rocketry is divided into three categories according to the total impulse of the engine: low power, medium power and high power.

Hydrogen peroxide rockets are used for jet power packs used in cars and rocket car is all the time, although informal drag racing record.

Fat stump is the most powerful non commercial rocket ever launched on airspace technologies Ltd co engine in the United Kingdom.

5. Noise. (Шум)

The exhaust of the rocket generates a significant amount of acoustic energy. As the supersonic exhaust is in contact with the ambient air, the formation of shock waves. The sound intensity from these shock waves depends on the size of the rocket and the velocity of the exhaust. The intensity of the sound of large rockets high performance could potentially kill at close range.

Space Shuttle created 180 dB of noise around its base. To combat this, NASA has developed a sound suppression system that can flow water at speeds up to 900.000 litres per minute 57 m 3 /S to the launch pad. The water reduces the noise levels from 180 dB up to 142 dB design requirement of 145 decibels. Without sound suppression system, acoustic waves are reflected from the start to the rocket, vibration sensitive cargo and crew. These acoustic waves can be serious enough to damage or destroy the missile.

The noise is usually most intense when a rocket is approaching earth, with the noise from the engines radiates up away from the jets and reflected from the Ground. This noise can be somewhat reduced flame trenches with roofs, by water injection around the engine and jet deflection angle.

For manned rockets various methods are used to reduce the intensity of sound for passengers and generally the placement of the astronauts far away from the rocket engines helps significantly. For passengers and crew, when a vehicle goes supersonic the sound cuts off as the sound waves can no longer keep up with the vehicle.

6.1. Physics. Operation. (Операция)

The effect of the combustion in the rocket engine is to increase the internal energy of the resulting gases by using the stored chemical energy in the fuel. As increases domestic energy, increases the pressure, and the nozzle is used to convert this energy into directed kinetic energy. It produces thrust from the external environment to which these gases are released. The perfect direction exhaust to the side so as not to cause traction. In the upper part of combustion chamber of hot, energetic gas, liquid can not move forward, and so it pushes up from the top of the rocket engines combustion chamber. As the exhaust gases approach the outlet from the combustion chamber, they increase in speed. The influence of the convergent part of the nozzle rocket engine on liquid high-pressure combustion gases, is causing gas to accelerate to high speed. The higher the speed of the gases, the lower the gas pressure or the Bernoullis principle of conservation of energy is valid in that part of the combustion chamber. In a properly designed engine, the flow reaches Mach 1 in the throat of the nozzle. At which point the speed increases the flow. After the throat of the nozzle, a bell-shaped expansion part of the engine allows the gases expand to push against this part of the rocket engine. Thus, the bell of the nozzle provides additional thrust. Simply stated, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction according to Newtons third law, causing the release of gases products of the reaction force acting on the rocket, causing it to move.

In a closed chamber, the pressure is equal in each direction and no acceleration occurs. If the opening is in the lower part of the chamber, the pressure is no longer valid in the missing sections. This opening allows the exhaust to escape. The remaining pressures give a resultant thrust in the side opposite the opening, and such pressure that pushes the rocket forward.

The nozzle shape is important. Consider a balloon propelled by air flowing from tapering nozzles. In this case, the combination of atmospheric pressure and viscous friction is that the nozzle does not push the ball but pulls it. By using a convergent / divergent nozzle gives more force since the exhaust also presses on it as it expands outwards, roughly doubling the total force. If propellant gas is continuously added to the chamber, this pressure can be maintained as much fuel is left. Please note that in the case of liquid propellant engines, pumps move the fuel in the combustion chamber must maintain a pressure greater than the combustion chamber – usually about 100 atmospheres.

As a side effect, this pressure on the rocket also act on the exhaust in the opposite direction and accelerate this exhaust to very high speed according to Newtons Third law. The principle of conservation of momentum the speed of the exhaust of a rocket determines how much momentum increase for a given amount of fuel. Its called the rocket specific impulse. Because a rocket fuel and exhaust in flight without any external perturbations, may be considered as a closed system, total momentum is always constant. Therefore, the faster the net speed of exhaust in one direction, the greater the speed the rocket can achieve in the opposite direction. This is especially true since the rocket weight is usually much lower than the total amount of exhaust mass.

