★ Caernarfon Castle
The Caernarfon castle – often anglicised as Caernarfon castle or Caernarfon castle is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, North West Wales caring for Cadw, Welsh governments historic environment service. He was a Motte-and-Bailey castle of the late 11th century until 1283, when king Edward I of England began to replace its current stone structure. This modern town and castle acted as the administrative centre of North Wales, and as a result fortifications were built on a Grand scale. There was a conscious connection with Caernarfons Rome, and the Roman Fort of Segontium nearby.
While the castle was built, the city walls were built around the city. The work cost between £20.000 and 25.000 from the start until the job ended in 1330. Although the castle seems to be almost completely outside, the interior buildings no longer survive and many of the building plans was not finished. The town and castle were sacked in 1294 when Madoka AP Llywelyn led a revolt against the British. Carnarvon was recaptured the following year. During the Christian growth of 1400-1415, the castle was besieged. When the Tudor dynasty ascended to the English throne in 1485, tensions between the Welsh and English began to diminish and castles are considered less important. As a result, Caernarfon castle was allowed to fall into poor condition. Despite its dilapidated condition, during the English Civil war Caernarfon castle was held by the royalists, and was besieged three times by the parliamentary forces. It was the last time the castle was used in war. The castle was forgotten until the 19th century when the state funded repairs. The castle was used for the investiture of the Prince of Wales in 1911 and again in 1969. It is part of the UNESCO world heritage site "castles and town walls of king Edward in Gwynedd".
1. Background. (Фон)
The first fortifications at Caernarfon were built by the Romans. Their Fort, which they named Segontium, on the outskirts of the modern city. The Fort sat on the banks of the river seiont, the Fort was probably built for shelter because it can be served over the Internet in seiont river. Carnarvon got its name from the Roman fortifications. In Welsh, the place was called g lenica Gaer from Caer manifestations during the ouya, which means "fortress in the land against Mon", Mon is the Welsh name of Anglesey. Little is known about the fate of Segontium and the associated civilian settlement after the Romans departed from Britain in the early 5th century.
2. Early castle. (Ранний замок)
After the Norman conquest of England, William the Conqueror turned his attention to Wales. According to the "Domesday Book" an overview of 1086, the Norman Robert can nominally in command of all of North Wales. He was killed by the Welsh in 1088. His cousin Hugh dAvranches, Earl of Chester, rebuilt the Norman control of North Wales by building three castles: one at an unknown location somewhere in Merionethshire, one at Aberlleiniog on Anglesey, and another at Caernarfon. This early castle was built on a Peninsula, bordering in the river seiont and the Menai Strait, he was a Motte and Bailey, defended by a wooden palisade and earthworks. On the mote, or mound, was integrated into the style of a castle, but the location of the original Bailey is difficult, although it may have been in the North-East of the Motte. Excavations on the top of the hill Motte in 1969, revealed no trace of medieval occupation, suggesting that any evidence was removed. It is likely that the ILO was crowned with a wooden tower known as a keep. The Welsh recaptured Gwynedd in 1115, and Caernarfon castle came into the possession of the Welsh princes. From contemporary documents written at the castle, it is known that Llywelyn the great and later Llywelyn AP Griffith sometimes stayed in Carnarvon.
3. The castle is Edwardian. (Замок в эдвардианском стиле)
Once again war broke out between England and Wales on 22 March 1282. The Welsh leader, Llywelyn AP of Gruffudd, died in the same year on December 11. His brother Dafydd AP Gruffydd continued to fight against the English, but in 1283 Edward I was victorious. Edward marched through Northern Wales, capturing castles such as at dolwyddelan, and establishing his own at Conwy. The war finally ended in may 1283 when Dolbadarn castle, Dafydd AP, Gruffudds last castle was captured. Soon Edward began building castles at Harlech and Caernarfon. The castle of Caernarfon, Conwy and Harlech were the most impressive of their time in Wales, and their construction - along with other Edwardian castles in the country - helped establish English rule. The master Mason responsible for the design and construction of the castle was probably James of Saint George, an experienced architect and military engineer who played an important role in building the Edwardian castles in Wales. According to the Flores Historiarum, during the construction of the castle and planned town, the body of Roman Emperor Magnus Maximus was discovered and Edward I ordered his reburial in a local Church.
