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The Lord of the Rings (disambiguation)

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The Lord of the Rings
                                     

★ The Lord of the Rings

The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy novel written by English writer and scientist John. This story began as a sequel to Tolkiens 1937 fantasy novel the Hobbit, but eventually developed into a much larger work. Written in stages between 1937 and 1949, "the Lord of the rings" is one of the bestselling novels ever written with over 150 million copies sold.

The title of the novel refers to the story main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who in an earlier age created the one ring to rule the other rings of power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule the whole Earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a Hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story covers the earth after the war of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, especially the hobbits Frodo, Sam, merry and Pippin.

Although generally known to readers as a trilogy, the work was scheduled for Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set on the Silmarillion, but this idea was rejected by the publisher. For economic reasons, "the Lord of the Rings" was published in three volumes during the year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955. Three volumes entitled the fellowship of the Ring, the Two towers and the return of the King. Structurally the novel is divided internally into six books, two on the volume, with several appendices of background material at the end. Some editions combine all work into a single book. The Lord of the rings has since been reprinted many times and translated into 38 languages.

Tolkiens work has been the subject of a thorough analysis of its themes and origins. Although the main work itself, this story was only the last part of a larger epic Tolkien had engaged in since 1917, in a process he described as mythology. Affects earlier work, and on the story of Lord of the rings, include Philology, mythology, religion and the authors aversion to the effects of industrialization, like earlier works in the genre of fantasy and Tolkiens experience of world war I, Lord of the rings, in turn, is believed to have had a great impact on modern fantasy, the impact of Tolkiens works in such a way that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" has been recorded in the Oxford English dictionary.

The enduring popularity of the Lord of the rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies lovers of Tolkiens work and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the rings has inspired and continues to inspire, artwork, music, movies and television, video games, Board games, and subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of "Lord of the rings" was made for radio, theatre and cinema. In 2003 it was named Britains best novel of all time In a control system bbcs big Read.

                                     

1.1. A short story. Prologue. (Пролог)

Thousands of years before the events of the novel, the Dark Lord Sauron forged one ring to rule the other rings of power and corrupt those who wore them: three for elves, seven for dwarves and nine for men. Sauron was defeated by the Union of elves and men led by Gil-Galad and Elendil respectively. In the final battle, Isildur, son of Elendil, cut the one ring from Saurons finger, forcing Sauron to lose his physical form. Isildur claimed the ring as a family heirloom for his line, but when he was later ambushed and killed the orcs, the ring was lost in the river Anduin.

More than two thousand years later, the ring was found on one of the river-folk called Deagol. His friend sméagol came under the influence of the ring and strangled Deagol to acquire it. Sméagol was banished and hid under the Misty mountains. The ring brought him a long life and changed him for hundreds of years into a twisted, corrupted creature called Gollum. Gollum lost the ring, his "precious", and as stated in the hobbit, Bilbo Baggins found it. Meanwhile, Sauron took a new form and took back his old realm of Mordor. When Gollum went in search of the ring, he was captured and tortured by Sauron. Sauron learned from Gollum that "Baggins" Shira took the ring. Gollum was released. Sauron, who needed the ring to regain his full power, sent his powerful servants, the Nazgûl, to seize it.

                                     

1.2. A short story. The Fellowship Of The Ring. (Братство Кольца)

The story begins in the Shire, where the hobbit Frodo Baggins inherits the ring from Bilbo Baggins, his cousin and guardian. Neither Hobbit was aware of the rings and nature, but Gandalf the Grey, a wizard and old friend of Bilbo, suspects the ring is Saurons. Seventeen years later, after Gandalf confirms his guess, he tells Frodo the history of the ring and advises him to take it away from the Shire. Frodo departs, accompanied by his gardener, servant and friend, Samwise Sam Gamgee, and two cousins, Meriadoc "merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" took. They are almost caught by the Nazgul but to shake off his pursuers, through the old forest. There they helped Tom Bombadil, a strange and funny guy who lives with his wife Goldberry in the woods.

The hobbits reach the town of bree where they meet a Ranger named Strider that Gandalf mentioned in the letter. Strider persuades the hobbits to take it as a guide and protector. Together they leave bree after another close getting rid of the Nazgul. On top of Weathertop they are again attacked by the Nazgul, who wounded Frodo with a cursed blade. Kicking and Strider leads the hobbits towards the elven refuge of Rivendell. Frodo falls gravely ill from the wound. The Nazgul almost catch him at the Ford Bruinen, but flood waters summoned Elrond, Lord of Rivendell, rise up and overwhelm them.

Frodo takes in Rivendell under the care of Elronds. The Council of Elrond discusses the history of Sauron and the ring. Strider was Aragorn, Isildurs heir. Gandalf reports that the chief wizard Saruman betrayed them and is now working to become a power in its own right. The Council decides that the ring must be destroyed, but it can be done only by sending it into the fires of mount doom in Mordor where it was forged. Frodo takes this task on himself. Elrond, with the advice of Gandalf chooses companions for him. The companys nine rings in a row: Frodo, Sam, merry, Pippin, Aragorn, Gandalf, Gimli the dwarf, Legolas the elf, and the man Boromir, son Denethor, the ruling master of the land of Gondor.