6.2. Physics. Forces on a rocket in flight. (Сил на ракету в полете)

General study of the forces on a rocket is part of the field of ballistics. The spacecraft was still in the subfield of astrodynamics.

Fly rockets in the first place depends on the following factors:

• Gravity from celestial bodies.
• Lift, usually relatively small effect except for rocket planes.
• Of resistance when moving in the atmosphere.
• Thrust from the engines.

In addition, the inertia and centrifugal pseudo-force can be significant because the trajectory of the rocket around the center of a celestial body, at high speeds in the right direction and altitude are achieved a stable orbit is obtained or the speed of escape.

These forces, with a stabilizing tail plumage is present when a deliberate effort control, naturally cause the vehicle to follow approximately a parabolic trajectory is called a gravity turn, and this trajectory is often used, at least in the starting phase. This is true even if the rocket engine is mounted in the nose. Thus, vehicles can maintain low or even zero angle of attack, which reduces the lateral load on the booster that allows the weaker, and therefore easier, booster.

6.3. Physics. Drag

Drag is a force opposite to the direction of motion of the rocket relative to the air it moves. This slows down the speed of the vehicle and manufactures structural loads. Braking force of fast-moving missiles are calculated using the drag equation.

Drag can be minimised with aerodynamic nose cone, and when you use the form with a high ballistic coefficient of the "classical" form of rocket - long and thin, and keep the launch angle as low as possible attacks.

During the launch, as the vehicle speed increases and the atmosphere thins, there is a point of maximum aerodynamic drag called Max V. This determines the minimum aerodynamic strength of the vehicle, and the rocket must avoid buckling under these forces.

6.4. Physics. Pure thrust. (Чистой тяги)

A typical rocket engine can handle most of its own weight of fuel in the second fuel leaving the nozzle several kilometers per second. This means that thrust-to-weight rocket engine and often the whole vehicle can be very high, at least 100. This compares with other jet engines that can exceed 5 for some of the best engines.

It can be shown that the net thrust of the rocket:

F n = m v e {\displaystyle F_{n}={\dot {m}}\,v_{e}}

where:

m = {\displaystyle {\dot {m}}=\,} propellant flow kg / s or lb / s v e = {\displaystyle v_{e}=\,} the effective exhaust velocity m / s or ft / s

Effective exhaust velocity V e {\the style property display the value of v_{e}} is more or less the speed the exhaust leaves the vehicle, and in the vacuum of space, the effective exhaust speed is often equal to the actual average exhaust speed along the thrust axis. However, the effective exhaust speed allows for various losses, and, in particular, decreases when operating in the atmosphere.

The rate of fuel flow through a rocket engine is often deliberately varied over a flight, to control the thrust and thus the speed of the vehicle. This, for example, to minimize aerodynamic losses and can limit the increase of congestion due to reduction in fuel load.

6.5. Physics. The total momentum. (Суммарный импульс)

Impulse is defined as force acting on an object over time, which in the absence of opposing forces of gravity and aerodynamic drag changes the momentum integral of the mass and velocity of the object. As such, it is the best performance class, mass and maximum speed possible indicator of the rocket, not takeoff thrust, weight, or strength. The total momentum of the rocket stage burning fuel is:

I = ∫ F d t {\displaystyle I=\int Fdt}

When there is fixed thrust, this is simply:

I = F t {\displaystyle I=Ft\,}

Total momentum of a multi-stage rocket is the sum of the impulses of the individual stages.

6.6. Physics. Specific impulse. (Удельный импульс)

As can be seen from the thrust equation the effective speed of the exhaust gas determines the magnitude of the thrust generated from a given quantity of burned fuel per second.