The construction of a new stone castle was part of the program of Building which transformed Caernarfon, city walls were added, connected to the castle, and built a new embankment. The earliest buildings in Carnarvon dates from 24 June 1283, when a ditch has been dug separating the castle grounds from the town to the North. In bretagium, the type of fence was established around the site to protect it while the permanent defences were under construction. The wood was shipped from Liverpool. The stone was quarried from nearby places, such as from Anglesey and around the city. A force of hundreds worked on the excavation of the moat and digging the foundations for the castle. As the site expanded, it began to invade the city, houses were cleared to allow construction. Residents were not paid compensation to three years. While funds for the stone walls were created, timber-framed apartments were built for Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, his Queen. They arrived in Caernarfon on 11 or 12 July 1283 and stayed for months.
The construction of Caernarfon castle continued over the winter 1283-84. The degree of completion is uncertain, although architectural historian Arnold Taylor speculated that when Edward and Eleanor visited again in Easter 1284 the eagle tower may have been completed. The Statute will, enacted on 3 March 1284, made Caernarfon a town and the administrative centre of Gwynedd. According to legend, Edward II was born at Caernarfon on 25 April 1284. Edward was created Prince of Wales in 1301, with control over Wales and its incomes. Since then, the title traditionally held by the eldest son of the monarch. According to a famous legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a Prince born in Wales who cant speak a word of English" and then produced his infant son to their surprise, but the story may well be apocryphal, as it has been traced to the 16th century. In 1284, Caernarfon was defended by a garrison of forty men, more than thirty-strong garrisons at Conwy and Harlech. Even in peace time, when most castles would have a guard of a few men, Caernarfon was defended from twenty to forty people because of its importance.
In 1285, Caernarfons the city walls were basically completed. At the same time, work continued on the castle. Spending on construction was negligible from 1289 and accounts end in 1292. Edward on the campaign of castle-building in Wales cost £of 80.000 between 1277 and 1304, and £of 95.000 between 1277 and 1329 1292 £12.000 was spent on the construction Caernarfons castle - of which the southern facade was furthest along - and the city walls. In the South wall and the city walls completed protective circuit around Caernarfon, the plan was to build castles of the North facade of the past.
In 1294, Wales broke out the rebellion headed by Madoga AP Llywelyn, Prince of Wales. As Caernarfon was the centre of administration in Gwynedd and a symbol of English power, he was a target for the Welsh. Madogs forces captured the city in September, and in the process heavily damaged the town walls. The castle was protected by only a ditch and a temporary barricade. He was quickly brought, and everything flammable was ablaze. The fire raged across Caernarfon, leaving destruction. In the summer of 1295, the English moved to retake Caernarfon. By November of the same year the British began refortifying the town. The restoration of the city walls is a high priority, and £1.195 nearly half the sum initially spent on the walls was spent on the job two months ahead of schedule. Then the attention switched to the castle and on finishing work, which was suspended in 1292. After the uprising was put down, Edward began building Beaumaris castle on the Isle of Anglesey. The work was carried out under the direction of James of Saint George, as a result, Walter of Hereford was a master Mason for the new phase of construction. By the end of 1301, a further £4.500 was spent on work, the focus was on the Northern wall and towers. The accounts between November 1301 and September 1304 are missing, possibly because there was a break in work while labour moved North to help with the war of England with Scotland. Records show that Walter of Hereford had left Caernarfon and was in Carlisle in October 1300, he remained occupied with the Scottish wars until the autumn of 1304 when building in Carnarvon resumed. Walter died in 1309, and his immediate subordinate, Henry Ellerton, took over the position of master Mason. Construction continued with constant speed until 1330.
From 1284 to 1330, when accounts end, between £20.000 and 25.000 went to the Caernarfons castle and city walls. Such a sum was enormous and exceeded the spending on castles such as Dover and château Gaillard, which were amongst the most expensive and impressive fortifications of the later 12th and early 13th centuries. Subsequent additions to Carnarvon were not major, and what was left of the castle is substantially from the Edwardian era. Despite the score, much of what was planned for the castle was not carried out. In the far corner of the kings entrance of the city and of the Queens gate entrance from the South-East were left unfinished, and foundations in the interior of the tamper, where the buildings would have stood had work continued.