After an unsuccessful attempt to cross the Misty mountains over the pass and took the company to take a dangerous path through the mines of Moria. They learn about the fate of Balin and his colony of dwarves. Having survived the attack, they are pursued by orcs and a Balrog, an ancient fire demon. Gandalf faces the Balrog, and they both fall into the abyss. Others escape and find refuge in the elven forest of Lothlorien, where they advised their rulers, Galadriel and Celeborn.

With boats and gifts from Galadriel, the company travel down the river Anduin to the hill of Amon hen. There, Boromir tries to take the ring from Frodo, but Frodo puts it on and disappears. Frodo decides to go alone to Mordor, but Sam realizes what he is about and goes with it.

                                     

1.3. A short story. The Two Towers. (Две Башни)

Go to the orcs of Saruman and Sauron kill Boromir and capture of merry and Pippin. Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas the discussion, the pair of hobbits to follow. They decide to pursue the orcs took merry and Pippin to Saruman. In the Kingdom of Rohan, the orcs killed the company Rohirrim. Merry and Pippin escape into Fangorn forest where they befriend Treebeard, the oldest of the tree-like ents. Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas track the hobbits to Fangorn. There, they unexpectedly meet Gandalf.

Gandalf explains that he killed the Balrog. Darkness covered him, but he was sent back to middle earth to complete his mission. He is dressed in white and now Gandalf the white, he took Sarumans place as the primary master. Gandalf convinces his friends that merry and Pippin safe. Together they travel to Edoras, capital of Rohan. Gandalf frees théoden, king of Rohan, from the influence of Sarumans spy makeup Gnilostna. Théoden gathers his fighting strength and rides to his people at the ancient fortress of Helms deep, while Gandalf goes to seek help from Treebeard.

Meanwhile the ents, roused by merry and Pippin from their peaceful ways and attack Isengard, Sarumans fortress, and trap the wizard the tower of Orthanc. Gandalf convinces Treebeard to send army of Huorns in Theodens aid. Gandalf brings the army Rohirrim in Helms deep, and they defeat the orcs, who flee into the forest of Huorns, never to be seen. Gandalf offers Saruman a chance to turn away from evil. When Saruman refuses to listen, Gandalf strips him of his rank and most of his powers.

After Saruman crawls back to his prison, right drops the field to try to kill Gandalf. Pippin picks it up. He is shown to be a palantir, a seeing stone that Saruman is talking with Sauron and Saruman, through which was caught in a trap. Pippin sees Sauron. Gandalf rides for Minas Tirith chief city of Gondor, taking Pippin with him.

Frodo and Sam Gollum who was following them from Moria. They forced him to guide them to Mordor. They believe that the black Gate of Mordor too well guarded, so instead they go to a secret passage Gollum knows. On the way they meet Faramir, who, unlike his brother Boromir, resists the temptation to take the Ring. Gollum – who is torn between his loyalty to Frodo and his desire for the ring betrays Frodo by leading him to the great spider Shelob in the tunnels of Cirith Ungol. Frodo falls to Shelobs sting. But with the help of Galadriels gifts, Sam is struggling with the spider. Thinking Frodo dead, Sam takes the ring to continue a quest. Orcs find Frodo, Sam overhears them and learns that Frodo is alive.



                                     

1.4. A short story. The Return Of The King. (Возвращение Короля)

Sauron sends large army against Gondor. Gandalf arrives at Minas Tirith to alert Denethor attack, while théoden gathers Rohirrim to go to Gondors aid. Minas Tirith is besieged. Denethor deceived by Sauron and falls into despair. He burns himself alive on the funeral pyre, nearly taking his son Faramir with him. Aragorn, accompanied by Legolas, Gimli and the Rangers of the North, takes paths of the dead to gain Dunharrow, the dead people that are associated with the curse that deprives them of peace until they fulfilled their ancient will keep your oath to fight for the king of Gondor.

After Aragorn the army of the dead terrifying in corsairs Umbar the invasion of southern Gondor. Aragorn defeats the corsairs and uses its ships to transport people from the South of Gondor to Anduin, reaching Minas Tirith just in time to turn the tide of battle. Theodens niece eowyn, who joined the army in disguise, slays the Lord of the nazgûl with their oars. Together, Gondor and Rohan defeat Saurons army in the battle of Plenniki fields, but at great cost. Theoden is killed and eowyn and merry were injured.

Meanwhile, Sam rescues Frodo from the tower of Cirith Ungol. They set out across Mordor. Aragorn leads the army of men from Gondor and Rohan to go to the black gate to distract Sauron from his true danger. His army greatly outnumbered the great power of Sauron. Frodo and Sam reach the edge of the cracks of fate, but Frodo cant resist nothing more. He claims it for himself and puts it on her finger.