An equivalent measure, the net momentum per unit mass of ejected fuel, called specific impulse, I s p {\the ghosts of the style property display the value of{SP}}, and this is one of the most important figures that describes a rockets performance. It is determined that it is related to the effective exhaust velocity:

v e = I s p ⋅ g 0 {\displaystyle v_{e}=I_{sp}\cdot g_{0}}

where:

I s p {\displaystyle I_{sp}} has units of seconds g 0 {\displaystyle g_{0}} is the acceleration at the surface of the Earth

Thus, the more the specific impulse, the greater the net thrust and engine performance. I s p {\the ghosts of the style property display the value of{SP}} is determined by measurement while testing the engine. In practice the effective exhaust velocity of the rocket change, but can be extremely high, ~4500 m / s, about 15 times the sea level speed of sound in air.

6.7. Physics. The Delta v rocket equation. (Ракета дельта v уравнение)

Delta-v capacity of a rocket is the theoretical total change of speed that the rocket can achieve without any external interference, without air resistance or gravity or other forces.

When e {\the style property display the value of v_{e}} constant, the Delta-v that a rocket vehicle can provide can be calculated equation Tsiolkovsky rocket:

Δ v = v e ln ⁡ m 0 m 1 {\displaystyle \Delta v\ =v_{e}\ln {\frac {m_{0}}{m_{1}}}}

where:

m 0 {\displaystyle m_{0}} is the initial total mass, including propellant, in kg or lb m 1 {\displaystyle m_{1}} is the final total mass in kg or lb v e {\displaystyle v_{e}} is the effective exhaust velocity in m / s or ft / s Δ v {\displaystyle \Delta v\ } is the delta-v in m / s or ft / s

When you run out of practical Delta-vs of the Earth for a single rockets carrying payloads can be a few km / sec. Some theoretical designs are rocket Delta-vs by more than 9 km / sec.

Required Delta-V can also be calculated for a particular maneuver, for example, the Delta-V to launch from the Earths surface to low earth orbit is about 9.7 km / s, which leaves the car with a lateral speed of about 7.8 km / s at an altitude of about 200 km. In this manoeuvre about 1.9 km / is lost in air resistance, gravity, drag and gaining altitude.

The ratio M 0 M 1 {\the style property display the value of {\frats {if{0}}{we{1}}}} is sometimes called the mass.

6.8. Physics. The mass fraction of. (Массовая доля)

Almost all of the rockets weight consists of propellant. The weight ratio of, for any burn, the ratio between the initial mass of the rocket and its mass. That ceteris paribus high mass ratio is desirable for good performance, because it means that the rocket is lightweight and hence performs better, for essentially the same reasons that low weight is desirable in sports cars.

Rockets as a group have the highest thrust to weight of any engine type, and it helps vehicles achieve high mass indicators, which improves the performance of flights. The higher the ratio, the less weight the engine had to perform. This allows you to carry even more fuel, significantly improving the Delta V. in addition, some rockets such as for rescue scenarios or racing include relatively little fuel and payload and thus need only a lightweight structure and instead achieve high accelerations. For example, the system of escape Soyuz can produce 20 g.

Achievable mass ratios are highly dependent on many factors such as fuel type, engine design vehicle use, structural reliability and construction methods.

Most mass ratio, as a rule, is achieved in liquid rockets and these types are typically used for orbital launch vehicles, a situation that requires a high Delta-V. liquid fuels, typically have a density similar to water except for liquid hydrogen and liquid methane, and these types can use a lightweight, low pressure tanks and typically, high-performance turbopumps to force the fuel into the combustion chamber.

Some well-known mass fractions are in the following table some aircraft are included for comparison:

6.9. Physics. Setting. (Установка)

Still, the speed of Delta-V to reach orbit was unattainable in any of the rocket, because the fuel, capacity, structure, guidance, valves and engines and so on, take a particular minimum percentage of take-off mass that is too large for the fuel it carries to achieve that Delta-V carrying a reasonable load. As one stage in orbit so far failed to achieve orbital rockets always have more than one stage.

For example, the first stage of the Saturn V, being bent under weight of upper stages, was able to achieve a mass ratio of about 10, and achieved a specific impulse of 263 seconds. This gives a Delta-v of around 5.9 km / s whereas around 9.4 Delta-v km / s needed to achieve orbit with all of the losses allowed.

This problem is often solved by placing the rocket sheds excess weight, as a rule, empty containers and related systems during startup. Setting either serial where the rockets light after the previous stage has fallen away, or parallel, where rockets are burning together and then detach when they burn out.