4. Later history. (Позже история)
For about two centuries after the conquest of Wales, the arrangements established by Edward I for the governance of the country remained in place. During this time the castle was constantly in the garrison, and Caernarfon was effectively the capital of North Wales. There is a degree of discrimination, with the most important administrative jobs in Wales usually closed to Welsh people. Tension between the Welsh and their English conquerors spilled over at the beginning of the 15th century with the early growth of the Christian 1400-1415. During the revolt, Caernarfon was one of the goals of the army Owen Glyndŵrs. The town and castle were besieged in 1401, and in November of the same year the battle of Tuthill took place between the defenders and the besiegers Caernarfons troops. In 1403 and 1404, Caernarfon was besieged by Welsh troops with support from French forces, the garrison at that time was about thirty. The reign of the Tudor dynasty to the English throne in 1485 heralded a change in Wales was conducted. The Tudors were of Welsh origin, and their rules eased hostilities between the English and Welsh. As a result, castles such as Caernarfon, which has provided safe centers of which in the country can be entered, became less important. They were ignored, and in 1538 it was reported that many castles in Wales "urine ruynous and Ferre in decaye for OOO "lake" of tymely reparations".
In the case Caernarfons walls of the town and castle remained in good condition, while functions that require repairing, for example, the roof was in a state of decay and much timber was rotten. The conditions were so poor that about castles seven towers and two gates, only the eagle tower and the kings gate was a roof on 1620. Residential buildings inside the castle were removed anything of value, such as glass and iron. Despite the decline of domestic buildings, the safety locks were in good enough condition that during the Civil war in England in the mid 17th century it had a garrison of royalists. Caernarfon castle was besieged three times during the war. The constable was John Byron, 1st Baron Byron, who surrendered Caernarfon to parliamentary forces in 1646. It was the last time Caernarfon castle saw fighting. Although he was ordered in 1660 that the castle and town walls should be dismantled, the work was interrupted at an early stage and may never have started.
Despite avoiding slighting, the castle was forgotten until the late 19th century. With the 1870-ies, the government has funded the repair of Caernarfon castle. Vice-constable, Llewellyn Turner oversaw the work, in many cases, a controversial restoration and rebuilding of the castle, and not just to preserve the existing stone. Renovated stairs, walls, and roof, and a ditch to the North of the castle was cleared of post-medieval buildings that are deemed to spoil the view, despite the protest of local residents. Under the auspices of the office of works and its successors since 1908, the castle was preserved due to its historical value. In 1911, Caernarfon was used for the investiture of the Prince of Wales for the first time in Prince Edward, later Edward VIII, eldest son of newly crowned king George V, the ceremony was held at the insistence of the Chancellor of the exchequer David Lloyd George, a Welshman raised in Caernarfonshire. In 1969 the precedent was repeated with the investiture of Charles, Prince of Wales. Although Caernarfon castle has been the property of the crown, as it was built, currently in the care of Cadw English: to keep, Welsh governments historic environment protection Department environment responsible for the maintenance and care of the historic buildings of Wales. In 1986, Caernarfon was added to the world heritage list of UNESCO as part of the "castles and town walls of king Edward in Gwynedd" in recognition of its global importance and to help to preserve and protect the site. The castle houses the Museum of the Royal Welch Fusiliers. In 2015, the new "entrance pavilion" was built by the architects Donald insall associates.
The Caernarfon castle is now a major tourist attraction with more than 205.000 people visiting the attraction in 2018.
5. Architecture. (Архитектура)
Carnarvon the design of the locks was partially due to a desire to make the structure impressive as a symbol of the English crown in Wales. This was especially acute as Carnarvon was made a centre of government in the Northern part of the country. The layout of the Edwardian castles were mostly dictated by the lie of the land, although the inclusion of the previous castles the Motte played a role. It is a narrow housing, approximately in the shape of a figure eight. It was divided into two buildings, the upper and lower "chamber" in the East and West respectively, with the Eastern containing bee housing, although it was not completed. The gap should be a number of fortified buildings, but they were also not built.
Studded along the outer wall of a polygonal towers from which flanking fire could be deployed. There were battlements on top of the walls and towers, and along the South side fired the galleries, it must include galleries along the Northern face but they were never built. According to military historian Allen brown, This made the Caernarfon castle "one of the most formidable concentration of firepower in the Middle ages".
