★ Nazism and cinema
Nazism created an elaborate system of propaganda, which used the new technology of the 20th century, including cinema. Nazism courted the masses by the slogans that were aimed directly at the instincts and emotions of people. The Nazis valued film as a propaganda instrument of enormous power. The interest that Adolf Hitler and his propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels took in film was not only the result of personal charm. The use of film for propaganda had been planned by the National Socialist German workers party in early 1930, when the party first established a cinema Department.
1. Background. (Фон)
Before the Nazis realize the propaganda effect of the films, and in 1920-e years, the problems of racial observer included criticism. SS-philosopher Walter Julius Blum published the book "the Soul of a movie commitment movies" in 1922.
In September 1923 Philip Nickel released documentary" German day in Nuremberg”, where" battle League” was founded shortly before the beer hall putsch. Hitler wrote about the psychological effect of images in Mein Kampf:One must also remember that of itself the multitude is mentally inert, that it remains attached to its old habits and that it is not naturally prone to read something which does not conform with its own pre-established beliefs when such writing does not contain what the multitude hopes to find there. The picture, in all its forms, including the film, has better prospects. In a much shorter time, at one stroke I might say, people will understand a pictorial presentation of something which it would take them a long and laborious effort of reading to understand.
A comprehensive critique of the film industry published by the economist Nazi Hans Buchner in 1927 under the title Charmed movies. The global dominance of the cinema." Further short films about the Nazi party rallies were made in 1927-1929. The first Nazi party film was created in 1931 and began production of "documentaries" on a larger scale, for example, in 1932, "Hitlers Kampf UM Deutschland" Hitlers to fight for Germany, "Blutendes Deutschland" Germany is bleeding, "Das Junge Deutschland marschiert" German youth on the March. Herbert Gerdes the following five directed Nazi propaganda films: Erbkrank 1936, Alles Leben ist Kampf 1937, the hotel Du Ererbt 1938, needs Oder Schein 1921, and Das Geheimnis Grose 1920.
The Nazi propagandist Hans Traub, who received his doctorate in 1925 with a thesis on the press and German revolutions of 1848-49, wrote in the essay "the film as a political tool" in 1932:
Without any doubt, the film is a formidable propaganda tool. Achievements of propaganda influence always demanded language that forms a memorable and passionate story with a simple phrase. In the vast space of such a "language" that the recipient is directly confronted in the process of technical and economic processes, the most effective is the moving image. It requires constant vigilance, it is full of surprises with respect to the change of time, space and action, is the unimaginable wealth of rhythm to enhance or dissipate emotions.
2. The goal of the Nazi film policy. (Цель нацистской политики фильм)
Goebbels, who appointed himself "patron of the German film", assumed, accurately, that a national cinema which was interesting and put glamour on the government would be more effective propaganda instrument than a national cinema in which the NSDAP and their policy would be everywhere. Goebbels said, to put an end to "shameless and tasteless" that he thought may be found in the former film. The main goal of the Nazi film policy was to promote escapism, which was designed to distract the population and keep everyone in a good mood, because Goebbels blamed the defeat in the First world war, the inability to maintain the spirit of the people.
The open propaganda was reserved for films like der Sieg Des Glaubens hotel and Triumph de Willens records of the Nuremberg trials, and newsreels. There are some examples of German feature films from the Third Reich that deal with the NSDAP or with party organizations such as the Sturmabteilung, Hitler youth or the national labour service, one notable example being Hitlerjunge Quex about the Hitler youth. Another example is anti-Semitic film Jew Suss. The propaganda films that refer directly to Nazi politics constitute less than one sixth of the whole national film production, which mainly consisted of light entertainment films.
For the conception of the Nazi theory of film, Goebbels suggested that as the forming material of the Hamburg dramaturgy, and Laocoon, or the limits of poetry of gotthold Ephraim Lessing, and also demanded "realistic characters" indicates Shakespeare. Goebbels stressed the Lessings the idea that "not only imagining, per se, but purposeful, imagining, evidence of a creative mind".
Emil Jannings wrote in 1942, in the National socialist monthly about the purpose of showing men and women that can manage their destiny as a model for identification. The organs and units of the Nazi party in charge of policy of the Department of film propaganda Ministry, the chamber of culture, Reichskulturkammer, chamber Reichsfilmkammer film, and the film of the propaganda Department of the Reichspropagandaleitung of the branch of the party.
Was used to encourage self-censorship, awarded for things like "cultural values" or "values people," they have transferred a part of the heavy taxes on films of the system "awards". Up to a third of the films of the Third Reich received such awards.
3. Policies of the Nazis film. (Политика нацистов фильм)
To subdue film to the goals of propaganda Gleichschaltung, the Nazi party subordinated the entire film industry and administration under the leadership of the Ministry of propaganda of Goebbels, and gradually nationalized film production and distribution. State professional school for politically reliable film Directors of the German film Academy Babelsberg was founded, and belonging to the official professional organization Reichsfilmkammer became mandatory for all actors, Directors, distributors, etc. Censorship which was created during the First World War and the Weimar Republic was increased with National playwright, film Reichsfilmdramaturg prior censorship of all manuscripts and screenplays at the very first stages of production. Criticism of the film was banned and the national film awards established.
