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Technology is a set of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods, provision of services or in performing tasks such as scientific research. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes and the like, or it can be built into machines to operate without detailed knowledge of their work. Systems using technologies, taking input, modifying it in accordance with the purpose of the system, and then gave the result, called technical systems or technological systems.
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire, and later the Neolithic revolution increased available sources food invention wheel helped humans to travel and control their environment. Events in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. She has helped develop more advanced economies including todays global economy and the growth of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and Deplete natural resources to the detriment of the Earths environment. Innovation has always influenced the values of society and gave rise to new questions in ethics. Examples include the growth of the concept of efficiency from the point of view of productivity, and issues of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen about the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the Pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people proponents ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the individual.
1. Definition and usage. (Определение и использование)
The use of the term "technology" has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Until the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and it was used to either refer to the description or study of the craft, or hint at a technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, founded in 1861.
The term "technology" became known in the 20th century in connection with the second industrial revolution. Terms the value has changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of technique into "technology." In German and other European languages there is a distinction between Technik and technologies that do not exist in English which usually translates both terms as "technology". In the 1930-ies, "technology" refers not only to the study of industrial arts and industrial arts.
In 1937, the American sociologist read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills that we produce and use them". Ben definition remains common among scholars, especially sociologists. Scientists and engineers usually prefer to define technology as applied science, not as things that people make and use. Recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucaults work on the technology of self techniques de Soi.
Dictionaries and scientists propose different definitions. About Merriam-Webster learners dictionary offers the following definition: "the application of science in industry, engineering, etc. to invent useful things and solve problems" and "machinery, equipment, method, etc. that is created by technology". Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "real world of technology" lecture, gave another definition is "the practice of how we do things here." This term is often used to refer to a particular technology, or to refer to high technology or consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in technics and time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by other methods than life", and as "organized inorganic matter."
Technology can be most widely interpreted as objects, both material and immaterial, created with the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that can be used to solve real-world problems. This far-reaching term that may include simple tools such as a crowbar or wooden spoon or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a similarly broad sense as "a means to fulfill a human purpose".
The word "technology" can also be used to refer to collections of methods. In this context, the modern human condition of knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, meet needs or satisfy the needs, it includes technical methods, skills, processes, methods, tools and raw materials. In combination with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology", it means the state of the relevant fields of knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.
The technology is seen as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally, technology application math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life, as you know. A modern example is the rise of communication technologies, reducing barriers to human interaction and eventually helped spawn new subcultures, the growth of cyberculture is based on the development of the Internet and computer. Not all technology enhances culture in a creative, technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools like guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates science and technology, each of which formalize some aspects of technological activities.
2. Science, engineering and technology. (Науки, техники и технологии)
The distinction between science, technology, and it is not always clear. Science is a systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation. Technology, as a rule, not only the products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, convenience, and safety.
Engineering is a purposeful process of designing and making tools and systems to use natural phenomena for practical people, often, but not always, uses the results and methods of science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic and historical knowledge to achieve practical results.
Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering-although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors that already exist, using the tools and knowledge. Then this new knowledge can be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may be considered technologists three fields often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.
The exact relations between science and technology, in particular, was discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. Immediately after the Second world war, for example, he was widely regarded in the US, this technology was simply "applied science" and that to Fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. The articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bushs Treatise on postwar science policy, science – infinity: "new products, new industries and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of laws of nature. This is an important new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research". In the late 1960-ies, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives of science financing for specific initiatives, objectives, resistance from the scientific community. This issue remains controversial, though most analysts resist the model that technology is the result of scientific research.
3.1. History. Paleolithic 2.5 MA – 10 ka. (Палеолит 2.5 Ма – 10 ка)
The use of tools early humans was partly a process of learning and evolution. Ancient people evolved from a species feeding hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third modern humans. Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. Approximately 50.000 years ago, there were tools and a complex behavior that is considered by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully modern language.
3.2. History. Stone tools. (Каменные орудия)
Hominids began to use primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than fractured rock, but approximately 75.000 years ago, the peeling pressure were given the opportunity to do much finer work.
3.3. History. Fire. (Огонь)
Discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological development of mankind. The exact date of its opening is not known, evidence of burnt animal bones at the cradle of humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 mA, scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus controlled fire between 500 and 400 ka. Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed the ancient people to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and to enhance the amount of food you can eat.
3.4. History. Clothing and shelter. (Одежда и кров)
Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic clothing, and shelter, the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were one of the main human progress. In the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more complex, in 380 ka, people have built temporary wooden barracks. Clothes, taken from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions, people began to migrate from Africa 200 ka and on other continents, such as Eurasia.
3.5. History. Neolithic to antiquity 10 ka – 300 n. (Неолита к античности 10 ка – 300)
Peoples technological ascent began in what is known as the Neolithic "new stone age". The invention of polished stone axes was a major step forward, allowing deforestation on a large scale to create farms. Is the use of polished stone axes, have increased significantly in the Neolithic era, but was originally used in the preceding Mesolithic in some areas, such as Ireland. Agriculture fed a large population, and the transition to sedentary life allowed simultaneously to raise more children, and children no longer had to perform as the nomads needs. Additionally, children could contribute labor education culture more readily than they could get from the hunter-gatherer economy.
