★ Cinema of Croatia
The cinema of Croatia has a somewhat shorter than what is common for other Central European countries: the serious beginning of Croatian cinema starts with the rise of the Yugoslavian film industry in the 1940-ies. Three Croatian feature films were nominated for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film, some of them have received awards at major festivals, and on the Croatian contribution to the field of animation, this is especially important.
1.1. History. The second world war. (Второй мировой войны)
Cinema of Croatia became the Institute after the establishment of the independent state of Croatia NDH in 1941. New Ustase regime quickly realized the need for modern propaganda tools, on the model of Nazi Germany and fascist Italy. After serious lobbying by the two countries in technical assistance and resources, in the first propaganda films was made in late 1941. Croatian film Directors like Branko Marjanovic, produced in 1943 documentary rhinestone on Drini, which later won the award "Golden lion" at the Venice film festival, part of the axis. After the collapse of the NDH in 1945, Titus defeat the Communists also recognized the importance of the film industry and decided to build our own. Many experts and colleagues from Ustase propaganda cinema during the war were really double agents working for the partisan part, with one main task: to maintain technical capabilities intact after the collapse of the NDH. Thus, the new regime inherited the technical equipment, and, more importantly, trained staff, including Directors and senior officials. the Result of this policy was the rapid development of the Croatian film industry, although initially under the jurisdiction of the Federal government in Belgrade.
1.2. History. The beginning of the Communist period. (Начала коммунистического периода)
In 1947, the Jadran film Studio was founded in Zagreb.
1.3. History. First Golden era: late 1950-ies. (Первая золотая эра: в конце 1950-х годов)
The Croatian feature films since the 1950s was not easily distinguishable from the rest of Yugoslavia, mostly because of the free exchange of resources, information and talent among various regions of the country. It was his first major peak in the late 1950-ies, when the Croatian film was perhaps the most Mature in then young Yugoslav industry film. The most important author of the era was Branko Bauer, Dubrovnik-born Director whose most famous film is urban war Thriller dont turn around son. Based on the Carol Reed film the Third wheel, he describes the fate of the fugitive from ustasha camp who comes to Zagreb to find his son, then realizing that the child is in boarding school Ustase, and completely brainwashed. Hero tries to leave Zagreb with his son, as to deceive the son the whole way about the purpose of their trip. Among other important Bauer movies Three Anet of three Annas, 1959, produced in Macedonia, about the father who learns that his daughter, whom he presumably was killed in the war, would be alive and an adult. Bowers film Licem U lice face to face, 1962, tells the story about corrupted Director of the construction company who confronts the rebel worker at a meeting of the Communist party cell. He is the first openly political film in Yugoslavia. Another notable 1950s years figure Nikola Tanhofer, a former cameraman and an expert on the different genres of action. His most famous film H8 1958, the reconstruction of real accidents, which killed several passengers in a Greyhound bus between Zagreb and Belgrade, and in which the driver of the car who caused the accident escaped. In parallel, following the three cars and dozens of picturesque scenes, H8 offers a mosaic picture of the society of the late 1950-ies, and its drama reminds non - existent - genre of the disaster movie. During this period there were two Croatian films of the nominees for the Oscar for foreign language film. Both of them were aimed at the guests from abroad: Italy Giuseppe De Santis, the second arc Godina Dana road year-round, 1958, and Slovenian France Stiglic Deveti Krug - the ninth circle, 1960.
1.4. History. Modernism. (Модернизм)
In 1960s, Croatian cinema has seen a change in style, partly because of the Directors, embracing modernism. The first modernist film was Prometej with otoka Visevice Prometheus from the island Visevica, 1965 a former cartoonist for them. vatroslav Mimica. Using techniques derived from the stream of consciousness novel, Mimica tells about the partisan veteran and Communist leader, who travels to his native island and is faced with the ghosts of post-war past. Among other well-known modernist classics, the most significant are Rondo 1965 Zvonimir Berkovic, and Breza Birch, 1967, Ante babaja. The most popular author of the era was Kreso Golik, Director of comedies. The most popular of his films was TKO pjeva zlo not misli who sings does not mean incorrect, 1970, a romantic Comedy set in 1930s Zagreb. Croatia also participated in the pan-Yugoslav "black wave", although the best authors and movies of the black wave was Serbian. Most famous black wave classic from Croatia-booking handcuffs, 1969, Krsto Papic, the film is politically relevant, because the Croatian first cultural product which dealt with a hushed secret of Yugoslav communism: repression against Communists who stood by Stalin in famous breakup between Tito and Stalin in 1948.
