★ Cinema of Europe
Cinema of Europe refers to the film industry and films produced on the European continent.
Europeans were the pioneers of the film industry, with several innovative engineers and artists making an impact, especially at the end of the 19th century. Louis Le Prince became famous for his 1888 Roundhay, in the garden scene, the first known celluloid film recorded. The Skladanowsky brothers from Berlin used his "Bioscop" surprise invites the audience to the first film show ever, November 1 through 31, 1895. The lumière brothers created the cinematograph, which marked the beginning of the era of silent movies, at a time when European film was a huge commercial success. It remained so until the art-hostile environment of world war II. These notable findings give some idea of the power of early European cinema and his ongoing influence on cinema today.
Notable early European movements in the films of German expressionism of the 1920-ies, Soviet montage of the 1920s, the years, French cinema of the 1920s, the Impressionists, and Italian neorealism of the 1940s, it was a period now seen in retrospect as "the other Hollywood". The war led to the birth of art and in this case, the birth movie. German expressionism was awakened emotions of the people, by the strange, nightmare-like visions and options, highly stylized and very visible to the eye. Soviet montage too much in common and created by well-known film changes known as Kino-eye effect, the effect of Kuleshov and intelligent installation. French cinema Impressionists have built the essence of cinema, as in France, the movie was an innovative country that has experienced the birth of cinema in the medium invented by the Lumiere brothers. Italian neorealism developed a vivid reality through a human lens by creating low-budget films outside directly on the streets of Italy. All movements of the film are largely affected by the war, but which played as a catalyst to stimulate the film industry at its most promising in Europe.
Significant movement during the early European cinema participate in the stylistic conventions of famous Directors and historical films that have influenced modern cinema to the present day. Below you will find a list of Directors, films, film award, film festivals and actors that were stars are born from these movements the film.
1.1. History. 20th century. (20-го века)
According to one study, "in 1900-ies in the European film industry was in good shape. European companies for the first time as technological innovations such as projection, colour processes and talking pictures, and content innovations such as the weekly newsreel, cartoon, serial and feature film. They occupied a large share of the US market, which sometimes reaches 60 percent. French film company hastened in the establishment of foreign production subsidiaries and distribution in the European countries and the United States and dominated the world of film until the mid 1910-ies. In the early 1920-ies it was changed. European cinema was held only a minor share of the US market and a small share of domestic markets. Most of the major European companies sold their foreign branches and left the film industry at home, while developing Hollywood studios because of their foreign distribution network".
The European film Academy was founded in 1988 to celebrate European cinema through the European film annual premiums.
Philippe Binant realized, on 2 February 2000, the first digital projection in Europe, with the DLP cinema technology developed by Texas instruments, in Paris.
Founded in 1992 with funding from the media programme "Creative Europe" and CNC, France, Europa cinemas is the first theatre movie network focusing on European films. Its objective is providing operational and financial support to cinemas that commit to screen a significant number of European non-national films, to offer events and initiatives as well as promotional activities targeted at young audiences. Thanks to the support of the Fund and the Ministry of foreign Affairs of France, the impact of Cinema Europe extends to the countries of Eastern Europe, the Balkans, Russia and Turkey.
Cinema of Europe in 2019, with 43 countries and 725 cities 1.204 cinema, 2.992 screens
- The Fund: 3 countries, 37 cities, 58 cinemas, 205 screens.
- Mae: 5 countries, 5 cities, 6 cinemas, 15 screens}}.
- Media: 33 countries, 602 cities 1.014 cinema, 2.428 screens.
Today we production in the European market. On average, European films are distributed only 2 or 3 countries, the US production for almost 10. Top 10 most popular films in Europe in the period between 1996 and 2016 to all of us production or co-production. But us productions of the most popular cinema in this period was the Intouchables, a French production, like most other films in the top 10. In 2016-2017 only partially European film in the top ten most popular films in Europe was Dunkirk. Besides him, who was in the Netherlands, the UK, France and USA joint production of the European film with the best results was Paddington 2, which sold 9.1 million tickets.
2. German Expressionism. (Немецкий Экспрессионизм)
German expressionism emerged in German art in the early 20th century. The focus of this movement was on internal ideas and feelings of the artists for the replication of facts. Some of the salient features of German expressionism were the bright colors and simplified forms, strokes and signs. Two different inspiration from the style of the movie that is German expressionism and film Noir drives horror films.