Gollum suddenly reappears. He struggles with Frodo and bites off Frodos finger with the ring on it. Celebrating wildly, Gollum loses his balance and falls into the fire taking the ring with him. When the ring is destroyed, Sauron loses his power forever. All that he created, falls, the Nazgul will die, and his troops thrown into such disarray that Aragorns the win.

Aragorn is crowned king of Arnor and Gondor, and the couple Arwen, daughter of Elrond. The four hobbits return to the Shire, only to find that he was captured by people directed by one "Sharkey", which they later discover to be Saruman. The hobbits raise a rebellion and free the Shire, hobbits, though 19 killed and 30 wounded. Hobbits Frodo stops from killing the wizard after attempting to kill Frodo, Saruman, Grima, but turns on Saruman and kills him in bag end, Frodos home. He is killed in turn, Hobbit archers and the war of the Ring reaches its true purpose on Frodos doorstep.

Merry and Pippin are celebrated as heroes. Sam marries Rosie cotton and uses his gifts from Galadriel to help heal the Shire. But Frodo still wounded in body and spirit, drew a ring so long. A few years later, in the company of Bilbo and Gandalf, Frodo sails from the grey havens West over the sea to the undying Lands to find peace.

In the application, he gives his daughter Elanor the Red book of Westmarch, containing the story of Bilbos adventures and the war of the Ring, as evidenced by the hobbits. Sam then said to have crossed West over the sea himself the last of the ring-bearers.

                                     

2. Frame-the story. (Рамка-история)

Tolkien submitted the Lord of the rings fictional frame story, where he is not the author but merely the translator of an ancient document in the Red book of Westmarch. Various parts of the frame-story also appear in the prologue, her, note on the Shire records, as well as in the appendices, particularly in Appendix F. this frame-story, Red book is also a source of Tolkiens other works related to the game middle earth: the Hobbit, the Silmarillion, and the adventures of Tom Bombadil.

                                     

3.1. The concept and creation. Background. (Фон)

"The Lord of the rings" began as a sequel to George. R. R. Tolkiens work the Hobbit, published in 1937. The popularity of the Hobbit had led George Allen & Unwin, the publishers to request a sequel. Tolkien warned them that he wrote very slowly and responded with several stories he had already developed. Having rejected his contemporary designs of the Silmarillion putting on hold Roverandom, and accepting farmer Giles of ham, Allen & Unwin thought more stories about hobbits would be popular. So, at the age of 45, Tolkien began writing the story that would become the Lord of the Rings. The story will not be finished until 12 years later 1949 and would not be fully published until 1955 when Tolkien was 63 years.

                                     

3.2. The concept and creation. Write. (Писать)

Persuaded by his publishers, he started "a new Hobbit" in December 1937. After several false starts, the story emerged of the one Ring. The idea of the first Chapter "welcome party" arrived fully formed, although the reasons for the disappearance of the Bilbos, the value of the ring and the title the Lord of the rings did not arrive until the spring of 1938. Originally, he planned to write a story in which Bilbo had used up all his treasure and adventure to gain more however he remembered the ring and its powers and thought that would be better to concentrate on a new job. As the story progressed, he also brought in elements of the Silmarillion mythology.

Write is slow, because Tolkien had a full-time academic teaching linguistics with emphasis on languages, with linguistic elements, he combined in his books, such as old English. "I spent nearly all the vacation-time, seventeen years studying writing stories in prose or verse has been stolen, often guiltily, from time already mortgaged". Tolkien abandoned "the Lord of the rings" throughout 1943 and resumed in April 1944, as a serial for his son Christopher Tolkien, who was sent chapters as they were written when he served in South Africa with the RAF. Tolkien made another major effort in 1946, and showed the manuscript to his publisher in 1947. The story was effectively finished the next year, but Tolkien did not complete the revision of earlier parts of the work until 1949. The original manuscript, which only 9.250 pages, now reside in the collection of John. R. R. Tolkien in the Marquette University.



                                     

3.3. The concept and creation. Effect. (Эффект)

The influence of the Welsh language which Tolkien had learnt, is summarised in his essay English and Welsh: "if I ever refer to my work. The Lord of the rings, in evidence: the names of people and places this story were mainly composed on the model deliberately modelled on those of Wales are closely similar, but not identical. This element the tale has given perhaps more pleasure to more readers than anything else in it."

The Lord of the rings developed as a personal study of Tolkien of his interests in Philology, religion, especially Catholicism, fairy tales, Norse and General Germanic mythology, and also Celtic, Slavic, Iranian, Greek, and Finnish mythology. Tolkien recognizes, and external critics have verified, the influence of George MacDonald and William Morris and the Anglo-Saxon poem "Beowulf". Question about the direct influence of Wagners the ring of the Nibelung on Tolkiens work was reviewed by critics.

