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The Birds (film)
                                     

★ The Birds (film)

Birds in 1963, the American horror-Thriller film Director and producer Alfred Hitchcock. Based on the story by 1952, the novel Daphne Du Maurier, it focuses on a series of unexpected and inexplicable attacks of birds on people in Bodega Bay, California, for several days.

Starring: rod Taylor, Tippi Hedren, and her debut screen supported Jessica Tandy, Best male role and Veronica Cartwright. The script is by Evan hunter, who said Hitchcock to develop new characters and more detailed plot, while keeping the du Mauriers title and concept of unexplained bird attacks.

In 2016, poultry is considered "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" in the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National film register.

                                     

1. The plot. (Сюжет)

Melanie Daniels Tippi Hedren, the young socialite, a criminal defense lawyer Mitch Brenner rod Taylor in San Francisco pet shop. Mitch wants to buy a pair of lovers on his 11th sisters birthday, but not in the store. He recognizes Melanie from a court appearance, she was always there for her participation in the draw, which ended the window was broken, but she doesnt know him, hes playing a prank, pretending to have mistaken it for the shop. Melanie is furious at the prank, but finds himself romantically intrigued Mitch.

Melanie purchases a pair of lovebirds and drives to Mitchs address weekend in Bodega Bay to deliver them. Wanting to surprise him, she leases a motor boat so she can go to the Brenner house from the Bay instead of the road. She sneaks out of the birds inside the house and headed back across the Bay. Mitch discovers, birds, spots Melanies boat during its retreat, and goes around the Bay to meet her. Melanie attacked and injured gulls near the shore of the city. Mitch looks at her bruises and invites her to dinner, she hesitantly agrees.

Melanie discovers Mitch, his domineering mother Lydia Jessica Tandy, his younger sister Katie, Veronica Cartwright. She also befriends local schoolteacher Annie Hayworth Best actor, Mitchs ex-lover. During the nights in Annies home, she and Annie startled by a loud knocking: a gull kills itself by flying to the front door. On the birthday of Katie the next day, the visitors attacked Gulls. The following evening, sparrows invade the Brenner home through the chimney.

The next morning, Lydia, widow, who still maintains the family HOMESTEAD, a visit to a neighboring farmer to discuss the unusual behavior of their chickens. She finds farmers eyeless corpse fell lifeless bird, and flees in terror. Arriving home, she expresses concern about Cathys safety at school. Melanie drives there and waits for class to end, not knowing that a big flock of crows massing on the adjoining ground. Unnerved when she sees her pull-up bar covered by them, she warns Annie, and they evacuate the children. The noise interferes with the ravens at the attackers, wounding several children.

Melanie meets Mitch at a local restaurant, where several patrons are describing an aggressive collision. Ornithologist dismisses the reports as fanciful and argues that birds do not have enough intelligence for coordinated attacks on people. Soon the birds start to attack people outside the restaurant, knocking the tanker unconscious while he fuelling, which spills out onto the streets. Passerby trying to light a cigar, lighting a puddle of gasoline, which incinerates him. The explosion attracts a lot of seagulls that swarm menacingly as an attempt of the inhabitants to extinguish the fire. Melanie took refuge in a phone booth, but the gulls fly into the glass walls and destroy them. Saved by Mitch, Melanie returns to the restaurant where crazed patron accuses her of attacks that began with her arrival. Mitch and Melanie to visit the home of Annie and find that she was killed by the crows, while joined Katie in security inside the house.

That night Melanie and the Brenners to seek refuge inside the family house, which is attacked by waves of birds that almost broke the barricaded doors and Windows. During a lull between attacks, Melanie hears the sound of fluttering wings. Realizing the sounds coming from above, she carefully climbs the stairs and enters the bedroom Katie, where she discovers that the birds have entered the roof. They attack her, locking her in the room until Mitch rescues her. Melanie seriously injured and almost in a stupor, Mitch insists they must get her to the hospital and suggests that they go to San Francisco.

How Mitch prepares a car Melanies for their escape, sea birds gathers menacingly around the Brenner house. Radio reports on the attacks of birds on the nearby communities such as Santa Rosa and suggests that the military may intervene to suppress the inexplicable attacks. Cathy gets two lovebirds out of the house and joins Mitch and Lydia and they closely follow Melanie to the car by a mass of birds nearby. The car slowly makes its way through the landscape, in which thousands of birds perching ominously.

