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★ Science

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the Universe.

The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia around 3500 to 3000 BC. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy and medicine introduced in the form of natural philosophy of antiquity, according to which formal attempts to explain events in the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire knowledge of Greek view of the world has deteriorated in Western Europe in the first century, from 400 to 1000 CE the dark Ages, but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden age. The recovery and assimilation of the works of Greek and Islamic requests in Western Europe from the 10th to the 13th century revived "natural philosophy", which was later transformed scientific revolution, which began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries over Greek beliefs and traditions. Scientific method played a major role in the creation of knowledge and it was not until the 19th century that many of the organizational and professional opportunities science began to take shape along with the change of "natural philosophy" to "natural science".

Modern science is usually divided into three main branches, which consist of the natural Sciences, which study nature in a broad sense, the social Sciences, which study man and society, and the formal Sciences, which study the abstract concepts. There is disagreement, however, about whether formal science is actually a science because they are not based on empirical data. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, describes how applied science.

Science is based on studies that are generally conducted in academic and research institutions as well as government agencies and companies. The practical results of scientific research have led to the emergence of a scientific policy that seek to influence scientific activities by prioritizing the development of commercial products, weapons, health, and environmental protection.


1. History. (История)

Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science differs in its approach and successful in the results, so he now defines what science is in the strict sense of the word. Science in its original sense was the word of knowledge and not specialized word to achieve such knowledge. In particular, this type of knowledge which people can communicate with each other and share. For example, the knowledge of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thinking. This is shown the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works on a national scale, such as those harnessed in the floodplain of the Yangtze river with reservoirs, weirs, dams, and buildings such as the pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction between knowledge about things that are true in all communities, and other types of General knowledge such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, and culture of vinča was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys. It is believed that the early experiments with heating and mixing of substances over time turned into alchemy.


1.1. History. Early cultures. (Ранним культурам)

No words, no concepts "science" and "nature" are part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near East. In Ancient Mesopotamia used the knowledge about the properties of different natural chemicals for the manufacture of pottery, earthenware, glass, soap, metals, lime plaster, waterproofing, studied animal physiology, anatomy and behavior to predictions and made extensive recordings of the movements of astronomical objects to study astrology. Mesopotamy had a great interest in medicine and medical prescriptions first appear in the Sumerian period, third dynasty of Ur. S. 2112 BC – TS. 2004 BC. However, the Mesopotamians did not seem too interested in gathering information about the world for the sake of collecting information and basically only studied scientific subjects, which was evident practical application or directly related to their religious system.


1.2. History. Classical antiquity. (Классической древности)

In classical antiquity, there is no real ancient analogue of the modern scientist. Instead, well-educated, usually upper class, and nearly all the males carried out various studies in nature, when they could afford to waste time. Before the invention or discovery of the concept nature ancient Greek phusis by pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words usually used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worshipping a particular God. For this reason, he argued that these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also first people clearly distinguish between "nature" and "Convention". Natural philosophy, the predecessor of natural Sciences, was thus stands out as the knowledge of nature and things that are true for every community, and the name of the specialized achievements of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature artifice or technology, Greek technē was seen by classical scientists as the most suitable interest for craftsmen of a lower social class.

The early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, which was founded by Thales of Miletus and later continued by his followers Anaximander and Anaximenes, was the first attempt to explain natural phenomena without relying on the supernatural. The Pythagoreans developed a complex philosophy, and has made a significant contribution to the development of mathematical science. Theory of atoms developed by the Greek philosopher Leucippus and his pupil Democritus. The Greek physician Hippocrates established a tradition of systematic medical science and known as the "father of medicine".

A turning point in the history of early philosophical science was the Socrates example of the application of philosophy to the study of human issues, including human nature political communities human knowledge. The Socratic method as documented Platos dialogues is the dialectical method of eliminating the hypothesis of a better hypothesis is found steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. It was a reaction to the Sophist emphasis on rhetoric. Socratic method searches for General, commonly accepted truths that shape beliefs and considering them for their consistency with other beliefs. Socrates criticized the older type of academic physics as too purely speculative and lacking self-criticism. Socrates was later on, in the words of his apology, is accused of corrupting the youth of Athens because he "does not believe in the gods the state believes, but in other new spiritual beings". Socrates denied the allegations, but was sentenced to death.

Aristotle later created a systematic program of philosophy teleological: movement and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they. In his physics the Sun goes around the Earth, and a lot of it as part of their nature that they are. Each thing has a formal cause, final cause, and role in the cosmic order of unmoved mover. The time will be reduced also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider practical question best way live human study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy. Aristotle argued that man knows something scientifically" when he has a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the first principles on which rests this belief, as we know, it with confidence".

Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos 310-230 BC was the first who proposed the heliocentric model of the Universe with the Sun at center and planets revolving around it. Model Aristarchuss was widely rejected because it was considered that it violates the laws of physics. The inventor and mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse contributed to the beginning of the year and is sometimes considered to be its inventor, though his proto-calculus lacked several defining characteristics. Pliny the Elder-Roman writer and polymath who wrote the original encyclopedia of natural history geography, medicine, astronomy, earth science, botany and Zoology. Other scientists or proto-scientists in antiquity, Theophrastus, Euclid, Herophilos, Hipparchus, Ptolemy, and Galen.


1.3. History. Medieval science. (Средневековая наука)

Due to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in connection with the migration period was an intellectual decline in Western Europe in 400 E. on the Contrary, the Byzantine Empire survived from the attack of invaders, and preserved and improved training. John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar in the 500S, questioned Aristotles physics teaching and to note its shortcomings. John Philoponus criticism of Aristotles principles of physics has served as a source of inspiration for medieval scientists like Galileo Galilei, who, ten centuries later, during the scientific revolution, widely quoted by Philoponus in his works, making the case for why the physics of Aristotle was incorrect.

During late antiquity and the early middle Ages the Aristotelian approach to inquiries on natural phenomenon was used. Aristotles four causes have prescribed that have four "why" questions in order to explain scientifically. Was lost some ancient knowledge, or in some cases kept in obscurity, during the fall of the Western Roman Empire and periodic political struggles. However, the General fields of science or "natural philosophy" as it was called, and a lot of General knowledge from the ancient world preserved through the writings of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Seville. However, Aristotles original texts were ultimately lost in Western Europe, and only one text of Plato was known, Timaeus, which was only Platonic dialogue, and one of the few original works of classical natural philosophy available to Latin readers in the early middle Ages. Another original work which gained influence during this period was the Ptolemys "Almagest", which contains the geocentric description of the Solar system.

During late antiquity, in Byzantium, a Greek classical texts were preserved. A Syrian translation was made by groups such as Nestorians and Monophysites. They played their part when they translated classical Greek texts into Arabic under Caliphate, during which many types of classical learning were preserved and in some cases improved. In addition, the neighboring Sassanid created medical Academy of Gondeshapur where the Greek, Syrian and Persian doctors established the most important medical center of the ancient world in the 6th and 7th centuries.

The "house of Wisdom" was established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq, where the Islamic Aristotelian studies flourished. Al-Kindi 801-873 was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world. Islamic Golden age flourished from that time until the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen, like his predecessor Ibn Sahl was familiar with optics by Ptolemy and used in experiments as a means to gain knowledge. The theory of Alhazen refuted the Ptolemaic view, but not to make any appropriate changes to the metaphysics of Aristotle. In addition, doctors and alchemists, such as the Persian Avicenna and al-Razi also highly developed medicine with the former writing the Canon of medicine medical encyclopedia used until the 18th century, and the second is to open multiple connections, such as alcohol. Avicennas the Canon is one of the most important publications in the field of medicine and they both made a significant contribution to the practice of experimental medicine, through clinical trials and experiments on their claims.

In classical antiquity, Greek and Roman taboos means that the dissection was usually forbidden even in ancient times, but in the Middle ages it has changed: medical teachers and students in Bologna began to open human bodies, and Mondino de Luzzi S. 1275-1326 produced the first known anatomy textbook based on human dissection.

In the eleventh century, most of Europe adopted Christianity, became stronger monarchies, the border was restored, technological developments and agricultural innovations that have increased food supplies and population. In addition, the classic Greek texts were translated from Arabic and Greek into Latin, giving a higher level of scientific debate in Western Europe.

In 1088, the first University in Europe, University of Bologna arose from clerical started. The demand for Latin translations grew, for example, from the school of translators of Toledo, Western Europeans began collecting texts written not only in Latin, but also Latin translations from Greek, Arabic and Hebrew. Manuscripts Alhazens the book of optics also common throughout Europe until 1240, as evidenced by its inclusion in Vitellos perspective. Avicennas the Canon was translated into Latin. In particular, in the texts of Aristotle, Ptolemy and Euclid, preserved in the houses of wisdom, and also in the Byzantine Empire, sought amongst Catholic scholars. The influx of ancient texts called the Renaissance of the 12th century and flourishing the synthesis of Catholicism and is known as Aristotelian Scholasticism in Western Europe which had become new geographic center of science. Experiment during this period will be seen as a thorough process of observation, description and classification. One prominent scientist in this era was Roger bacon. Scholasticism had a strong emphasis on revelation and dialectic reasoning, and has gradually fallen out of favor in later centuries, as alchemys focus on experiments that include direct observation and careful documentation are gradually growing in importance.