Tolkien does not include any explicit religion nor cult in his work. Rather the themes moral philosophy and cosmology of the Lord of the rings reflect his Catholic worldview. In one of his letters Tolkien States, "the Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work, unconsciously, but consciously in the revision. Thats why I didnt put out, or cut out practically all references to anything like religion, cults and practices, in the imaginary world. For the religious element is absorbed into the story and symbolism".

Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkiens childhood in Birmingham, where he first lived near the mill and Victoria square in Birmingham, and later near Edgbaston reservoir. There are also hints of the Black country, which is in the vicinity of North West Edgbaston. This shows in such names as "Underhill", and the description of Sarumans industrialisation of Isengard and the Shire. It was also suggested that the Shire and its surroundings were based on the surroundings of Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the 1940s years. The work was influenced by the effects of his military service during the First world war, to the point that one critic diagnosis Frodo suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder, which was called "shell-shock" in the battle of the Somme, at which Tolkien served.

                                     

4. The publishing history of. (История издание)

A dispute with his publisher, George Allen & Unwin, led to the book offered to Collins in 1950. Tolkien intended the Silmarillion virtually unchanged for the moment, should be published along with the Lord of the Rings, but also the amplifier,you dont want to do that. After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that "the Lord of the rings" itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952. Collins did not, and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying, "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the materials" for fear that his work will never see the light of day.

For publication the book was divided into three volumes, to minimize any potential financial losses due to the high cost of typesetting and modest expected sales: the fellowship of the Ring books I and II, the Two towers book III and IV, and the return of the King books V and VI plus six appendices. Delays in processing applications, maps and especially indices led to the volumes were published later than expected – on 29 July 1954 on 11 November 1954 and 20 October 1955 respectively in the United Kingdom. In the United States, Houghton Mifflin published the fellowship of the ring on October 21, 1954, the two towers on April 21, 1955, and the return of the King on January 5, 1956.

The return of the king was especially delayed Tolkien revising the ending and the preparation of applications, some of which had to leave due to lack of space. Tolkien didnt like the title the return of the King, believing it to be too much of the storyline, but postponed his preferences publishers. Tolkien wrote that the name the Two towers "can be left ambiguous", but decided to call the two as Orthanc and Barad-dur, Minas Tirith and Barad-dur, or Orthanc and the tower of Cirith Ungol. However, a month later he wrote a note published at the end of "fellowship of the Ring" and later drew the illustrations, which identified the pair as Minas Morgul and Orthanc.

Tolkien was originally against the name that was given to each two-volume book, preferring instead of using titles: for example, "the Lord of the rings": the fact. 1, the ring the ring goes South, Tom. 2, the treason of Isengard the ring goes East, vol. 3, war of the Ring and the end of the Third age. However, these books were later cancelled after pressure from his publishers, Tolkien originally came up with the name: volume. 1, The Shadow Rising, Volume. 2, the Ring is in the shadow volume. 3, war of the Ring and the return of the King.

Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often called the Lord of the rings "trilogy". In a letter to poet W. H. Auden, who famously reviewed the final volume in 1956, Tolkien himself used the term "trilogy" for the work, although he did in other cases I think it is wrong, as it was written and conceived as a single book. It is also often called a novel, however, Tolkien also objected to this term as he considers it a heroic romance.

The books were published under agreement on participation in profits, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he will receive a large share of the profits. He eventually became one of the best-selling novels ever written, with 50 million copies sold in 2003 and more than 150 million copies sold by 2007.

The book was published in Britain Allen & Unwin until 1990, when the publisher and its assets were acquired records.

                                     

4.1. The publishing history of. Publications and editions. (Публикаций и изданий)

In the early 1960s, Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher ACE books, claimed that "the Lord of the Rings" was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the U.S. hardcover publisher did not care about copyright on work in the United States. Then, in 1965, ACE books began publishing the newspaper, unauthorized Tolkien and without paying royalties to him. Tolkien agreed with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Grassroots pressure from these fans became so great that ACE books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien.

Authorized editions followed from Ballantine books and Houghton Mifflin with a huge commercial success. Tolkien took a number of textual changes to produce version of the book, which will be published with his consent and to establish unquestioned US copyright. This text became the second edition of the Lord of the rings, published in 1965. The first Ballantine paperback edition was printed in October of this year and sold a quarter million copies within ten months. On September 4, 1966, the novel debuted on the new York times paperback bestsellers, as number three, and number one on December 4, a position he held for eight weeks. After the 1994 edition of Houghton Mifflin the option of fixing changes Tolkien, and corrections under the guidance of Christopher Tolkien, in which, after some initial glitches in the computer-based unified text.

In 2004, the 50th anniversary edition, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, under the supervision of Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many bugs and inconsistencies as possible, some of which were presented by well-meaning composers, the first printing in 1954, and was never fixed. In the 2005 edition of the book contains additional amendments were noticed by the editors and sent in by readers. Further amendments were added to the 60-anniversary edition in 2014.

Several publications, including the 50th anniversary edition to combine all three books in one volume, with the result that the pagination varies in different editions.