The maximum speed that can be achieved with staging is theoretically limited only by the speed of light. However, the payload that can be transported decreases exponentially with each additional stage, while the additional Delta-V for each stage is just additive.

6.10. Physics. Acceleration and thrust-to-weight. (Ускорения и тяги к весу)

From Newtons second law, acceleration, and {\the style property display the value in}, the car is simple:

a = F n m {\displaystyle a={\frac {F_{n}}{m}}}

Where m is the instantaneous mass of the vehicle and f N {\F_ properties of the style used to display the value{n}} is the net force acting on the rocket, mostly thrust but air drag and other forces can play a role.

And the rest of the fuel decreases, rocket vehicles become lighter and their acceleration tends to increase until the fuel is exhausted. This means that the speed change occurs at the end of recording, when the car much easier. However, cravings can be adjusted to compensate or change if necessary. Discontinuities in acceleration will also occur when stages burn out, often starting in a lower acceleration with each new shooting.

Peak acceleration can be increased by designing the vehicle with a reduced mass, usually achieved by reducing the fuel load and tankage and associated structures, but obviously this reduces range, Delta-V and burning time. Still, for some applications, that the missiles used, the high peak acceleration applied for a short time is highly desirable.

The minimum mass of the vehicle consists of a rocket engine with a minimum of structure and fuel to carry it. In this case, the thrust-to-weight rocket engine limits the maximum acceleration that can be developed. It turns out that rocket engines generally have truly excellent thrust to weight 137 for the NK-33 engine, some solid rockets are over 1000, and nearly all really high-G vehicles employ or have used missiles.

The high accelerations of the rocket, which naturally possess means that rocket vehicles are often capable of vertical takeoff, and in some cases, with appropriate supervision, and control of the engines, except for vertical landing. For these operations you need to make it necessary for vehicles, engines provide more local gravitational acceleration.

6.11. Physics. Energy efficiency. (Энергоэффективности)

The launch of the launch vehicles take-off with a large share of flames, noise and drama and it may seem obvious that they are severely inefficient. However, they are far from perfect, their energy efficiency is not as bad as it might seem.

The energy density of a typical rocket fuel often about a third of conventional hydrocarbon fuels, the volumetric weight is often a relatively inexpensive oxidant. However, during take-off the rocket has a lot of energy in the fuel and oxidizer are stored in the car. This, of course, desirable that as much energy as possible from the fuel end up as kinetic or potential energy of a body as possible missile.

Of the fuel energy is lost to air resistance and gravity drag and is used for the rocket to gain altitude and speed. However, much of the lost energy goes into the exhaust.

In the chemical device of a jet engine efficiency is simply the ratio of the kinetic energy of the exhaust gases and the power of chemical reactions:

η c = 1 2 m v e 2 η c o m b u s t i o n P c h e m {\displaystyle \eta _{c}={\frac) - dominate for subsonic and supersonic atmospheric use, while rockets work best at hypersonic speeds. On the other hand, rockets serve in many short-range relatively low speed military applications where their low-speed inefficiency is outweighed by their extremely high thrust and hence high accelerations.

6.12. Physics. Effect Oberta. (Эффект Оберта)

One subtle feature of rockets relates to energy. Stage of the rocket, during this workload, able to give a specific Delta V. the Delta V means velocity increases or decreases by a certain amount, regardless of the initial speed. However, since kinetic energy is a square law on speed, this means that the faster the rocket flies up to burn the more orbital energy it gains or loses.

This fact is used in interplanetary travel. This means that the amount of Delta-V to reach other planets, and, moreover, to achieve escape velocity can be much less if the Delta V is used when the missile travels at high speeds, close to the Ground or other surface and wait until the rocket has slowed at altitude multiplies the effort required to achieve the desired trajectory.

7. Safety, reliability and accidents. (Безопасность, надежность и несчастных случаев)

The reliability of rockets, as with all physical systems depends on the quality of design and construction.