1.4. History. Renaissance and early modern science. (Ренессанса и раннего современной науки)

New developments in optics have played a role in the early Renaissance as a complex long-standing metaphysical ideas on perception, and also contributes to the improvement and development of technologies such as the camera obscura and the telescope. Before we know as the revival began, Roger bacon, Vitello, and John Peckham each has created a scholastic ontology for causal chain beginning with sensation, perception, apperception, and, finally, individual and universal forms of Aristotle. Model vision later known as perspectivism was used and studied by artists of the Renaissance. This theory uses only three of Aristotles four causes: formal, material and final.

In the sixteenth century Nicolaus Copernicus developed the heliocentric model Solar system unlike geocentric model of the Ptolemaic Almagest. It was based on the theorem that the orbital periods of the planets as balls are farther away from the center of the movement, which he found not to agree with the Ptolemaic model.

Kepler and others have challenged the notion that the only function of the eye perception, and shifted the main focus in optics from the eye to the light propagation. Kepler was modeled eyes like a water-filled glass globe with a hole in the front for modeling the entrance pupil. He found that all the light from one point of the scene was painted at one point on the back of the glass sphere. The optical chain ends on the retina at the back of the eye. Kepler is most famous, however, for improving the heliocentric model of Copernicus through the discovery of Keplers laws of planetary motion. Kepler did not reject Aristotles metaphysics, and described their work as a search for harmony of the spheres.

Galileo made innovative use of experiment and mathematics. However, he became persecuted after Pope urban VIII blessed Galileo write about Copernican system. Galileo had used arguments from the Pope and put them in the voice of the simpleton in the work "dialogue concerning the two chief world systems", which greatly offended urban VIII.

In Northern Europe new technology printing press was widely used to publish many arguments including some that are widely at odds with modern ideas of nature. Rene Descartes and Francis bacon published philosophical arguments favor new type non-Aristotelian science. Descartes emphasized individual thought and argued that mathematics, and not geometry should be used in order to study the nature. Bacon emphasized importance experiment over contemplation. Bacon questioned the Aristotelian concepts of formal cause and final cause, and promoted the idea that science should study the laws of "simple" natures, such as heat, and not to assume that there is some kind of nature, or "formal cause", of each complex type of thing. This new science began to see itself as describing "laws of nature". This updated approach to studies in nature was seen as mechanistic. Bacon also argued that science should aim first time practical inventions for the improvement of all human life.


1.5. History. The Age Of Enlightenment. (Эпоха Просвещения)

As a precursor to the Enlightenment, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz succeeded in developing a New physics, now referred to as classical mechanics, which can be confirmed by experiment and explained using mathematics, Newton 1687, Philosophiæ Naturalis basics of Mathematica). Leibniz also incorporated terms from Aristotelian physics, but now used in a new, teleological way, for example, "energy" and "potential" in a modern interpretation of Aristotelian potentia and energeia ". This implies the change of appearance of objects: where Aristotle had said that objects have certain innate purpose that can be actualized, now objects was seen as devoid of inherent purpose. In the style of Francis bacon, Leibniz to assume that different types of things all work according same General laws of nature that do not have a formal and end goals for each type of thing. It was during this period that the word "science" gradually became more commonly used to describe the type of pursuit type knowledge, especially knowledge of nature – coming close in meaning to the concept of "natural philosophy".

During this time, the declared aims and values of science is the production of wealth and inventions that could improve peoples lives, in a materialistic sense, more food, clothes, and other things. In bacons words, "the real and legitimate goal of the Sciences is the endowment of human life with new inventions and riches," and he discouraged scientists from the disposal of intangible philosophical or spiritual ideas, which he considered little to contribute to human happiness for "fume subtle, sublime, or pleasing speculations."

Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development. Societies and academies were the backbone of the scientific maturation of the profession. Another important event was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population. Philosophers introduced the public to many scientific theories, especially through the Encyclopedie and the popularization of Newtonianism by Voltaire and Emilie du Chatelet, the French translator of Newton beginning.

Some historians have noted the 18th century as a boring period in the history of science, however, the Century saw considerable progress in the practice of medicine, mathematics and physics, the development of biological systematics, a new understanding of magnetism and electricity, and the establishment of chemistry As a discipline, which laid the foundations of modern chemistry.

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors-Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally – as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of nature and the natural rights of every physical and social field of the day. In this regard, the lessons of history and the social structures built on it, were discarded.


1.6. History. 19th century. (19 века)

XIX century-a particularly important period in the history of science, because in this period many of the distinctive features of modern science began to take shape such as: transformation the life and physical Sciences, frequent use of precision instruments, the appearance of terms such as "biologist", "physicist", "scientist", is slowly moving away from outdated labels like "natural philosophy" and "natural history", increase the professionalism of those who study nature, will reduce lovers, naturalists, scientists have cultural authority over many aspects of society, economic expansion and industrialization of many countries, thriving popular science writings and the emergence of scientific journals.