                                     

4.2. The publishing history of. The posthumous publication of draft. (Посмертное издание проекта)

From 1988 to 1992 Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of the Lord of the rings, Chronicles and lighting with a review of the stages of development of the texts, in volumes 6-9 of his history of middle-earth series. The four volumes carry the titles the return of the shadow, treason of Isengard, war of the Ring, and Sauron defeated.

                                     

4.3. The publishing history of. Translation. (Перевод)

The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, at least in 56 languages. Tolkien, an expert in Philology, examined many of these translations, and comment on each reflecting both the translation process and his work. He was unhappy with some choices made by early translators such as the Swedish translation of åke Ohlmarks, Tolkien wrote his "guide to names in Lord of the rings", 1967. Because the Lord of the rings is a translation of the fictitious Red book of Westmarch, with the English language representing the language of the "original", Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the relationship between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with General guidance.

                                     

5. Welcome

While early reviews for the Lord of the rings were mixed, reviews in various media, on the whole, highly positive and acknowledge Tolkiens literary achievement as a significant one. The original opinion in the "Sunday Telegraph" described it as "one of the greatest works of fiction of fiction of the twentieth century". Sunday times echoed this sentiment, saying that "the English-speaking world is divided into those who have read the Lord of the rings and the Hobbit and those who are going to read them". New York Herald Tribune also seemed to have an idea about how popular the books, I wanted to become, writing in its review that they were "destined to outlast our time." W. H. Auden, a fan of Tolkiens writings, believed that "the Lord of the Rings" as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Miltons Paradise Lost. Kenneth f Slater wrote in Nebula science fiction, APR 1955." if you are reading this, you missed one of the best books of its type ever to appear"

New York times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" in Tolkiens literary style, saying that he "formulated a noble belief in the importance of his mission as a literary defender, who turns out to be the death of literature." Critic Richard Jenkyns, writing in the New Republic, criticized the work because of the lack of psychological depth. Both the heroes and the work itself, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fiber". Even in Tolkiens literary group, the Inklings, reviews were mixed. Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings. However, another suspect, C. S. Lewis, had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Here is a book that will break your heart." Despite these comments and the lack of paperback printing until the 1960s, the Lord of the rings initially sold in hardcover.

In 1957, "the Lord of the Rings" was awarded the International fantasy award. Despite numerous critics, the publishing of books, ACE in paperback Ballantine helped the Lord of the rings has become very popular in the USA in the 1960-ies. The book has been preserved until now, occupying one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged in terms of sales and readership. In the 2003 "Big read" survey conducted in the UK on Bi-bi-si, "the Lord of the Rings" was voted "best peoples of the book". In similar 2004 polls both Germany and Australia also found the Lord of the rings to be their favourite book. In the survey customers Amazon.com 1999, the Lord of the Rings was voted their favorite book of the "Millennium".

It may seem that the characters in the Lord of the Rings "its either black or white," but Tolkiens friend C. S. Lewis noticed that the writing is richer than that: some of the good characters have a dark side, and some of the villains "good intentions".

                                     

6. Topics. (Темы)

Although "the Lord of the Rings" was published in the 1950s, Tolkien insisted that the one ring is not an allegory for the atomic bomb, nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind, but open to interpretation as the reader sees fit.

Some critics have found what they consider to be racial elements in the history, which, as a rule, on the basis of their opinions on how Tolkiens imagery depicts good and evil, the race of the characters and as the characters race is considered in determining their behavior. On the contrary, the counter-arguments note that race-focused critiques often not appropriate textual evidence, cite imagery from adaptations rather than the work, ignore the lack of evidence of racist attitudes or events in the personal lives of authors, and argue that the perception of racism is itself a marginal view.

The opinion that pit races against each other is likely to reflect Tolkiens criticism of the war and not a racist point of view. In the two towers, the character Samwise sees the defeated enemy, a Man of color, and believes that humanity is fallen Southron. Director Peter Jackson, in the comments of this scene, claims that Tolkien does not project a negative attitude to the personality of a soldier because of his race, but against the evil power that drives them. These sentiments, Jackson argues, arose from Tolkiens experiences in the great War and found their way into his writings, to show the evils of the war itself, not other races.

Critics have also seen social class rather than race as a deciding factor in the balance of good and evil. Commentators such as science fiction author David Brin have interpreted in the unquestioning devotion to a traditional elitist social structure. In his essay "epic Pooh", science fiction and fantasy author Michael Moorcocks criticism of the worldview that is displayed by the book as deeply conservative as "paternalism" of the narrative voice and the power-structures in the narrative. Tom Shippey refers to the origin of this image of evil as a reflection of the prejudices of European middle-class in the period between the two world wars towards the Industrial working class.

Other observers have led Christians, in particular Catholics, the themes In Lord of the rings.

The book was read as a fitting model of Joseph Campbells "Monomaha".