Because of the enormous chemical energy in rocket propellants more energy by weight than explosives, but lower than that of gasoline, the consequences of the accident can be very serious. Most space missions have some issues. In 1986, after the disaster of the space Shuttle Challenger, the American physicist Richard Feynman, having served in Rogers Commission, estimated that the likelihood of hazardous conditions for the launch of the Shuttle was very roughly 1%, and more recently on person-flight risk in orbital spaceflight has been calculated at 2% or 4%.

8. Costs and Economics. (Расходы и экономики)

The cost of the rocket can be divided into fuel costs, the costs of obtaining and / or produce the dry weight of the rocket and the cost of the necessary equipment and services.

Most of the takeoff mass of a rocket is normally propellant. However, the fuel rarely exceeds several times more expensive than gasoline per kilogram as of 2009 gasoline was about $1 / kg or less, and despite the considerable amount needed for all but the very cheapest rockets, it turns out that fuel costs are usually relatively small, although not negligible. With liquid oxygen costing$0.15 per kilogram $0.068 / lb and liquid hydrogen$2.20 / kg $1.00 per pound, the space Shuttle in 2009 on liquid fuel consumption by about$ 1.4 million for each launch that cost $450 million from other expenses, with 40% of the mass of fuel used his liquids in the external fuel tank, 60% solids in the SRBs. Even if the rocket is not the fuel, dry mass is often only between 5-20% of the total mass, however, these costs dominates. For hardware with the performance used in orbital launch vehicles, expenses of$2000–\$10.000 per kilogram of dry weight are common, primarily from engineering, fabrication and testing of raw materials amount to typically around 2% of the total costs. For most rockets, except reusable vehicle engines need no more than a few minutes, which simplifies design.

Extreme performance requirements for rockets reaching orbit correlate with high cost, including intensive quality control to ensure reliability despite the limited safety factors allowable for weight reasons. Components produced in small numbers if not individually, it can prevent amortization of R&D and facility costs over mass production to the degree seen in more pedestrian manufacturing. Among liquid fuel rockets, the complexity may depend on how the equipment should be easy, as pressure engines can have two orders of magnitude fewer components than pump-fed engines but lead to more weight, requiring a large pressure tank, often used in small maneuvering engines as a consequence.

Change the preceding factors for orbital launch vehicles, proposed methods of mass-producing simple rockets in large quantities or on a large scale, or developing reusable rockets meant to fly very frequently to amortize their personal account for many loads or reducing the flight performance of the missile requirements by building narechenie spacelaunch system for part of the speed in orbit, or all, but with most methods involving some rocket use.

Support costs of equipment, costs, range and launch pads, as a rule, is correlated with the size of the rocket, but vary less with which to begin, and therefore can be considered as approximately fixed cost.

Rockets in applications other than launch to orbit, such as military rockets and missiles-to help relieve usually do not require comparable performance and sometimes mass produced, are often relatively inexpensive.

8.1. Costs and Economics. 2010 years, there are private contest. (2010 года, есть отдельный конкурс)

Since the beginning of 2010 years, new private options for obtaining services flight, bringing significant price pressure in the existing market.

• The Qassam rocket Arabic: صاروخ القسام Sārūkh al - Qassām also Kassam is a simple, steel artillery rocket developed and deployed by the Izz ad - Din al - Qassam
• A rocket launcher is a device that launches an unguided, rocket - propelled projectile, although the term is often used in reference to mechanisms that
• A sounding rocket sometimes called a research rocket is an instrument - carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments
• rocket engine uses stored rocket propellants as reaction mass for forming a high - speed propulsive jet of fluid, usually high - temperature gas. Rocket engines
• Rocket artillery is a type of artillery which utilizes rockets as a projectile. The use of rocket artillery dates back to medieval China where devices
• Rocket propellant is the reaction mass of a rocket This reaction mass is ejected at the highest achievable velocity from a rocket engine to produce thrust
• A rocket is a self - propelled, unguided weapon system powered by a rocket motor. Rockets are used primarily as medium and long - range artillery systems
• Rocket Power is an American animated television series created by Arlene Klasky and Gabor Csupo, the creators of Rugrats. The series aired on Nickelodeon
• A rocket - powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
• A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass. The water is forced out by a pressurized gas, typically compressed air. Like
• Stephenson s Rocket was an early steam locomotive of 0 - 2 - 2 wheel arrangement. It was built for, and won, the Rainhill Trials held by the Liverpool and