In the early 19th century John Dalton proposed the modern atomic theory based on Democrituss original idea individible particles called atoms.

John Herschel and William Whewell systematized methodology: the latter coined the term scientist. When Charles Darwin published his "origin of species", he created evolution as the prevailing explanation of biological complexity. His theory natural selection provided natural explanation how species occurs, but it only received wide acceptance a century later.

The laws of conservation of energy, conservation of momentum and conservation of mass show a very stable Universe, where there may be losses of resources. With the advent of the steam engine and the industrial revolution was, however, a greater understanding that all forms of energy as defined in physics is not as useful: they dont have the same quality of energy. This realization led to the formulation of laws of thermodynamics in which free energy is considered as the Universe is constantly decreasing: the entropy of a closed Universe increases with time.

Electromagnetic theory were also established in the 19th century, and raised several new questions that could not be answered using the framework of Newtons. Phenomena that would allow the destruction of the atom was discovered in the last decade of the 19th century: the discovery of X-rays inspired the discovery of radioactivity. Next year came the discovery of the first subatomic particle, the electron.


1.7. History. 20th century. (20-го века)

Einsteins theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics led to the replacement of classical mechanics with a new physics which contains two parts describe different types events nature.

In the first half of the century, development of antibiotics and artificial fertilizers made global population growth, perhaps. At the same time, the structure of the atom and its nucleus was discovered, leading to the release of "atomic energy" nuclear power. In addition, the widespread use of technological innovations is stimulated by the wars of this century led to a revolution in the transportation of cars and aircraft, the development of missiles, the space race and nuclear arms race.

The molecular structure of DNA was discovered in 1953. The discovery of CMB in 1964 led to the rejection of steady state theory of the Universe in favor of the Big Bang theory Georges Lemaitre.

The development of Astronautics in the second half of the century were first allowed astronomical measurements on or around other objects in space, including manned landing on the moon. Space telescopes lead to numerous discoveries in astronomy and cosmology.

Wide application of integrated circuits in the last quarter of the 20th century, in combination with communications satellites has led to a revolution in the field of information technology and the increasing use of the global Internet and mobile devices, including smartphones. The need for a participatory systematization of long, interwoven causal chains and large volumes of information has resulted in the theory of systems and computer science modeling that is based partly on the paradigm of Aristotle.

Came to the public during the same period, harmful environmental problems such as ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication and climate change, and caused the onset of environmental science and technology.


1.8. History. 21st century. (21-го века)

The project "human Genome" was completed in 2003, sequencing of base pairs of nucleotides that make up human DNA, and identifying and mapping all genes in the human genome. Induced pluripotent stem cells was developed in 2006, a technology that allows adult cells can turn into stem cells that can generate any cell type in the body, potentially of great importance for the field of regenerative medicine.

With the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the last particle predicted by the Standard model of particle physics was found. In 2015, gravitational waves, predicted by the General theory of relativity a century ago, was first discovered.


2. Branches of science. (Отраслей науки)

Modern science is commonly divided into three main branches, which consist of the natural Sciences, social Sciences, formal Sciences. Each of these industries includes a variety of specialized and overlapping of scientific disciplines that often have their own nomenclature and expertise. Both natural and social Sciences are empirical Sciences, and their knowledge is based on empirical observations and can be tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.

There are also related disciplines that use science, such as engineering and medicine, which are sometimes described as applied science. The relationship between the branches of science are summarized in the following table.


2.1. Branches of science. Science. (Наука)

A natural science concerned with the description prediction and understanding natural phenomena based on empirical observations and experiments. It can be divided into two main areas: life science or biological science and natural science. Physical science is divided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science. These two branches can be divided into more specialized disciplines. Modern science is the successor to the natural philosophy that began in Ancient Greece. Galileo, Descartes, bacon, Newton, and discusses the benefits of using approaches that were more mathematical and experimental science. Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures, and assumptions, often overlooked, is still necessary in the natural Sciences. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, managed natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, animals, minerals, and so on. Today, "Natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences.


2.2. Branches of science. Social Sciences. (Социальных Наук)

Social science is for society and relations between people in society. It has many branches that include, but are not limited to, anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, Economics, history, human geography, law, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health and sociology. Sociologists can adopt various philosophical theories the study of personality and society. For example, positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural Sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation, not the construction of empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies, for example, by combining quantitative and qualitative research. The term "social studies" also received a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.


2.3. Branches of science. Formal science. (Формальные науки)

Formal science dealing with the study of formal systems. It includes mathematics, systems theory and theoretical computer science. Formal Sciences have a lot in common with the other two branches, based on objective, thorough and systematic study of any field of knowledge. They, however, unlike the empirical Sciences, as they rely solely on deduction, no empirical evidence to confirm their abstract concepts. Therefore, the formal Sciences are a priori disciplines, and because of this, there is disagreement about whether they actually represent science. However, formal Sciences play an important role in the empirical Sciences. Calculus, for example, was originally invented to understand motion in physics. The natural and social Sciences, which are based on mathematical applications: mathematical physics, mathematical chemistry, mathematical biology, financial mathematics and mathematical Economics.