Most of the North podium of the tower had four floors, including a basement. The eagle tower at the Western corner of the castle was the grandest. It has three towers that once surmounted by statues of eagles. The tower contained a large room, and was probably built for sir Otton de Grandson, the first justiciar Wales. The basement contains the Water gate, through which visitors travelling up the river seiont could enter the castle. The water was taken from a well in the eponymous well tower.
Appearance Caernarfons different from that of other Edwardian castles through the banded coloured stone in the walls and its polygonal, rather than round like towers. There was extensive scientific debate about the interpretation of these functions. Historian Arnold Taylor argued that the design of the castle was the view at the walls of Constantinople. Therefore, the conscious use of imagery from the Byzantine Roman Empire was the affirmation of the authority of Edward I, and influenced by the legendary dream of Magnus Maximus, Roman Emperor. In the dream, Maximus could see the Fort, "its fair that people have ever seen," in the city at the mouth of the river in mountainous country and opposite an island. Edward interpreted this to mean Segontium was the city of Maximus dream and drew on the Imperial link when building Caernarfon castle. Recent work by historian Abigail Wheatley suggests that the design of Caernarfon was indeed an assertion of the Edwards authority, but that he relied on imagery from Roman sites in Britain to create a hint of the legitimacy of Arthur the king.
There are two main entrances, one leading from the city of kings gate and one way out of the castle without having to proceed through the city of Queens gate. Their form was typical of that time: a passage between two flanking towers. If the kings gate was completed, a visitor would have crossed two drawbridges, passed through five doors, under six listed, and negotiated a right-angle turn before emerging into the lower enclosure. The route was overlooked by numerous Arrow loops and murder holes. Statue of Edward II was erected in a niche overlooking the town, above the entrance of the gate of kings. In the opinion of architectural historian Arnold Taylor, "no building in Britain demonstrates more strikingly the immense strength of medieval fortifications than the great twin-towered gate of Caernarfon castle." Queens gate is unusual in that its entrance is above ground level, this was due to the integration of the earlier Motte, raising the ground level of the interior. Externally, the gate would have been approached the stone ramp that no longer exists.
While the curtain wall and towers survive largely intact, all that remains of the buildings contained within the castle foundations. While the Royal apartments were in the upper chamber, the lower chamber contained buildings such as kitchens. The kitchen was located to the West of the gate of kings. Based on illusory foundations, Taylor suggests that the kitchens were not strongly built. Another key feature of castles of the inner side was a big room. This bordered on the South side of the lower ward and was 30.5 meters 100 feet. Though only the foundations survive, in the Great hall was an impressive building with beautiful architecture, where the Royal entertainment. At Carnarvon was completed as planned, it could provide the Royal family a few hundred people.
6. The guards Caernarfon castle. (Охранники замка Карнарвон)
Until 1835, the constable of the castle held a post of the mayor of Carnarvon. A list of constables from 1284 until 1835, Thus, available in Caernarfon Royal town Council website below.
- 1908-1945: the Earl Lloyd-George Dwyfor, om, PC.
- 1963-2017: the Earl of Snowdon, GCVO.
- 2018–present: Edmund Bailey. (2018–настоящее время: Эдмунд Бэйли)
- 1945-1963: The Honourable William Ormsby-Gore.
- 18?-1908: John Henry Puleston.
- William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a motte - and - bailey castle at Caernarfon as part of the Norman invasion of Wales. He was unsuccessful, and
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- Retrieved 4 April 2019. Cadw. Caernarfon Castle 3814 National Historic Assets of Wales. Retrieved 4 April 2019. Caernarfon Castle British Listed Buildings
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- community. The ward includes the southern part of Caernarfon town centre, including Caernarfon Castle Caernarfon railway station and the housing estates south
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- Taylor, Arnold 2007 Harlech Castle Cardiff, UK: Cadw. ISBN 978 - 1 - 85760 - 257 - 9. Taylor, Arnold 2008 Caernarfon Castle and Town Walls. Cardiff, UK:
- is the Roman fort at Caernarfon formerly known in Welsh as Caer Seiont from its position on the Seiont the later Edwardian castle and its community were