                                     

2.1. Production. Development. (Развитие)

The screenplay for the film based on Daphne du Mauriers short story "the birds", which was first published in her 1952 collection of short stories the Apple tree. The main character of the novel is a Laborer, living in Cornwall, and in conclusion, this story is much more pessimistic than the film. It was adapted by Evan hunter, who previously wrote for the magazine and Alfred Hitchcocks mystery, and the TV series is an anthology, Alfred Hitchcock presents. The relationship between hunter and Hitchcock during the creation of birds has been described by the writer in 1997 autobiography me and hitch, which contains a variety of correspondence between the writer, Director and Hitchcocks assistant Peggy Robertson.

Hunter began working on the screenplay in September 1961. He and Hitchcock developed the story, suggesting foundations such as the townspeople having a guilty something to hide, and the birds an instrument of punishment. He suggested that the film begin using some elements borrowed from eccentric Comedy genre, then it will turn into "stark terror". This appealed to Hitchcock, according to the writer, because it conformed to his love of suspense: the title and advertising would have informed the audience that attack, but they dont know when. The initial humor of subsequent terror will turn the expectation into shock. First, the hunter wanted the main character to be a school teacher, but it ended up being the basis for the character of Annie Hayworth instead. Hunter organized his scripts shots instead of scenes, although it did not affect the outcome of the film.

Hitchcock solicited comments from several people regarding the first draft of the script hunters. Consolidating their criticisms, Hitchcock wrote to hunter, suggesting that the scenario especially the first part was too long, contained insufficient qualification in the two wires, and that some scenes lacked drama and audience interest. Hitchcock at later stages consulted with his friends Hume cronyn, whose wife Jessica Tandy was playing Lydia, and V. S. Pritchett, who offered a lengthy meditation on the work. Is that a hunter has found to work. Hitchcock cut the last 10 pages of the script, although some sources claim that it is possible, in order to create a more ambiguous ending. Initially, he wanted the film to end without "end" card, but he was forced to include one to films Full release.

                                     

2.2. Production. Birds used in the film. (Птицы, используемые в фильме)

Most birds seen in the film is real, although it is believed that over $ 200.000 was spent on the creation of mechanical birds for the film. Ray Berwick was responsible for live birds used in the production, training and catch many of them myself. Gulls were caught at the San Francisco dump and sparrows were caught by John "Bud" Cardos. However, the captured sparrows should be used along with birds pet shops for achieving the full effect in the scene where they invade the house.

                                     

2.3. Production. Soundtrack. (Саундтрек)

Hitchcock decided to do without any of the usual random result. Instead, it uses sound effects and sparse source music in contrast to the calculated silence. He wanted to use the electroacoustic development-Trautonium to create bird calls and noises. He first encountered this predecessor of the synthesizer on Berlin radio in the late 1920-ies. It was invented by Friedrich Trautwein, and further developed by Oskar Sala Trautonium in that will create some of the bird sounds for this film.

The Director commissioned Sala and Remi gassmana to develop electronic soundtrack. They have enrolled in the "electronic sound production and composition" and Hitchcocks previous music producer Bernard Herrmann is credited as "sound consultant".

Source music includes the first of Claude Debussys DEUX arabesques, which Tippi Hedrens character plays the piano, and "Risseldy Rosseldy", the Americanized version of the Scottish folk song "Wee Cooper OFife" which singing students.



                                     

2.4. Production. Special effects. (Специальные эффекты)

After the attack of the crow and the attic scenes were collected as film Editor, George Tomasini, they were sent to a special effects Department to improve the quality of the image. The film requires a lot of special effects and Hitchcock was assigned to help in various studios. Special effects shots of the attacking birds was completed at the Walt Disney studios by animator / technician UB changed the world, which use the sodium vapor process "yellow screen", which he helped to develop. The SV process films the screen lit with narrow-spectrum sodium vapor lights. Unlike most compositing processes, SVP shoots two separate elements of the footage simultaneously using a beam splitter. One coil ordinary film and film with emulsion sensitive only to the sodium vapor wavelength. This results in very precise matte shots compared to blue effects required in connection with the "banding" pictures of bird of rapid wing flapping. Disney changed the world worked on the following scene: the childrens holiday, Melanie driving to Bodega Bay, and the first two cuts direct sequence attack. One of the biggest problems facing changed the world was a stage, where the number of sparrows fly into the house through the chimney of the house. Using an optical printer, it is a superposition of a group of small birds flying inside a closed glass box let birds multiply in the living room. Most of the special effects work at Disney was completed in the lab process in the printer 10, which was made of changed the world of their own original design.