In 1969 film Battle on the Neretva directed by Veljko Bulajic was one of the most expensive foreign language movies shot in Yugoslavia.
In the early 1970-ies, after the Yugoslav constitutional changes, Croatia gained more autonomy in shaping its culture. This, oddly enough, is not to improve the Croatian film industry. After the collapse of the Croatian Spring, Croatian Communist authorities in 1970-e years has pushed for tighter control over films. The total Croatian films shrank.
1.5. History. The Prague School and genre cinema. (Пражская Школа и жанр кино)
Came fresh air for Yugoslav cinema in the late 1970s and early 1980-ies with the so-called Prague school, a group of authors educated at the famous Prague Academy FAMU. Amongst five Directors usually assumed Prague school, two came from Croatia: Lordan Zafranovic and Rajko Grlic. Most Grlics famous film You only love once samo jednom SE and Ljubi, 1981, political melodrama, which discusses the moral decay of the leadership of the Communist establishment in the late 1940-ies. This film was in Cannes competition. The most famous lordan Zafranovics films Okupacija U 26 slika occupation in 26 pictures and pad Italije the fall of Italy, they are both war movies located in the coastal region of Dalmatia, and as shown in the Cannes film festival.
An interesting phenomenon of the 1980s, years Croatian cinema is so-called "Neo-genre" construction from Directors who used the Western commercial genres such as horror, Thriller, detective, or a movie and realized it in the end-Communist attitudes of society. The most famous author of that trend is Zoran tadić, especially with its metaphysical, black-and-white Thriller Ritam zlocina the rhythm of crime, 1981, and the horror movie treci the key of the third key, 1983, which discusses the problem of corruption through Kafkaesque metaphor.
1.6. History. 1990s years: the period of crisis. (1990-е годы: период кризиса)
When Croatia became independent in the 1990s, Croatian film has experienced a severe crisis. Because of wars, the market for Croatian films shrank, most of the theatres disappeared for good and not Croatian films could expect to be financially viable, even a lot of support from the state. During the rule of Franjo Tudjman, the government has avoided censorship, but demanded more nationalist content, making it less accessible not only to audiences in other countries, but in Croatia.
1.7. History. Croatian Film Today: Third Golden Era. (Сегодня Хорватский Фильм: Третий Золотой Эры)
After the political changes in 2000, Croatian cinema has proven that it can operate in a fully free environment for the first time. As a result, in the beginning of this decade Croatian cinema flourishes again, and many critics write about "third Golden era" after the 1950-ies and 1960-ies. One of the most popular authors in the contemporary Croatian cinema is Vinko Bresan, whose comedies Kako je j poceo rat mom otoku how the war started on my island, 1997, and Marsal Marshal titos spirit, 1999 mix grotesque humor and political provocation. Bresans war drama Svjedoci Witnesses, based on the novel by Jurica Pavicic was the first feature film from the countries of former Yugoslavia, which discussed the war crimes committed by "our guys", and not the enemy. The film was shown in competition at the Berlin film festival in 2003. A wonderful night in split TA Divna Splitska NOC, in 2004 Arsen A. Ostojic received a nomination for the award European discovery EFA, and that now, in 2003, Zrinko Ogresta was awarded at the festival in Karlovy vary film. Among other prominent modern film Directors, the most recognized is the fire Svilicic, whose two films took place at the Berlin film festival for Oprosti kung fu sorry for kung fu 2004 and 2006 Armin. Armin also represent Croatia for the Oscars in 2008, and although he didnt deserve a nomination in the category Best foreign language film, it is, nevertheless, receive the prestigious Best foreign film award 2007, issued by the International Federation of film critics.