3. Research. (Исследования)

Research can be defined as basic or applied research. Basic research is the search for knowledge and applied research is the search for solutions to practical problems using this knowledge. Although some scientific research applied research specific problems, many online our understanding comes from curiosity driven, fundamental research. This leads to opportunities for technological progress that were not planned or sometimes even imaginable. This item was made by Michael Faraday when, allegedly in response to the question "what good is basic research?" he said, "Sir, what use is a newborn baby?". For example, a study on the effect of red light on the human eye sticks did not seem to have any practical purpose, in the end, the discovery that our night vision is not troubled red light would lead search rescue teams among others to adopt red light in the cockpits of airplanes and helicopters. Finally, even basic research can take unexpected turns, and there is some sense that the scientific method is built to harness luck.


3.1. Research. The scientific method. (Научный метод)

A scientific study involves the use of the scientific method, which strives to explain the phenomena of nature to reproduce. An explanatory thought experiment or hypothesis is put forward, as explanation, using principles such as parsimony, also known as "Occams razor" and, as a rule, it is expected to look for the coincidence – well with other accepted facts related to the phenomena. This new explanation is used to make falsifiable predictions that we can test by experiment or observation. Predictions must be posted before you look for a confirming experiment or observation, as proof that there is no damage. The refutation of a prediction is evidence of progress. This is done partly through observation of natural phenomena but also through experimentation that tries to simulate natural phenomena under controlled conditions depending on the discipline. Experimentation is especially important in science to help establish causal relationships in order to avoid erroneous correlations.

If the hypothesis proves unsatisfactory, it is either modified or discarded. If the hypothesis survived testing, it may become adopted into the framework of scientific theory, logical, self-consistent model or framework for describing the behavior of certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes behavior much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis, as a rule, a large number of hypotheses may be logically bound by a single theory. Thus, a theory is a hypothesis explaining various other hypotheses. In this regard, theories are formulated in accordance with the same scientific principles as hypotheses. In addition to testing hypotheses, scientists can create a model that attempt to describe or depict the phenomenon in terms of logical, physical and mathematical concepts and to generate new hypotheses that can be tested based on observable phenomena.

While conducting experiments to test hypotheses, scientists might have a preference for one outcome over another, and it is therefore important to ensure that science as a whole can eliminate this bias. This can be achieved by careful experimental design, transparency, and rigorous process for independent evaluation of the experimental results and any conclusions. After the results of the experiment will be announced and published, it is normal practice for independent researchers to double-check how the research was conducted, and followed by performing similar experiments to determine how dependable the results might be. In General, the scientific method allows highly creative problem solving while minimizing the influence of the subjective approach on the part of its users, especially confirmation bias.


3.2. Research. Verifiability. (Проверяемость)

John Ziman notes that intersubjective verifiability is fundamental for the creation of all scientific knowledge. Ziman shows how scientists can identify patterns to each other through the centuries, he refers to this ability as "consensibility of perception". He then makes consensibility leading to the consensus criterion of reliable knowledge.


3.3. Research. Philosophy of science. (Философия науки)

Scientists usually take granted set basic assumptions needed to justify the scientific method: 1 that there is an objective reality shared all rational observers 2 that this objective reality is determined by natural laws, 3 that these laws can be discovered through systematic observations and experiments. Philosophy of science seeks a deep understanding of what these assumptions mean and whether they are valid.

The belief that scientific theories should and do represent metaphysical reality is called realism. This can be compared to anti-realism, believes that the success of science does not depend on its accuracy about unobservable entities such as electrons. One form of anti-realism is idealism, the belief that mind or consciousness is the essence, and that each mind generates its own reality. In an idealistic world, what is true for one mind need not, it is true for other minds.

There are different schools of thought in philosophy of science. The most popular position empiricism which believes that knowledge created process involving observation scientific theories are the result of generalizations from such observations. Empiricism generally encompasses inductivism, which tries to explain how General theories can justified finite number observations humans can make hence finite amount of empirical evidence to substantiate scientific theories. This is necessary because some of the predictions those theories make is infinite, which means that they cannot be known from finite amount evidence using deductive logic only. Many versions of empiricism exist, with the predominant of which Bayesianism and hypothetico-deductive method.