At MGM, Bob HOGAN was put in charge of optical effects for the sequence where Melanie hides in a phone booth, as he attacks the bird. Hitchcock asked HOAG to remove any shot where Melanie looked calm and assured that it will be in constant motion. HOGAN, along with a team of 30 worked together on the blue backing and brushed injections of sodium. Linwood Dunn, founder effects movie from Hollywood, was assigned to work in the attic scene. He was asked to produce a draft sequence to Hitchcock went to Berlin in December of 1962. Bill Abbott, a Fox was responsible for the optical effects sequences for direct attack, which would take six weeks to complete. Abbott organized two teams – both work 11 hours a day – work on the sequence at the same time. Abbotts big problem was the size ratio, as he had to ensure that the birds looked like they are attacking children. He achieved this by placing the bird in the frame and zoom in on them to make them the right size in proportion to the children. In universal, assistant editor, Ross Hoffman, and matte artist albert Whitlock, both worked on the design of the background of the cities, including the birds in the trees and scenery for filming of the river of Melanies car arriving in Bodega Bay. The birds are 370 effects shots, the last shot being a composite of 32 separate elements.

                                     

3. Premiere and awards. (Премьеры и награды)

The film premiered March 28, 1963 in new York. At the Museum of modern art hosted a by invitation only showings in the 50-Film retrospective of Hitchcocks movie experience. The MOMA series had a booklet with a monograph on the Director, wrote Peter Bogdanovich. The film was screened out of competition at the prestigious Invitational showing at the 1963 Cannes film festival with Hitchcock and Hedren in attendance.

UB changed the world was nominated for an Oscar for best special effects. This years winner was Cleopatra. Tippi Hedren received the award "Golden globe" new star of the year – actress in 1964, sharing it with Ursula Andress and Elke Sommer. She also received the film as most promising newcomer. The film takes 1st place in the top 10 foreign films selected by the Bengal journalists Association movie awards. Hitchcock also received the Association Director for the film.

He also won the horror hall of Fame award in 1991.



                                     

4.1. Themes and style. Topics. (Темы)

Among the Central subjects discussed in the Poultry about love and violence. The representation of birds in the film is constantly changing, reflecting the development of these themes, and the story itself. First, lovers at the pet store means a blossoming of love between Melanie and Mitch and the sexual tension between these two. But the birds of the symbols changes when they begin to attack Bodega Bay. Hitchcock said in an interview that the birds in the film will rise up against people to punish them for taking nature for granted.

Another topic to be considered in the provocation of civilians. This is because birds attack anyone who goes outside, thus leaving people trapped in their homes.

Humanities scholar Camille Paglia wrote a monograph about the film for the films the BFI classics. She interpretered it as an ode to the many aspects of female sexuality and, consequently, by nature. She notes that women play a key role in it. Mitch is defined by his relationship with his mother, sister and ex – lover- a careful balance which is disrupted by his attraction to the beautiful Melanie.

                                     

4.2. Themes and style. Style. (Стиль)

Editing, montage and slow pacing used in movies to create suspense and evoke a greater emotional response from the audience during the scene of the attack: "the pattern of the birds were deliberately going slowly." This is evident in the scene where the birds gradually gather near the school, while the unobservant Melanie sits and waits on the bench. Then the camera switches between her and an increasing number of birds swoop down on the bar behind her, until they finally attack.

Removes matches with the perspective of POV in the film to facilitate the identification of the audience with special characters and their subjective experience. This is achieved by cutting between the symbol and the object of their gaze. For example, when Melanie crosses the Bay at the beginning of the film, the camera switches between close UPS of her face and shots of the Brenner house from her point of view as she watches Mitch fall for her prank.

Focus on editing and visual effects rather than dialogue is also an element of pure cinema that Hitchcock uses in many respects throughout his work.

                                     

5. Welcome

Birds received mixed reviews upon its initial release. Bosley Crowther of the "new York times" was positive, calling it "a horror film that should raise the feathers on the most courageous and put goose-pimples on difficult to hide." Crowther was sure that bird was supposed to be an allegory, because "it is not in Mr. Hitchcocks style, to give an allegorical meaning or social significance in his films", but he suggested that they may represent the furies from Greek mythology who pursue the wicked on earth."

Stanley Kauffmann of the New Republic called the birds the worst of his Thriller Hitchcock that I can remember.