Croatian cinema produces between five and ten feature films per year. The Ministry of culture also contribute to approximately 60 minutes of animation per year, plus documentaries and experimental films, which have a bigger cultural prestige in Croatia then in other countries of the former Yugoslavia. National cinema attendances on average by 2.7 million tickets bought by a population of about 4.5 million.
1.8. History. Animation. (Анимация)
The history of animation in Croatia begins with two short animated commercials by Sergei Tagatz in 1922 in the "Jadran film". This was followed by animations produced Dom narodnog zdravlja, such as Ivin Zub IVOS tooth, car nose Kittys nose, all of which were aimed at Milan Marijanovic and drawn by Peter Papp in 1928. In 1929, the first fully animated short was "Martin u nebo, Martin iz neba".
1.9. History. Zagreb School. (Загребская Школа)
Zagreb also stood out with its own animation film school, zagrebačka school crtanog filma Zagreb cartoon school. He received this name at the Cannes film festival in 1959, when it was surveyed eight of Zagreb cartoons, and the French film historian Georges download the film for the first time called school lecole De Zagreb. The school was founded on the production company Zagreb film, known for its symbol - the horse. The most visible member of the school, which was never a school in a proper educational sense was Montenegro-born author dušan vukotić, winner of the 1963 Oscar for animated short surogat. He was the first non-American to win the Oscar for animated film. Other important members of them. vatroslav Mimica later feature film Director, and Vlado kristl, who left in the early 1960-ies in Croatia, after the prohibition of his avant-garde, experimental cartoon don Quixote don Quixote. Zagreb school was revolutionary for the animations of the 1950s years, because it abandoned the Disney-like cartoon style, and introduced visual elements of avant-garde abstract painting, constructivism and cubism. The failure of the school was that he never experimented with other methods of animation than the cartoons. In addition, he never reached the level of the relevant industry, the rest are more like art studios. Zagreb school actively and successfully during the 1960s and early 1970-ies, but after that Croatian animation faded and today he has a global role as before.
2. The Croats in world cinema. (Хорваты в мировом кинематографе)
Many Croats were involved in world cinema. Famous actor rade Sherbedgia Serbedzija was born in Croatia. Actor in a leading role in the TV series ER, Goran visnjic is a Croatian and two-time winner of the Academy awards, producer Branko Lustig and actress Mira Furlan, best known for her role in Babylon 5 and the TV series Lost. In addition, John Malkovich, and a native of Australia Eric Bana Croatian origin.
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- Database Croatian Cinema Database at hrfilm.hr in Croatian List of Croatian feature films 1944 2006 kept at the Croatian National Archive in Croatian FILMOGRAFIJA
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- minister of Croatia Croatian Premijer Premijerka Hrvatske officially the president of the Government of the Republic of Croatia Croatian Predsjednik
- Constitution of the Republic of Croatia Croatian Ustav Republike Hrvatske is promulgated by the Croatian Parliament. While it was part of the socialist
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- The Government of Croatia Croatian Vlada Hrvatske formally the Government of the Republic of Croatia Croatian Vlada Republike Hrvatske commonly
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- president of Croatia Croatian Predsjednik Hrvatske officially styled President of the Republic Croatian Predsjednik Republike is the head of state
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- Kingdom of Croatia Croatian Kraljevina Hrvatska Latin: Regnum Croatiae Hungarian: Horvat Kiralysag German: Konigreich Kroatien was part of the Habsburg
- Duchy of Croatia Croatian Knezevina Hrvatska also Duchy of the Croats Knezevina Hrvata Dalmatian Croatia Dalmatinska Hrvatska Littoral Croatia Primorska
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- The Serbs of Croatia Serbo - Croatian Срби у Хрватској Srbi u Hrvatskoj or Croatian Serbs Serbo - Croatian хрватски Срби hrvatski Srbi constitute
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- The coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia Croatian Grb Republike Hrvatske consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown
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