With this increase in population and availability of labor came increase labor specialization. What caused the transition from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations such as Sumer, is not specifically known, but the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures and specialized labor, trade and war between neighboring cultures, and the need for joint action to overcome environmental problems such as reflux, everyone thought, played a role.
3.6. History. Metal tools
Further improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge gold, copper, silver and lead – native metals found in relatively pure form in nature. The advantages of copper tools, stone, bone and wooden tools quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used in the early Neolithic, about 10 ka. Native copper naturally occurs in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. In the end, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass about 4000 BC. The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to about 1800 BC.
3.7. History. Energy and transport. (Энергетики и транспорта)
Meanwhile, people learned to use other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind energy is the sailing ship, the earliest record ship under sail is the boat of the Nile, starting from the 8th Millennium BC. From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used the power of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through a specially constructed irrigation canals and catch basins. The ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia used a complex system of canals and dams to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates for irrigation.
According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 BCE, Probably independently and nearly simultaneously in Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, in the Northern Caucasus Maykop culture Central Europe. Evaluation can take place in the range from 5500 to 3000 BC with the majority of the experts puts it closer to 4000 year BC. The oldest artifacts with drawings of carts date from about 3500 BC, But the wheels may already for thousands of years before we took these pictures. Recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia.
The invention of the wheel revolutionized trade and war. It doesnt take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads. The ancient Sumerians used the wheel and the potters may have invented it. A stone Potters wheel found in the city-state of UR dates to about 3429 BC, and even the old fragments of wheel-thrown pottery were found in the same area. Fast spinning potters wheels enabled early mass production of pottery, but it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy, which has revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources. The first two-wheeled carts were inherited from the travois and was first used in Mesopotamia and Iran around the year 3000 BC.
The oldest known constructed roads paved with stone streets of the city-state of UR, dated about 4000 BC and the forest roads leading through the marshes of Glastonbury, England, Dating from around the same period of time. The first long-distance roads, which came into use about 3500 BC, spanned 1.500 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean sea, but was not paved, and only partly preserved. About 2000 BC the Minoans on the Greek island of Crete, built fifty kilometres thirty-kilometer road leading from the Palace of Gortyn on the South side of the island, through the mountains, in the Palace of Knossos on the Northern side of the island. Unlike the previous road, the Minoan road was fully paved.
3.8. History. Plumbing. (Сантехника)
Ancient Minoan private houses had running water. Was discovered bath is virtually identical to modern in the Palace of Knossos. Several Minoan private houses also had toilets that could be flushed by pouring water into the sewer system. The ancient Romans had many public toilets that are emptied into a vast sewer system. The main sewer in Rome was the cloaca maxima, the construction began in the sixth century BC and is still in use today.
The ancient Romans also had a complex system of aqueducts that were used for the transportation of water over long distances. The first Roman aqueduct was built in 312 BC. The eleventh and final of the ancient Roman aqueduct was built in 226 CE. Taken together, Roman aqueducts extended more than 450 miles, but less than seventy miles it was above the ground and supported by arches.
3.9. History. Medieval and modern history, 300 CE – present. (Средневековой и современной истории, 300 CE – представляем)
Innovation continued in the Middle ages with innovations such as silk, collar and horseshoes in the first few hundred years after the fall of the Roman Empire. Medieval technology began to use simple machines combine to form more complex tools such as the wheelbarrow, windmills and clocks. The Renaissance brought many of these innovations, including the printing press, which contributes to the expansion of relations of knowledge and technology is becoming increasingly associated with science, beginning a cycle of mutual advancement. With the development of technology in the era allowed a more steady supply of food, then the wider availability of consumer goods.
Starting in Britain in the 18th century, the industrial revolution was a period of great technological discovery, particularly in the areas of agriculture, manufacturing industry, mining industry, metallurgy and transport, driven by the discovery of steam power. Technology has taken another step in the second industrial revolution with the advent of electricity to create such innovations as the electric motor, light bulb, and many others. Scientific progress and discovery of new concepts later allowed for breeding and achievements in medicine, chemistry, physics, and engineering. The growth of technology has led to the skyscrapers and wide urban areas, whose residents rely on engines for their transportation and food supply. Communication is also improved with the invention of the Telegraph, telephone, radio and television. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a revolution in transportation with the invention of plane and car.
The 20th century brought many innovations. In physics, discovery of nuclear fission led to nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Computers were also invented and later miniature transistors and integrated circuits. Information technology has led to the creation of the Internet, which has caused the current information age. People were also able to explore space with satellites later used for telecommunication and manned missions towards the moon. In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open heart surgery and later cell therapy along with New medications and therapies.
Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are necessary to achieve and maintain these new technologies and entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations increasingly more complex tools. Modern technology increasingly relies on training and education – their designers, builders, developers, and users often require sophisticated General and specific training. In addition, these technologies have become so complex that entire fields have been created in order to support them, including engineering, medicine, computer science and other fields has been made more complex, such as construction, transport and architecture.