Richard L. CoE the Washington post called it "great fun" in the spirit of Hitchcocks earlier black Comedy the trouble with Harry, adding that "I have never had such fun as king Kong fell from the Empire state building". Monthly film Bulletin wrote, "for all the colorful scenes in attack down the chimney, one rarely has a chance on distrust," but the review still thought that "there is still a lot more to enjoy than carp."

Philip K. Scheuer of the Los Angeles times was among the critics, with the film, writing that Hitchcock "was once widely quoted as saying he hated actors. After 1960s Psycho and the birds now, it should be pretty obvious that he expanded his abhorrence of the whole human race. For reasons that are hardly justified either dramatically or aesthetically, the old master became the master of the vicious. He went all out to shock for the sake of shocks and is very bad." Variety published a mixed assessment, writing that while the film was "slippery fulfilled and enriched his characteristic tongue-in-cheek touches," Hitchcock "deals more provocatively and effectively in the human threat. Fantasy the framework dilutes the toxic contents of its patented terror-tension formula, and gives the image a sci-Fi exploitation feel, albeit with a hint of gloss production." Brendan Gill of "the new Yorker" called the film "a miserable failure. Its hard to believe Hitchcock, it fails to intrigue, which, of course, is what justifies and transforms the sadism that lies at the heart of any Thriller. Here the sadism is all too barely, repellently a gift."

This is the only film Hitchcock, has been described in the magazine "Murzilka". In a mad parody, it "became clear" that the birds are under the control of Burt Lancaster as revenge for him not winning the Oscar this year for his starring role in Birdman of Alcatraz.

The film was first broadcast on NBC from January 6, 1968, and became the most popular film on TV beating the bridge on the river Kwai with a Nielsen rating of 38.9 and on audience share of 59%. This record was broken in 1972 a love story.

Over time, the movies, standing among critics has improved. On rotten tomatoes, this assertion has a rating of 96% based on 52 reviews from critics, with an average rating of 8.2 / 10 and the site consensus reads: "proving once again that build is the key to suspense, Hitchcock successfully turned birds into some of the most terrifying villains in horror history." On Metacritic it has a score of 87 out of 100 based on reviews from 12 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Film critic David Thomson refers to him as Hitchcocks "the last movie without any flaw".

The film was awarded a prize by the American film Institute as the seventh greatest Thriller in American cinema.

                                     

6. Disputes. (Споры)

A dispute arose in relation to the nature of Alfred Hitchcock and Tippi Hedrens relationship during the filming of the birds. The press claimed that there were several occasions when Hitchcock acted inappropriately towards her. The cast and crew described his behaviour as "obsessive", and the press claimed that "he suddenly grabbed me and put his hands on me. It was sex". Hedren said that she rejected Hitchcocks success repeatedly. After this supposed failure, Hedren was injured during the filming of the phone booth scene of the attack, and hence a lot of cuts on my face from the window at her. In addition, she claimed that she was misled about the logistics of the final sequence of the attack, where the mechanical bird was replaced with a real one at the last minute. It has been suggested that "Hitchcocks Intentional infliction of harm was revenge for Hedrens rejecting his advances". Also Hitchcock signed Hedren to a seven-year contract, which she said restricted her ability to work. These allegations were not brought to light until the death of the Hitchcocks. Although they were never confirmed, they were widely reported, including Hedrens co-star, rod Taylor. However, some publicly called Hedren in "liar and fantasist". The controversy this relationship is explored in the film 2012 LPG / bi-Bi-si, the girl. Hedrens daughter Melanie Griffith argues that Hitchcocks abuse extended to her, when he played a "prank", giving six-year-old Melanie with a wax figure of the mother in a miniature coffin.

Presumably, the Daphne du Maurier didnt like the movie, like Hitchcock moved to a place with farm in England on a sleepy beach in Northern California.

The movie refers to an incident that occurred in Capitola, California in August 1961, when a group of birds seemed to attack the whole community. "Hordes of sea birds were dive-bombing their homes, crashing into cars and spewing half-digested anchovies on the grass." Supposedly birds eat the toxic algae that caused them to behave strangely.



                                     

7. Continued. (Продолжение)

Bad-got the TV sequel, the birds two: Lands end, was released in 1994. Director Rick Rosenthal removed his name from credit and Hollywood pseudonym Alan Smithee. The sequel describes a completely new characters and a different setting, with Bodega Bay is mentioned only once. Tippi Hedren returns to the support role, but not as her original character.

                                     
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Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation
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