2.1. German Expressionism. Outstanding German Directors expressionism. (Выдающийся немецкий директоров экспрессионизм)
- Paul Leni. (Павел Лени)
- Robert Wiene. (Роберт Вине)
- Arthur Robison. (Артур Робисон)
- F. W. Murnau. (Ф. В. Мурнау)
- Fritz Lang. (Фриц Ланг)
Famous German expressionism film:
- Nosferatu 1922, directed by F. W. Murnau.
- Waxworks1924 Director Paul Leni.
- Dr. Mabuse, the player 1922 Director Fritz lang.
- The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari 1920 directed by Robert Wienne.
2.2. German Expressionism. The First World War. (Первой Мировой Войны)
The German film industry was not ready when the First World war. In the early days of the war, almost everyone in the industry was unsafe. The first few victories in the West have changed the mood of the Germans, and they became more Patriotic. As a result, the owners of the theaters in Germany decided to remove all English and French films from the repertoire of German films. Around the same time as the borders were separation because of the war and international trade was closed, the Germans were unable to contact the international cinema for almost ten years. During the July crisis of 1914 was over, there were a lot of films on the German market. However, as the First World war, a state the opponent temporarily banned movies and censorship decrees were entered. All these factors together caused an acute shortage of feature films. German film producers began to support the war programs of Patriotic nature around the end of August 1914. The movies started to contain scenes that illustrate associated with the war of ideas is historical, and the scenes were recognized as a historically correct view of reality. This image of the war appealed to all the needs of the classical criteria of communication, so they met with economic success. Producers began to make films in many other subjects, about the beginning of 1915. The common theme of all these movies was a successful journey of the protagonist during the war, comes as a test on the way to the final destination.
2.3. German Expressionism. Censorship. (Цензура)
While there was heavy regulations placed on the press releases, there are no uniform rules for censorship of pictures. During the First world war, the censors, which were adopted recently also placed a ban on films that were approved for production already as they were declared unfit for war. Censorship at that time was very decentralized and it scares emerge a coherent film market in Germany. First film company of Germany was allowed to shoot scenes of the war was officially Eiko-film. Permission was granted on 2 September 1914. However, the first war films made by Eiko-film was confiscated by the Berlin police on 12 September 1914 because of doubts about the surveillance. Such confiscation was also observed in some other parts of the country. It was in October 1914 when cinema got its first newsreel of the war. But the attraction operators theater on military service in the occupied territories limited viewing of the film. The cumulative effect of these restrictions and censorship led to the decline in war cinematography.
2.4. German Expressionism. After The First World War. (После Первой Мировой Войны)
Unlike the war movies made in the early stages of the war, the center of attention of Directors and producers after the war increasingly shifted to feature films. This laid the Foundation for a more professional video production. However, the beginning of a national cinema culture should be expressed after the war. With the increased demand for German films, a lot of new film making emerged. It was a time of continuous expansion in the Berlin film industry. From mid-1915 German manufacturers started to do detective series film, but failed to meet the demand, although they also make a serial production belonging to other genres. Due to censorship laws and restrictions, French and British films received prior to the First world war continued to show in most of the cinemas of Germany in 1915 until a ban was imposed on them. Therefore, operators of theaters and watched the films made by producers from neutral countries. Was the only reason the official propaganda in the first half of the war on the German government. The meaning and significance of the war was rather dubious in 1916 with the beginning of the revaluation of the movies. Directors and producers began to consider design approaches for a period after the war.
Because of the increasing dissatisfaction of people with the military situation and growing food shortages, the military, and the government decided to create the Universum-film AG Ufa on 18 December 1917. It was a commercially oriented new movie company, which was founded with the aim to make films with just a hidden propaganda. The purpose of these films was to stabilize the morale of the military time and increase it. The founders wanted civil, not aggressive and harmless material in the films to play a role in the victory, drawing peoples attention from the war. The first World war played an important role in the growth and technical changes in the laws and functioning of cinema in Germany. German manufacturers have done a lot of artistic and technical contributions in early filmmaking.