• A model rocket is a small rocket designed to reach low altitudes e.g., 100 500 m 330 1, 640 ft for 30 g 1.1 oz model and be recovered by a variety
• solid - propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants fuel oxidizer The earliest rockets were solid - fuel rockets powered
• A liquid - propellant rocket or liquid rocket utilizes a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants. Liquids are desirable because their reasonably high
• electric - pump - fed engine to power an orbital rocket In December 2016, Electron completed flight qualification. The first rocket was launched on 25 May 2017, reaching
• Play media A multiple rocket launcher MRL or multiple launch rocket system MLRS is a type of rocket artillery system. Rockets have different capabilities
• made exclusively from propellant. Rocket or Rockets may also refer to: Rocket weapon an unguided, powered weapon Rocket firework a firework that propels
• The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets The Kingdom
• Rocket Raccoon is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer Bill Mantlo and artist Keith Giffen
• understand. Rocket Science, It s Not Rocket Science and variants may also refer to: Rocket science in finance, a professional activity Rocket Science Games

• A hybrid - propellant rocket is a rocket with a rocket motor that uses rocket propellants in two different phases: one solid and the other either gas or
• The Zuni 5 - inch Folding - Fin Aircraft Rocket FFAR or simply Zuni, is a 5.0 in 127.0 mm unguided rocket developed by the Hunter - Douglas Division of
• Solid - fuel rocket boosters SRBs are large solid propellant motors used to provide thrust in spacecraft launches from initial launch through the first
• Bottle Rocket is a 1996 American crime - comedy film directed by Wes Anderson with a screenplay by Anderson and Owen Wilson based on Anderson s 1994 short
• A Long March rocket is any rocket in a family of expendable launch systems operated by the People s Republic of China. Development and design falls under
• Rocket Man, Rocketman, etc., may refer to: Rocket Man manga a detective fiction manga by Motohiro Katou Rocketman a chapter of the manga series
• A rocket garden is a display of missiles, sounding rockets or space launch vehicles usually in an outdoor setting. The proper form of the term usually
• long - range guided ballistic missile. The missile, powered by a liquid - propellant rocket engine, was developed during the Second World War in Germany as a vengeance
• The Viking rocket series of sounding rockets were designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company now Lockheed - Martin under the direction of the U
• A rocket car is a land rocket vehicle powered by a rocket engine. A rocket dragster is a rocket car used for competing in drag racing, and this type holds