                                     

7.1. Fixtures. Radio. (Радио)

The book was adapted for radio four times. In 1955 and 1956, BBC broadcast the Lord of the rings and the 13-Part radio adaptation of the story. Radio station WBAI in the 1960-ies has produced a short radio adaptation. A dramatization of 1979s "the Lord of the Rings" was shown in the United States and subsequently issued on tape and CD. In 1981, BBC broadcast the Lord of the rings, a new dramatization in 26 half-hour installments. This dramatization of the Lord of the rings were subsequently placed on both tape and CD as the BBC and other publishers. For this, generally edited into 13 one-hour episodes.

                                     

7.2. Fixtures. The film. (Фильм)

After J. R. R. Tolkiens the sale of the film rights to the Lord of the rings for the organization of artists in 1969, the rock band the Beatles considered a corresponding film project and approached Stanley Kubrick as a potential Director, but I declined the offer, explaining to John Lennon that he thought the novel can be adapted into a film due to its immensity. In the end, the Director of the film adaptation by Peter Jackson also explained that the main obstacle to the progression of the projects were Tolkiens the opposition with the participation of the Beatles. British Director John Boorman also attempted to make a film adaptation of the Lord of the rings to United artists in 1970. After he was written a script which included many changes to the plot and characters, the production company scrapped the project, thinking that its too expensive and too risky.

Two film adaptations of the book have been made. The first was George. R. R. Tolkiens the Lord of the rings 1978 the animator Ralph Bakshi, the first part of what was originally intended to be two parts of the film adaptation of this story, it covers the Fellowship of the Ring and the two towers. Three issues of the comic book version of the film was also released in Europe, but is not printed in English, with illustrations by Luis Bermejo. When investors shied away Bakshis funding of the second film, That would complete the story, the rest of the story was covered in the animated TV show by Rankin-bass. Stylistically, these two segments are very different.

The second and more commercially successful adaptation of Peter Jacksons live action the Lord of the Rings film trilogy, produced by new line cinema and released in three parts like Lord of the Rings: the fellowship of the ring 2001, the Lord of the rings: the Two towers in 2002 and Lord of the Rings: return of the king 2003. All three parts won multiple Academy awards, including consecutive nominations for Best film. In the final part of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars, including best film, Best Director and Best adapted screenplay.

The hunt for Gollum, a fan film based on elements of the application to "the Lord of the Rings", was released online in may 2009 and has been covered in major media. Born of hope, written by Paula DiSante, directed by Kate Madison, and released in December 2009, this is a fan film based on the appendices to the Lord of the rings.

                                     

7.3. Fixtures. TV

In November 2017, Amazon has acquired the global television rights to the Lord of the rings, making a multi-season TV series. The series will not be a straight adaptation of the book, and instead introduce a new story, facing the Fellowship of the Ring. Amazon said the deal includes the potential for spin-off series. The press release refers to "previously unknown stories based on J. R. R. Tolkiens original writings". Amazon will be the producer together with the Tolkien estate and Tolkien trust records, and new line television. According to the report, in 2018, it will be the most expensive TV show ever created. In early July of 2019, the New Zealand economic development Minister David Parker confirmed that a large part of the series will be produced in New Zealand following negotiations between Amazon and the government of New Zealand. On September 18, 2019, Amazon studios confirmed that they will be shot in three places near Auckland. The cost is estimated at $ 1.3 billion, making it the most expensive television series ever made. In January 2020, the cast was announced including Robert Aramayo, Owen Arthur, Nazanin of Boniadi, Tom budge, Morphids Clark in the role of Galadriel, Ismael Cruz Cordoba, EMA Horvath, markella Kavenagh, Joseph Mawle, Tyroe Muhafidin, Sophia Nomvete, Megan Richards, Dylan Smith, Charlie Vickers and Daniel Weyman.

                                     

7.4. Fixtures. Stage. (Этап)

In 1990 recorded books published an audio version of "the Lord of the rings," British actor Rob Inglis, who has previously starred in his one man productions of the Hobbit and the Lord of the rings – the value. A large-scale musical theatre adaptation, "the Lord of the Rings" was first staged in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 2006 and opened in London in June 2007.

                                     

8.1. Heritage. Influence on the fantasy genre. (Влияние на жанр фэнтези)

The huge popularity of Tolkiens work has expanded the demand for fantasy. Thanks largely to Lord of the rings, the genre flowered throughout the 1960s years, and is popular to this day. The opus has spawned many imitators, such as the Sword of Shannara, which Lin Carter called "the most cold-blooded, complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read." "Dungeons and dragons", which popularized the role-playing game RPG genre in the 1970-ies, the many races found in the Lord of the rings, especially the halflings another term for hobbits, elves, dwarves, half-elves, orcs and dragons. However, Gary Gygax, lead designer of the game said that he was influenced very little by the Lord of the rings, stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.

Because D& D went on to influence many popular role-playing games, the influence of the Lord of the rings extends to many of them as well, with titles such as "the way of the Dragon" of the Ultima series, EverQuest, Warcraft-war craft series, and the elder scrolls series of games as well as video games, the Action takes place in middle earth for himself.