3. Soviet Cinema. (Советское Кино)
Soviet cinema include films made of the Union republics of the Soviet Union. Produced mainly in Russian language films reflect pre-Soviet elements, including history, language and culture Union. It differs from the Russian cinema, though the Central government in Moscow regulates movies. Among them, Republican films, Georgia, Armenia, Ukraine and Azerbaijan has been the most productive. In addition, Moldova, Belarus and Lithuania was noticeable, but to a lesser degree. The film industry was fully nationalized a large part of the history of the country. It is governed by laws and philosophy is the monopoly of the Communist party of the Soviet Union, which brought a revolution in the future of cinema in the form of socialist realism’, which contrasts with what was before the Soviet Union even after it.
The Russians instinctively film from the very beginning. The first film dramatized the Russians was made in 1908, which gives Russian cinema a status of one of the oldest industries in the world. There were more than 1.300 cinemas in Russia until 1913 and the country it produced more than 100 films, which have had a profound influence on the creation of the film the American and European descent.
3.1. Soviet Cinema. Censorship. (Цензура)
Began to be censored, especially since November 1917, when the peoples Commissariat of education was established films in the Soviet Union. It was almost a month after the Soviet state itself was created. After the Bolsheviks gained power in the Soviet Union in 1917, they had a serious deficit of political legitimacy. Political funds was uneasy in the movie plays an important role in the defense of the USSRs existence. Movies play a major role at that time because they served to convince the masses about the legitimacy of power and their status as bearers of historical facts. Some of the prominent movies of that time include the Great citizen’ circus’. The film Committee was created in March 1919 to create a kind of school for training of technicians and actors, so a modest production schedule of the film will be initiated. The Committee was headed by long-Bolshevik party member, D. I. Leshchenko, except for care and ensuring that the genres and themes of the movie is responsibility, Leshchenko also worked to curb the intensity of anti-Soviet propaganda in the movie. This was particularly important because of military communism in that era.
Documentaries and features of Soviet cinema flourished in the 1920-ies. Filmmakers enthusiastically engaged in the development of the first socialist state in the world. Instead of having to create money for the Hollywood film industry, the filmmakers saw this as an opportunity to focus on the upbringing of the new Soviet people. The first leader of the country, to become the USSR and the founder of the 1917 Bolshevik revolution – Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the movie is visualized as a process of art that is best suited for the state, based on the transformation of humanity through technology and industry. Cinema has taken the position the most valuable form of means of production and distribution of art on the masses. The decade known for experimentation with different styles of movie.
3.2. Soviet Cinema. 1920-ies. (1920-х годов)
In the 1920-ies the Soviet Union received a new economic policy. It was the decade when certain industries were relaxed able to control that provided people with a sense of mini-capitalism within the Communist economy. It was a time of prosperity, private cinema, and with it the entire Soviet film industry flourished. American films, like Battleship Potemkin’ had a great influence on the Russians, unlike the Soviet productions. Many Hollywood stars like Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks were worshipped as a hero. Heroic Fairbanks became a sex symbol and current star system gained popularity of Pickford. The Soviet reaction to the Hollywood influence was a mixture of disgust and admiration. Towards the end of 1924 Sovkino and the ark was created, which were two organizations that influenced the cinema of the Soviet Union in the decade. It was a time when ambitious, zealous, and download the film the Young members of the community were bright plans for the industry. Their efforts were aimed at ensuring the processes of production and distribution more efficient, organized and improving the status of workers in the industry. In other words, they were trying to promote the movie.
3.3. Soviet Cinema. Outstanding Directors of the Soviet cinema. (Выдающиеся режиссеры советского кино)
- Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk. (Сергей Федорович Бондарчук)
- Alexander Dovzhenko. (Александр Довженко)
- Dziga Vertov. (Дзига Вертов)
- Grigory Alexandrov. (Григорий Александров)
- Chiaureli, Mikhail. (Чиаурели, Михаил)
- Sergei Eisenstein. (Сергея Эйзенштейна)
3.4. Soviet Cinema. The famous Soviet films. (Знаменитые советские фильмы)
- Topper 1934 Director: Grigori Aleksandrov.
- Battleship Potemkin 1925 Director: Sergei Eisenstein.
- Earth 1930 Director: Alexander Dovzhenko.
- "Man with a movie camera" 1929, directed by Dziga Vertov.