Empiricism and stood in contrast to rationalism, the position originally associated with Descartes, which believes that knowledge is created by human intellect, not observation. Critical rationalism is a contrasting 20th-century approach to science, first defined by Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper. Popper rejected the way that empiricism describes connection between theory and observation. He claimed that theories are not generated by observation, but the observation was made in the light of theories and that the only way in theory can be affected by observation is when it comes in conflict with it. Popper proposed replacing verifiability falsifiability as the landmark of scientific theories, and replacing induction with falsification as the empirical method. Popper also argues that there is only one universal method, not specific to science: the negative method of criticism, trial and error. It covers all products of the human mind, including science, mathematics, philosophy and art.

Another approach, instrumentalism, colloquially called "shut up and multiply" - emphasizes the utility of theories as instruments for explaining and predicting phenomena. He views scientific theories as black boxes with only their input initial conditions output predictions being relevant. Consequences, theoretical entities and the logical structure of a claim that should simply be ignored and that scientists shouldnt make a fuss about see interpretations quantum mechanics. Close to instrumentalism is the constructive empiricism, according to which the main criterion of success of a scientific theory is what it says about the observed associations-that is true.

Thomas Kuhn argued that the process of observation and evaluation occurs within the paradigm, a logically consistent "portrait" of the world, which is consistent with observations made on its frame. He characterized normal science as a process of observation and the "puzzle", which takes place within the paradigm, while revolutionary science occurs when one overtakes the other paradigm to paradigm. Each paradigm has its own unique issues, goals and interpretation. The choice between paradigms involves setting two or more "portraits" against the world and deciding which likeness is most promising. A paradigm shift occurs when a significant number of observational anomalies in the old paradigm and the new paradigm makes sense of them. That is, the choice of the new paradigm is based on observations, although these observations are made on the background of the old paradigm. For Kuhn, the acceptance or rejection of a paradigm is a social process as a natural process. Position Kuhns, however, is not one of relativism.

Finally, another approach often cited in debates of scientific skepticism against controversial movements like "creation science" methodological naturalism. Its essence lies in the fact that the difference between natural and supernatural explanations should be made and that science should be restricted methodologically to natural explanations. That limitation is only methodological rather than ontological means science should consider supernatural explanations itself, but should not require as. Instead, supernatural explanations should be left a subject of personal belief outside the scope of science. Methodological naturalism maintains that proper science requires strict adherence to empirical study and independent verification as a process for normally developing and evaluating explanations for observable phenomena. The absence of these standards, arguments from authority, biased observational studies and other common fallacies are frequently cited by supporters of methodological naturalism as characteristic for the non-science they criticize.


3.4. Research. Certainty and science. (Определенность и науки)

A scientific theory is empirical and always open to falsification if new evidence is presented. That is, no theory is strictly certain as science accepts the concept of fallibilism. Philosopher of science Karl Popper sharply to distinguish truth from certainty. He wrote that scientific knowledge "consists in the search for truth," it "dont look for certainty. All human knowledge is fallible and therefore uncertain.

New scientific knowledge rarely results in vast changes in our understanding. According to psychologist Kate Stanovich, it can be the abuse of the media of such words as "breakthrough" that leads the public to imagine that science is constantly proving everything it thought was true to be false. While there are such famous cases as the theory of relativity, which require a complete reinvention, this is an extreme exception. Knowledge in science is achieved by a gradual synthesis information from different experiments various researchers in different branches of science, its more like a climb than a leap. Theories vary in the extent to which they have been tested and verified, as well as their recognition in the scientific community. For example, heliocentric theory, evolution theory, relativity theory, and germ theory still bear the name "theory", although, in practice, they are considered reliable. Philosopher Barry Stroud adds that, although the best definition for "knowledge" is controversial, skepticism and the assumption of the possibility that one is incorrect is compatible with the right. Thus, scholars adhering to proper scientific approaches will doubt themselves even once they possess the truth. In the fallibilist C. S. pierce claimed that inquiry is the struggle to eliminate doubt and just quarrelsome, verbal, or hyperbolic doubt is fruitless – but also that the researcher must strive for genuine doubt, not resting uncritically on common sense. He believed that the successful Sciences trust, not to any single chain inference stronger than its weakest link, but with the cable are many and varied arguments are closely related.

Stanovich also asserts that science avoids searching the "magic bullet", it avoids the single-cause fallacy. This means that a scientist would not ask simply "why"., and "what are the most important reasons.". This is especially true in the more macroscopic fields of science, e.g., psychology, physical cosmology. Research often analyzes few factors at the same time, but they are always added to the long list of factors that are most important to consider. For example knowing details only persons genetics, or their history and upbringing, and current situation may not explain a behaviour, but a deep understanding of all these variables combined can be very predictable.


3.5. Research. Scientific literature. (Научная литература)

Research published in a huge range of scientific literature. Scientific journals communicate and document the results of research conducted in universities and other research institutions, serving as an archival record of science. The first scientific journals, journal Des Sçavans followed by the philosophical transactions, began publication in 1665. Since that time total number active periodicals has steadily increased. In 1981, one estimate for the number of scientific and technical journals in publication 11.500. National library of U.S. medicine currently indexes 5.516 magazines containing articles on topics related to life Sciences. Although journals 39 languages 91 percent indexed articles published English.