Studies also show that some consumers of fantasy games derive their motivation from trying to create epic fantasy narrative which is influenced by Lord of the rings.

                                     

8.2. Heritage. Music. (Музыка)

In 1965, songwriter Donald Swann, who was best known for his collaboration with Michael Flanders as Flanders & Swann, set six poems from the Lord of the rings and one from the adventures of Tom Bombadil "errantry" music. When Swann met with Tolkien to play the songs for his approval, Tolkien suggested for "Namarie" Galadriels lament a setting reminiscent of Znamenny chant, which Swann accepted. The songs were published in 1967 as the road goes ever on: a song cycle and a record of the songs performed by singer William Elvin with Swann on piano was issued that same year by Caedmon Records as poems and songs of middle-earth.

Rock bands of the 1970-ies was the music and the lyrics inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time, the 70-ies of the British rock group "led Zeppelin" recorded several songs that contain explicit references to the Lord of the rings, for example, to mention Gollum in "ramble", the Misty mountains in "misty mountain Hop", and the Ringwraiths in "the Battle of Evermore". In 1970, the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the book titled Sagan om rengen translated as "the Saga of the ring", which is the title of the Swedish translation of Lord of the rings at the time. The album was subsequently released internationally as music inspired by Lord of the rings in 1972.

The songs "Rivendell" and "the necromancer" is on progressive rock band Rush were inspired by Tolkien. Styx also paid tribute to the memory of Tolkien on the album pieces of eight with the song "Lords of the ring", while the black Sabbath song "the wizard", which appeared on their debut album, was influenced by Tolkiens hero, Gandalf. Progressive rock group camel bowed to the text in their lengthy composition "Nimrodel / the procession / the white rider", and progressive rock band Barclay James harvest was inspired by the character Galadriel to write a song with the same name, and used "Bombadil", the name of another character, as a pseudonym under which their 1972 single "breathless" / "when the city sleeps" was released, there are other references scattered through the BJH oeuvre.

Later, from the 1980s to the present day, many heavy metal acts under the influence of Tolkien. Blind Guardian has written many songs relating to middle-earth, including the full concept album Nightfall in middle-earth. Almost the entire discography of Battlelore for a few Tolkien-themed. The challenge of music based on Tolkien and holds the distinction of being the only artist who created the song in the Black speech of Mordor. GORGOROTH, Cirith Ungol and Amon new tools to take their names from region of Mordor, and Burzum take their name from the Black speech of Mordor. Finnish metal band Nightwish and the Norwegian metal band tristania have also incorporated many Tolkien references into their music. American metal band MEGADETH released two songs called "this day we fight!" and "how the story ends", which was inspired by the Lord of the rings. German folk metal band Eichenschild named for Thorin Oakenshield, a character in the Hobbit, and, of course, has a number of Tolkien-themed songs. They are not to be confused with 70s folk-rock band Torin Eichenschild.

In 1988, Dutch composer and trombonist Johan de Mey completed his Symphony No. 1 "Lord of the Rings", which includes 5 movements, titled "Gandalf", "Lothlorien", "Gollum", "Journey in the dark" and "hobbits". In 1989 the Symphony was awarded the Sudler composition prize, awarded every two years for the best wind group. The Danish Tolkien ensemble have released a number of albums, which presents the complete poems and songs from Lord of the rings set to music, some of them recitation by Christopher Lee.

Enya wrote an instrumental song entitled "Lothlórien" in 1991, and composed two songs for the film the Lord of the Rings: the Fellowship of the ring - "may it be" sung in English and Quenya and "Aniron" is sung in Sindarin.

                                     

8.3. Heritage. Influence on popular culture. (Влияние на популярную культуру)

"The Lord of the rings" has had deep and wide influence on popular culture since its publication in 1950-ies, but especially during the 1960s and 1970s years, during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural Saga. "Frodo lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular among US fans of Tolkien during that time.

Parodies like the Harvard lampoon with bored of the rings, the VeggieTales episode "Lord of the beans", the South Park episode "the Return of the fellowship of the Ring to the two towers", the Futurama movie benders game, the adventures of Jimmy Neutron: boy genius episode "lights! Camera! Danger!", Big Bang theory "the precious fragmentation", and American dad! the episode "return of the bling" are testimony to the work of the permanent presence in popular culture.

In 1969 Tolkien sold the merchandising rights to the Lord of the rings and the Hobbit to the organization of artists in the framework of the agreement providing for a lump sum payment in the amount of £10.000 plus 7.5% royalty after costs, payable to Allen & Unwin and the author. In 1976, three years after the authors death, United artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz company, who now trade as Tolkien enterprises. Since then all "authorised" merchandise has been signed by Tolkien enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of a certain similarity of characters and imagery from various adaptations is generally held by using adapters.

For any commercial use with fixtures, with the end of 1960-ies there is an increasing variety of original licensed products-from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Pauline Baynes and the brothers Hildebrandt, to figurines and miniatures to computer, video, Board and role-playing. Recent examples include the chatter de Jahres award for "best use of literature in a game" Board game Lord of the rings by Reiner knizia and the Golden joystick award-winning massively multiplayer online role-playing game, the Lord of the Rings Online: shadows of Angmar turbine, Inc.