The film Filmkreditbank Bank GmbH established to provide low-interest loans for the production of politically-welcome to films, and such films also received tax benefits.
4. Film production. (Производство фильмов)
In the mid 1930-ies, the German film industry suffered the most serious crisis which has ever faced. There were several reasons for this crisis. First, many of the most talented actors and Directors left the country after the coming to power of the Nazi government, others were banned new Reichsfilmkammer.
These people left a gap that the film industry could not easily fill. Second, the remaining actors and Directors took the opportunity to demand higher wages, which have significantly increased the budgets of production. Consequently, it became more and more difficult to recover production costs. Thirdly, the export of German films has decreased dramatically due to the international boycott. In 1933, exports constitute 44% of the production costs of the film, by 1937, this figure had fallen to 7%.
More and more production companies went bankrupt. The number of companies dropped from 114 to 79 1933-35 1936-38 1939-41 to 38. This does not necessarily leads to a reduction in the number of new films, as surviving production companies became more prolific, producing many films. The Nazi establishment went to the issue of joint production with companies from other countries: eight joint ventures with the Kingdom of Italy, six joint projects with the French Third Republic, five co-productions with the Kingdom of Hungary, 5 in co-production with Czechoslovakia, 3 co-productions with Switzerland, two co-productions from the Second Polish Republic and the Empire of Japan, for example, a samurais Daughter, and one each from Francos Spain, USA,Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Sweden.
The consolidation of the film industry the benefit of the Nazi government. On the one hand, an ailing and unprofitable film industry would not be of much use for the requirements of propaganda. But on the other hand, a small number of large manufacturers of films, it was easier to control than many smaller ones. Goebbels went even further and released the holding – guarantee of Treuhand GmbH – to buy up shares of most other film-makers.
Government subsidies in the film industry has led to increased value of production: average cost of production of the film five times in the 250.000 ℛℳ in 1933 in the amount of 982.146 in 2009 to 1.380.000 ℛℳ in 1942, in the amount of 4.903.275 in 2009. Selling tickets in the Reich and four times with 250 million in 1933 to more than a billion in 1942. Box-office takings more than doubled from 441 million ℛℳ in 1938, equivalent to 2 billion € 2009 to 1 billion ℛℳ in 1942 of $ 4 billion in 2009 €.
In 1937, the surety has acquired the largest German production company, Universum film AG, and in 1942 merged this company with the rest of S – Terra film, Tobis, Bavaria film, Wien-film and Berlin-film – the so-called signs group. With one stroke, the entire German film industry was virtually nationalized, but remained nominally private enterprises. Goebbels founded Filmkreditbank GmbH to Finance industry, but the funds came from private investors. The industry was forced to remain profitable to produce films that meet audience expectations.
UVI has been successful, vertically integrated monopoly, covering the whole of the European film market under German hegemony, with foreign imports cut off. The companys profit rose, reaching 155 million ℛℳ in 1942, equivalent to 551 million 2009 € 175 million ℛℳ in 1943 is equivalent to 606 million 2009 €.
5. Award-winning films. (Фильмы-призеры)
Officially honored films considered the Third Reich to be "artistically valuable" by the German language: kunstlerisch wertvoll state * = predicate "special political value" was introduced in 1934, = the predicate "traditional values" - German: volkstumlich wertvoll, ** = predicate "film of the nation", introduced in 1941):
6. Theaters. (Театры)
Also held a concentration in distribution. In 1942, the Ufa-owned Deutsche Filmvertriebs GmbH organizes industry took the place of all companies still remaining. To export films to foreign countries special institutions were established, such as movie AG.
Since the days of the Weimar Republic, there existed an extensive system of educational services, the film, which was extended under the Nazi administration. In 1943 there were 37 regional services 12.042 city services. In parallel with the propaganda Department of the Reichspropagandaleitung of the party launched its own network of educational film hire services which included 32 Gaue, 171 district, and 22.357 local services. All the movie rental services extensive movie collection and can also rent 16 mm film projectors available, which gave the opportunity to show films in any classroom or auditorium at any meeting of the group the Hitler youth.
7. Cinema. (Кино)
Apart from the Ufa-owned theatre chain, the cinemas were not nationalized. Most 5.506 cinemas that existed in 1939 within the so-called Altreich were small businesses, private owners. However, a large number of rules and regulations issued by the Reichsfilmkammer restricts the entrepreneurial freedom of the cinemas considerably. For example, it is obligatory documentaries and newsreels in every film program. According to the law of 1933 On Uber die Vorfuhrung auslandischer Bildstreifen FOM 23. June 1933 the government also has the right to prohibit the presentation of foreign films. The quota for the import of foreign films was during the Weimar Republic, and during the Second world war the import of films from certain foreign countries was entirely prohibited. For example, since 1941, the presentation of American films were deemed illegal.