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation
 аҧсуа Afaraf Afrikaans Akan Shqip አማርኛ العربية Aragonés Հայերեն অসমীয়া авар мацӀ avesta aymar aru azərbaycan dili bamanankan башҡорт теле euskara Беларуская বাংলা भोजपुरी Bislama bosanski jezik brezhoneg български език ဗမာစာ Català Chamoru нохчийн мотт chiCheŵa 中文 чӑваш чӗлхи Kernewek corsu ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ hrvatski česky dansk ދިވެހި Nederlands English Esperanto eesti Eʋegbe føroyskt vosa Vakaviti suomi français Fulfulde Galego ქართული Deutsch Ελληνικά Avañeẽ ગુજરાતી Kreyòl ayisyen Hausa עברית עברית Otjiherero हिन्दी Hiri Motu Magyar Interlingua Bahasa Indonesia Originally called Occidental Gaeilge Asụsụ Igbo Iñupiaq Ido Íslenska Italiano ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ 日本語 basa Jawa kalaallisut ಕನ್ನಡ Kanuri कश्मीरी Қазақ тілі ភាសាខ្មែរ Gĩkũyũ Ikinyarwanda кыргыз тили коми кыв KiKongo 한국어 كوردی‎ Kuanyama latine Lëtzebuergesch Luganda Limburgs Lingála ພາສາລາວ lietuvių kalba latviešu valoda Gaelg македонски јазик Malagasy fiteny بهاس ملايو‎ മലയാളം Malti te reo Māori मराठी Kajin M̧ajeļ монгол Ekakairũ Naoero Dinékʼehǰí Norsk bokmål isiNdebele नेपाली Owambo Norsk nynorsk Norsk ꆈꌠ꒿ Nuosuhxop isiNdebele Occitan ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ ѩзыкъ словѣньскъ Afaan Oromoo ଓଡ଼ିଆ ирон æвзаг ਪੰਜਾਬੀ पाऴि فارسی polski پښتو Português Runa Simi rumantsch grischun kiRundi română русский язык संस्कृतम् sardu سنڌي، سندھی‎ Davvisámegiella gagana faa Samoa yângâ tî sängö српски језик Gàidhlig chiShona සිංහල slovenčina slovenščina Soomaaliga Sesotho español Basa Sunda Kiswahili SiSwati svenska தமிழ் తెలుగు تاجیکی‎ ไทย ትግርኛ བོད་ཡིག Türkmen Wikang Tagalog Setswana faka Tonga Türkçe Xitsonga تاتارچا‎ Twi Reo Tahiti ئۇيغۇرچە‎ українська اردو أۇزبېك‎ Tshivenḓa Tiếng Việt Volapük Walon Cymraeg Wollof Frysk isiXhosa ייִדיש Yorùbá Saɯ cueŋƅ аҧсуа Afaraf Afrikaans Akan Shqip አማርኛ العربية Aragonés Հայերեն অসমীয়া авар мацӀ avesta aymar aru azərbaycan dili bamanankan башҡорт теле euskara Беларуская বাংলা भोजपुरी Bislama bosanski jezik brezhoneg български език ဗမာစာ Català Chamoru нохчийн мотт chiCheŵa 中文 чӑваш чӗлхи Kernewek corsu ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ hrvatski česky dansk ދިވެހި Nederlands English Esperanto eesti Eʋegbe føroyskt vosa Vakaviti suomi français Fulfulde Galego ქართული Deutsch Ελληνικά Avañeẽ ગુજરાતી Kreyòl ayisyen Hausa עברית עברית Otjiherero हिन्दी Hiri Motu Magyar Interlingua Bahasa Indonesia Originally called Occidental Gaeilge Asụsụ Igbo Iñupiaq Ido Íslenska Italiano ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ 日本語 basa Jawa kalaallisut ಕನ್ನಡ Kanuri कश्मीरी Қазақ тілі ភាសាខ្មែរ Gĩkũyũ Ikinyarwanda кыргыз тили коми кыв KiKongo 한국어 كوردی‎ Kuanyama latine Lëtzebuergesch Luganda Limburgs Lingála ພາສາລາວ lietuvių kalba latviešu valoda Gaelg македонски јазик Malagasy fiteny بهاس ملايو‎ മലയാളം Malti te reo Māori मराठी Kajin M̧ajeļ монгол Ekakairũ Naoero Dinékʼehǰí Norsk bokmål isiNdebele नेपाली Owambo Norsk nynorsk Norsk ꆈꌠ꒿ Nuosuhxop isiNdebele Occitan ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ ѩзыкъ словѣньскъ Afaan Oromoo ଓଡ଼ିଆ ирон æвзаг ਪੰਜਾਬੀ पाऴि فارسی polski پښتو Português Runa Simi rumantsch grischun kiRundi română русский язык संस्कृतम् sardu سنڌي، سندھی‎ Davvisámegiella gagana faa Samoa yângâ tî sängö српски језик Gàidhlig chiShona සිංහල slovenčina slovenščina Soomaaliga Sesotho español Basa Sunda Kiswahili SiSwati svenska தமிழ் తెలుగు تاجیکی‎ ไทย ትግርኛ བོད་ཡིག Türkmen Wikang Tagalog Setswana faka Tonga Türkçe Xitsonga تاتارچا‎ Twi Reo Tahiti ئۇيغۇرچە‎ українська اردو أۇزبېك‎ Tshivenḓa Tiếng Việt Volapük Walon Cymraeg Wollof Frysk isiXhosa ייִדיש Yorùbá Saɯ cueŋƅ
This website uses cookies. Cookies remember you so we can give you a better online experience.