Most scientific journals cover a single scientific direction and publication of researches in this field, research is usually expressed in the form of a scientific report. Science has become so pervasive in modern society that it is considered necessary to communicate the achievements, news, and ambitions of scientists to a wider public.

Scientific journals such as new scientist, Science & Vie, and science to meet the needs of a much wider audience and provide a non-technical summary popular areas research including notable discoveries and advances in certain fields of research. Science books engage the interests of many people. Tangentially, the science fiction genre, primarily fantastic in nature, draws attention and transmits the ideas, if not the methods, of science.

Recent efforts to enhance and develop ties between science and non-science disciplines, such as literature or, more specifically, poetry, include the creative writing science resource developed through the Royal literary Fund.


3.6. Research. Practical implications. (Практические последствия)

Discoveries in fundamental science can change the world. For example:


3.7. Research. The crisis of replication. (Кризис репликации)

Replication crisis continues methodological crisis primarily affects the social and natural Sciences, in which researchers found that the results of many research studies difficult or impossible to repeat or reproduce in the subsequent investigation, either by independent researchers or the original researchers themselves. The crisis has deep roots, the phrase was coined in the early 2010s as part of growing awareness about the problem. The crisis of replication is an important part of research in metascience, which is aimed at improving the quality of research while reducing waste.


3.8. Research. Fringe science, pseudoscience, and pseudoscience. (Пограничная наука, псевдонаука и лженаука)

The area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would otherwise not be able to achieve sometimes referred pseudoscience fringe science or pseudoscience. Physicist Richard Feynman coined the term "cargo cult science" for cases in which researchers believe they are doing science because their activities have the appearance of science, but actually lacking the "kind of utter honesty" that allows their results that must be carefully evaluated. Various types commercial advertising ranging from advertising to fraud, may fall into these categories. Science is described as "an important tool" for separating valid claims from invalid.

There may also be an element of political or ideological bias on all sides of the scientific debate. Sometimes research may be characterized as "bad science" research that may be of good intentions, but actually incorrect, outdated, incomplete or simplified expositions of scientific ideas. The term "scientific misconduct" refers to situations when, for example, researchers have intentionally misrepresented their published information, or intentionally give credit to the opening to that person.


4.1. The scientific community. Scientists. (Ученые)

Scientists are people who conduct research to advance knowledge in the area of interest. The term scientist was coined by William Whewell in 1833. In modern times, many professional scientists are trained at the University and at the end, to a degree, with a high degree of being a doctor, such as doctor of philosophy, PhD, doctor of medicine or doctor of technical Sciences Dan. Many scientists professions in various industries, such as academia, industry, government and non-profit organizations.

Scientists show a strong curiosity about reality, with some scientists having a desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of the nations health, environment and industry. Other motives include recognition from peers and prestige. The Nobel prize, is widely considered a prestigious award, given annually to those who have made scientific achievements in medicine, physics, chemistry and Economics.


4.2. The scientific community. Women in science. (Женщины в науке)

Science is historically a male dominated field, with some notable exceptions. Women face considerable discrimination in science, just as in other areas of the society dominated by men, for example, often runs jobs and denied credit for their work. For example, Christine Ladd 1847-1930 was able to attend graduate school as a "C. Ladd" Christine "kitty" Ladd completed the requirements in 1882, but was awarded her degree only in 1926, after a career that spanned the algebra of logic, see the truth table, color vision, and psychology. Her work is preceded by well-known scientists like Ludwig Wittgenstein and Charles Sanders pierce. Womens achievements in science have been attributed to their defiance of their traditional role as laborers in the domestic sphere.

In the late 20th century, the involvement of women and elimination of institutional discrimination on the basis of sex greatly increased the number of female scientists, but large gender disparities remain in some areas, at the beginning of the 21st century over half of new biologists were women, while 80% of candidates and doctors of Sciences in physics are given to men. At the beginning of the 21st century, women in the United States earn 50.3% of the bachelors, 45.6% of masters degree, and 40.7% of PhDs in science and technology. They have earned more than half a degree in psychology about 70%, social Sciences 50%, biology-about 50-60%, but earned less than half a degree in the physical Sciences, earth Sciences, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The lifestyle choices also play an important role in womens involvement in science, women with young children 28% are less likely to take tenure-track positions due to work and personal life issues, and female graduate students interest in research activities, dramatically decreases within the graduate school, while their male counterparts remain unchanged.