A quantitative comparison of the percentage of German films on the screen foreign films on the screen shows the following figures: in the last year of the Weimar Republic, the share of German films was 62%, and in 1939 the Third Reich was 77% and the number of visits to the cinema increased by a factor of 2.5 from 1933 to 1939, on the contrary, the percentage, for example, American movies on the screen was reduced from 26% In 1932 to 14% in 1939 from 1933 to 1937, eleven of the movies we considered "artistically valuable" by the Nazi authorities, for example, Lives of a Bengal Lancer.
In order to increase the propaganda effect, the Nazis supported film shows in cinemas with large audiences, where the sense of being part of the crowd was so overwhelming for the individual viewer that the critical perception of the film had little chance. The film shows also took place in the barracks and factories. Hitler organized a special film programme Jugendfilmstunden where newsreels and propaganda films were shown. To ensure rural and remote areas, film shows, propaganda Department of the Reichspropagandaleitung of the party there were 300 trucks of film and two film trains, which carried all the necessary equipment for showing films, for example, village hotel. The Nazis intended to use the television as a medium for their propaganda, when the number of TVs was increased, but the television was initially to leave only a small number of viewers, unlike radio. Only a small amount Einheitsempfanger TV also called on the peoples TV, was produced.
Film propaganda was a top priority in Germany, even in the harsh conditions of the last years of the Second world war. And schools and theatres have stopped working in 1944, cinemas continued to operate until the end of the war. In Berlin, for example, anti-aircraft units were placed specifically to protect the local cinemas in 1944.
8. Star system. (Звездная система)
There have always been film stars in Germany, but a star system comparable to the star system in Hollywood was not. Various Nazi leaders denounced the star system as a Jewish invention. However, in order to improve the image of Nazi Germany, Goebbels made great efforts for the formation of star systems. After Marlene Dietrich and Greta Garbo had gone to Hollywood and could not be persuaded to serve the National socialist film industry as figureheads, was nominated new movie stars.
The most famous example is the Swedish actress Zarah Leander who was hired in 1937 by the Ufa and became the most famous and highest-paid German movie star in only a few years. Information campaign for Leander was run in the press-service of the Ufa, which concealed her past as an actress already well known in Sweden and to put my money on her charisma as a singer with an extremely deep voice. The Ufa press office provided the Newspapers with detailed instructions about how a new star should be presented, and even the actress herself had to follow detailed instructions whenever she appeared in public. This kind of star publicity did not exist in Germany.
Prominent political figures like Hitler, Goebbels, and Hermann göring appeared in public surrounded by popular German actors of the film. Female stars in particular were supposed to lend some Glamour to dry and mens events of the Nazi party. Hitlers preferred dinner partners were the Actresses Olga Tschechowa and Lil Dagover, and from 1935, Hermann göring was married to the popular actress Emmy Sonnemann. The relationships of Goebbels to several female film stars are also notorious. Magda Goebbels left a screening of the film die Reise nach Tilsit, because it seemed too close to talking about her relationships with men Lida Baarova, with the result that the actress was sent back to his homeland of Czechoslovakia.
Personal access to the political leaders became a determining factor for the career success of film actors. The informal system of listings decided how frequently an actor will be thrown. Five categories extended from "to cast at all costs even without a vacancy" to "forms are in any case welcome."
How crucial the movie stars were for the image of the national socialist government is also evident from tax benefits that Hitler ordered in 1938 for the famous actors and Directors. Since that time, they could deduct 40% of their income as professional expenses.
Nazi theorist Fritz Hippler wrote in 1942 a book of reflections on cinema: "written "celebritism" is beneficial or harmful - but anyway, it cannot be denied that throughout the world the main motive of people going to the movies to see the individuals whom they know and like" and Heppler suggested that the stars choose for the Nazi movie has to be "European standard" and at the same time appeal to the "German ideal of beauty", so that the Germans could identify with them. Non-German actors in Nazi cinema, for example, Zarah Leander, Marika Rokk, Lida Baarova, Pola Negri, Adina Mandlova as Johannes Heesters, Ivan Petrovich, Laura Solari, Angelo Ferrari, Rossano Brazzi, and Nicholas F. Colin, Boris Alekin Russian, iGO sym, a Polish, Rosita Serrano Chile. Russian Viktor Tourjansky and Hungarian Geza von Bolvary was popular with German Directors.
In 1944, Joseph Goebbels published the infamous list of "irreplaceable artists" called the Gottbegnadeten list, which included people such as Arno Breker, Richard Strauss and Johannes Heesters.
During the Second world war, German film stars supported the war effort by performing for the troops or by collecting money for German Winter relief organization Winterhilfswerk. Although most of the male stars were exempted from military service, some – such as the popular Heinz Ruhmann – took part in the war as soldiers, often accompanied by camera crews newsreels.
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