"The Lord of the Rings" was mentioned in numerous songs, including "the Ballad of Bilbo Baggins" by Leonard Nimoy, Led Zeppelins "Misty mountain hop", "over the hills and far away", "walk" and "Battle of Evermore", the Genesis song "stagnation" from trespass, 1970, about Gollum, rush included the song "Rivendell" from their second Studio album fly by night, and Argent turned on the song "Lothlorien" album, 1971s ring of hands.

Steve Peregrin took was born Stephen Ross porter, from the British rock band T. REX took its name from the Hobbit peregrine Tuck, more commonly known as Pippin. Later recorded under the alias Shagrat vagrants, before forming a band called Shagrat in 1970.

On 5 November 2019, Bi-bi-si, listed the Lord of the rings list of 100 most influential novels.

                                     
  • of the Rings film trilogy, released in three installments as The Lord of the Rings The Fellowship of the Ring 2001 The Lord of the Rings The Two
  • The Lord of the Rings is a film series of three epic fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson, based on the novel written by J. R. R. Tolkien
  • The Lord of the Rings The Fellowship of the Ring is a 2001 epic fantasy adventure film directed by Peter Jackson, based on the first volume of J. R.
  • The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, written originally in English, has since been translated, with varying degrees of success, into dozens of other
  • The Lord of the Rings is the most prominent of several theatre adaptations of J. R. R. Tolkien s epic high fantasy novel of the same name, with music
  • The Lord of the Rings comprising The Fellowship of the Ring and the first half of The Two Towers. Set in Middle - earth, the film follows a group of hobbits
  • The Lord of the Rings Conquest is a 2009 action game developed by Pandemic Studios and published by Electronic Arts. It is derived from The Lord of the
  • The Lord of the Rings is a fantasy novel by J. R. R. Tolkien. The Lord of the Rings may also refer to: The Lord of the Rings 1978 film an animated film
  • Lego The Lord of the Rings is a Lego - themed action - adventure video game developed by Traveller s Tales, that was released on Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo DS
  • Since the publications of J. R. R. Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings The Hobbit and The Silmarillion, a wealth of secondary literature has been published
  • The Lord of the Rings Aragorn s Quest is a 2010 action - adventure video game developed by Headstrong Games for Wii, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation
                                     
  • The Lord of the Rings Journey to Rivendell was a video game scheduled to be released in the winter of 1983. Parker Brothers was set to publish it, and
  • The Lord of the Rings Online previously titled The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar is a massively multiplayer online role - playing game MMORPG
  • The Lord of the Rings Roleplaying Game, released by Decipher Inc. in 2002, is a role - playing game set in the Middle - earth of J. R. R. Tolkien s fiction
  • second volume of J. R. R. Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings The film is the second instalment in The Lord of the Rings trilogy and was produced by Barrie
  • The Lord of the Rings The Battle for Middle - earth is a real - time strategy video game developed by EA Los Angeles for Microsoft Windows. It was released
  • The Lord of the Rings The Return of the King is a 2003 epic fantasy adventure film directed by Peter Jackson, based on the third volume of J. R. R. Tolkien s
  • Lord of the Rings is a board game based on the high fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien. Published in 2000 by Kosmos in Germany, Wizards
  • The Lord of the Rings The Fellowship of the Ring is a 2002 action - adventure video game developed by WXP for the Xbox. It was ported to the Game Boy Advance
  • portal The History of The Lord of the Rings is a four - volume work by Christopher Tolkien published between 1988 and 1992 that documents the process of J.
                                     
  • Russian interest in J. R. R. Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings awoke soon after its publication in 1955, long before the first Russian translation. A first
  • The Lord of the Rings The Two Towers is an action hack and slash video game developed by Stormfront Studios for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. A 2D Game
  • The Lord of the Rings The Fellowship of the Ring Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released on 20 November 2001. It was composed, orchestrated
  • Symphony No. 1 The Lord of the Rings is the first symphony for concert band written by Johan de Meij. It premiered in 1988 with the Groot Harmonieorkest
  • The translations of The Lord of the Rings into Swedish have been the subject of controversy. Åke Ohlmarks 1911 1984 was a prolific translator, who during
  • The Lord of the Rings The Two Towers: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released on 10 December 2002. It was composed, orchestrated, and conducted
  • The Lord of the Rings The Battle for Middle - earth II is a 2006 real - time strategy video game developed and published by Electronic Arts. It is based on
  • The Lord of the Rings film series consists of three epic fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson and based on the eponymous novel written by
  • The music of The Lord of the Rings film series was composed, orchestrated, conducted and produced by Howard Shore. The scores are often considered to represent
  • The Lord of the Rings The Third Age is a 2004 role - playing video game developed by EA Redwood Shores for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and GameCube. A turn - based

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation
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