4.1. Philosophy. Technicism. (Техницизм)
Generally, technicism is the belief in the usefulness of technology to improve human societies. Taken to the extreme, technicism "reflects a fundamental attitude which seeks to control reality, to resolve all problems through scientific and technical methods and tools." In other words, human beings will ever be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. Some, such as Stephen V. Monsma, connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority.
4.2. Philosophy. Optimism. (Оптимизм)
Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as a rule, with implications for society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is morally good.
Transhumanists believe that technology is to overcome the barriers, and what we usually call the human condition-its just another barrier to be surpassed.
Singularitarians believe in some kind of "acceleration of change" that the rate of technological progress accelerates as we get more technology and that it will lead to a "singularity" after artificial General intelligence is invented, the progress is almost endless, hence the term. Estimates for the date of the singularity change, but a prominent futurist ray Kurzweil estimates the singularity will occur in 2045.
Kurzweil is also known for its the history of the Universe in six periods: 1 physical / chemical era, 2 life-era 3 man / brain era, 4 technology era, 5 artificial intelligence era, and 6 universal colonization era. Moving from one era to another singularity in its own right, and the period of acceleration precedes it. Each era takes less time, which means that the entire history of the Universe is one giant event a singularity.
Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion human enhancement technological singularity which they support. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist.
4.3. Philosophy. Skepticism and critics. (Скепсиса и критики)
On the somewhat skeptical side certain philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who believe that technological societies are inherently flawed. They suggest that the inevitable result of such a society must become more technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health.
Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious, although not entirely deterministic reservations about technology see "Question of technique". According to Heidegger scholars Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, "Heidegger does not oppose technology. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology in a way that does not limit us to forcing ossified to rush blindly with technology or, what is the same, to rebel helplessly against it. Indeed, he promises that when we open ourselves directly to the essence of technology, we find ourselves suddenly in the release of claims. This suggests a more complex relationship to technology than the techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to allow."
Some of the most pressing critical technologies are now considered to be dystopian literary classics such as Aldous Huxley, brave new world, a Clockwork orange Anthony Burgesss George Orwells nineteen eighty-four. In Goethes Faust sells his soul to the devil in exchange for power over physical world also often interpreted as a metaphor for the introduction of industrial technology. More recently, modern works of science fiction such as those by Philip K. dick and William Gibson, and films such as blade Runner and Ghost in the shell project highly ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technologys impact on human society and identity.
The late cultural critic Neil postman distinguished tool-using societies from technological societies and what he called "technopolies," in societies in which the dominant ideology of scientific and technological progress to the detriment or harm of other cultural traditions, values and worldviews.
Darin Barney has written about the impact of technology on the practice of citizenship and Democratic culture, suggesting that technology can be interpreted as 1 object political debate 2 means or medium of discussion, and 3 setting for democratic debate and citizenship. As a setting for democratic culture, Barney suggests that technology tends to make ethical questions, including the question of what the good life consists in, nearly impossible, because they already give an answer to the question: a good life is one that involves the use of more and more technology.
Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technologies such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic biology and robotics. He warns that these technologies introduce unprecedented new challenges to human, including the possibility of permanent changes in our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers, scientists and intellectuals who wrote about similar problems.
Another prominent critic technology Hubert Dreyfus who has published books such as on the Internet and what computers still cant do.
More infamous anti-technological treatise is industrial society and its future, written by the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski and printed in several major Newspapers and later books, as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure. There are also subcultures that do not approve of some or most of the technologies, such as off-gridders.
4.4. Philosophy. Appropriate technologies. (Соответствующих технологий)
The concept of appropriate technology was developed in the 20th century, thinkers like E. F. Schumacher and of Jacques Ellul to describe situations where it was not desirable to use new technologies or those that require access to centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from other countries. There was a movement ecovillage partly because of this problem.
4.5. Philosophy. Optimism and skepticism in the 21st century. (Оптимизм и скептицизм в 21 веке)
This section mainly focuses on American problems, even if it may be reasonably generalized to other Western countries.
Insufficient quantity and quality of jobs in America is one of the major economic challenges we face. collaborators in research and problem solving, not just providers of information and technical solutions."
5. Other species. (Других видов)
The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as chimpanzees, some Dolphin communities, and crows. Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control, we can also refer to animal examples such as beavers and their dams, or bees and honeycombs.
The ability to make and use tools was previously considered a hallmark of the genus Homo. However, the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and primates, associated rejected the idea of applying the technology are unique to humans. For example, researchers have observed wild chimps using tools for feeding: some tools used include leaf sponges, Termite fishing probes, pestles and levers. West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts, as do Capuchin monkeys of Boa Vista, Brazil.
6. The technology of the future. (Технологии будущего)
Theories of technology often attempt predict future technology based high technology and science of the time. As with all predictions of the future, but the technology is uncertain.
In 2005, futurist ray Kurzweil predicted that in the future technology will mainly consist of overlapping "GNR" revolution of genetics, nanotechnology and robotics, since robotics is the most important of the three.