4.3. The scientific community. Scientific societies. (Научных обществ)

Scientific society for communication and promotion of scientific thought and experimentation have existed since the Renaissance. Many scientists belong to an educated society that contributes to their academic discipline, profession, or group of related disciplines. Membership can be open to all, may require possession of some scientific data, or may be honor received as a result of elections. Most scientific societies are non-profit organizations, and many professional associations. Their activities typically include holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or of authors of scientific journals in his field. Some also act as professional bodies, regulating the activities of its members in the public interest or the collective interests of the membership. Scientists in the field of sociology of science argue that scientific societies are of key importance and their formation contributes to the emergence and development of new disciplines or professions.

Professionalization of science, begun in the 19th century, was partly enabled the creation of outstanding Academy of Sciences in several countries, such as the Italian Accademia dei Lincei in 1603, the British Royal society in 1660 the French of the académie DES Sciences in 1666, the Us National Academy of Sciences in 1863, the German Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in 1911, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1928. International scientific organizations such as the international Council for science, was formed to facilitate cooperation between the scientific communities of different countries.


5.1. Science and the public. Science policy. (Наука политики)

Science policy-government policy, linked to policies that affect the conduct of scientific activities, including research funding, often in accordance with other national policy objectives such as technological innovation to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care and environmental monitoring. Science policy also refers act applying scientific knowledge and consensus in the development of public policy. Thus, scientific policy for the entire domain of problems related to the natural Sciences. In accordance with state policy, caring about the welfare of its citizens, science policy objective is to consider how science and technology can best serve the public.

State policy has influenced funding public works and science for thousands of years, especially in a civilization with highly organized governments, such as Imperial China and the Roman Empire. Famous historical examples: the Great wall of China over two millennia for state support of several dynasties, the Grand canal of the Yangtze river, a huge feat of hydraulic engineering began to Sunshu AO 孫叔敖 7th century. BC and Ximen Bao 西門豹 the 5th Century BC, Chi 4th century. BC. This building dates back to the 6th century BC, during the sui dynasty and is still used today. In China, with government support, infrastructure and research projects, at least from the time Mohists who inspired Study logic during the period of the hundred schools of thought and the study of defensive fortifications like the great wall of China during the period of Warring States.

Public policy can directly affect funding capital equipment intellectual infrastructure industrial research providing tax incentives those organizations Fund research. Vannevar Bush, the Director of the office of research and development United States government forerunner National science Foundation wrote July 1945 that "science is a proper concern of government."


5.2. Science and the public. The funding of science. (Финансирование науки)

Scientific research often funded through competitive process which potential research projects evaluated only most promising receive funding. Such processes, which are run by government corporations or foundations allocate scarce funds. The amount of research funding in most developed countries is between 1.5% to 3% of GDP. In the OECD around two thirds research and development in scientific and technical sphere is carried out in the field, and 20% and 10% respectively by universities and government. The government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social Sciences and Humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions, such as biotechnology government provides bulk funds for basic scientific research. The governments of many countries have special institutions to support scientific research. Known scientific organizations as the national science Foundation and the US national scientific and technical research Council in Argentina, the Commonwealth scientific and industrial research organization CSIRO in Australia, centre national Scientifique in France, max Planck Society and the German research community in Germany, carbon-ceramic in Spain. In commercial research and development, all but the most research corporations focus more heavily on short-term opportunities for commercialization, but not "blue" ideas or technologies, such as nuclear fusion.


5.3. Science and the public. Public awareness of science. (Осведомленности общественности о науке)

Public understanding of science relates to ideology, behavior, opinions and actions that define the relationship between science and the General public. it brings together different themes and activities such as science communication, science museums, science festivals, science fairs, citizen science, and science in popular culture. Social scientists have developed various metrics for measuring public understanding of science, such as factual knowledge, self-knowledge and structural knowledge.


5.4. Science and the public. Scientific journalism. (Научная журналистика)

The media are faced with several factors that can prevent them an accurate description of the competing scientific claims in terms of their credibility in the scientific community as a whole. To determine how much weight to give different sides in a scientific debate may require considerable expertise on the issue. Few journalists have real scientific knowledge, and even journalists who know a great deal about certain scientific issues may be ignorant about other scientific issues that they are suddenly asked to cover.


5.5. Science and the public. The politicization of science. (Политизация науки)

The politicization of science occurs when government, business, or advocacy groups use legal or economic pressure to influence the results of the research or the method of their distribution, reported, or interpreted. Many factors can act as aspects of the politicization of science, such as populist anti-intellectualism, the perceived threat to religious beliefs, postmodern subjectivity, and fear for business interests. The politicization of science is usually made when scientific information is presented in such a way that emphasizes the uncertainty associated with scientific data. Such techniques as changing the conversation, not confirmed facts, but based on the doubt the scientific consensus was used to get more attention for views that have been undermined by scientific evidence. Examples of issues that have been associated with the politicization of science, are disputes global warming, health effects of pesticides and the health consequences of tobacco use.

Encyclopedic dictionary