4.1. French Cinema. The rise of the movement / era film. (Подъем движения / фильм эра)
Like other types of art, film portrays the authenticity of which is faced with a number of people. France can be considered one of the main pioneers of the whole world film industry. The proof of this statement is that between 1895 – 1905 France invented the concept of cinema, when the Lumiere brothers first film shown on 28 December 1895, called the Arrival of the train at the station of La Ciotat in Paris. It lasted only 50 seconds, but he started and gave birth to a new means of expression in cinema. Lumiere from France arrived in 1895 and was recognized as a pioneer of the movement of the camera. However, despite other inventors preceding him, his achievements are often considered to be the future in this creative era. Lumiere the size of a suitcase, cinematography that was moveable was the block arrangement of the film, camera and projector all in one. During the 1890s, the film, the movie has become a few minutes and started also consist of different shots. Other pioneers, too, were the French, including the Prix Niepce, Daguerre, and Marey in the 1880-ies, they were able to combine science and art together to launch the industry. The pioneers of the French film were influenced by their historical heritage stemming from the need to Express the narrative of the nation. In the 19th century in France was a period of nationalism started by the French revolution of 1789-1792. Marey 1830 - 1904 invented the photo of the gun in 1882, which was designed to operate and be able to have photographic paper, 150 images in motion. Emile Reynaud 1844-1918 was the founding father of animation. Short film animated pantomimes Lumineuses were exhibited in 1892 at the musée grévin was developed as a result of his invention, the Praxinoscope projector. This invention assembled color and hand-drawn drawings. The film was created as Francis the first film Studio pathé film Studio based 1864-1946 Gaumont. In 1907, the Gaumont was the largest film Studio in the world, it is also proposed in the work of first female film Director of gay-Blachewho created the film Lenfant de La barricades.
Pre-and post-First world war French cinema
Pre-First World War period, marked by the influence of Francis historical past with the film is not only galvanizing the company achievements in science and technology, but the need for the film to be a platform to explore the descriptive part of their culture and this creates a narcissistic platform. Before the First world war, French and Italian cinema dominated European cinema. Dzekka, General Director at pathé frères improved comic version of the chase film, which was inspired by the keystone Kops. In addition, Max Linder created a comic image, which was deeply influenced by the work of Charlie Chaplin. Other films that began before the war in France was also killed the Duke of guise as well as the film D movement arts in 1908. These movies depict the realities of human life, particularly within European Society. In addition, the French film that took off the glasses, the costume that attracted attention and brought international fame before the First world war about 70% of the worlds films were brought from Paris Studio from Eclair, Gaumont and pathé before the war. However, as WWI began, the French film industry declined during the war because he lost a lot of its resources, which were resolved in support of the war. In addition, the PRC blocked the export of French films causing it to reduce large volumes of production to draw attention to the low financing of film production. However, in subsequent war years, American films have all entered the French market, because the American film industry was not as affected by the war. This meant that a total of 70% of Hollywood films in France. During this period, the French film industry is in crisis, as the number of its production function has decreased and they have surpassed their competitors, including the United States of America and Germany.
4.2. French Cinema. After the Second world war French cinema. (После Второй мировой войны французское кино)
After the Second world war, French cinema began the formation of the modern image, as well as recognizing its impact. After creating and growing the American and the German film industry during the post-First world war era and during the great Depression. Many German and American films were taken on the stage of the French and world market. In addition, during the Second world war the French film industry focused mainly on producing anti-Nazi films, especially in the late 1940s, as the war came to an end. After this period, the French film industry has begun to address issues affecting the humanism is also focused on production of high Eminence entertainment movies.In addition, the display of French literary classics and involved Le Noir Rouge Et Charterhouse reached to spread the great fame around the world. In addition, Nowell-Smith 2017 claims that one of the major works of cinema that gained popularity during this period was Rene film, mon Amour. This has led to Cannes hosting its first International film festival, received the status of an annual event.
4.3. French Cinema. Styles and conventions in French cinema. (Стили и конвенций во французском кино)
The French New wave, which was accompanied by his cinematic forms has led to a fresh look to French cinema. The theater was an improvised dialogue, rapid changes of scene, and shots that have gone past the standard 180 degree axis. In addition, the camera has not been used to captivate the audience with detailed storytelling and extreme visual effects, but instead were used to play with anticipation of the movie. Classically, the Convention emphasized tight control over the film making procedure. In addition, the new wave deliberately shied away from it. Movies, as a rule, were executed in public places with invented dialogue and plots constructed on the fly. In a number of means, were, casually, but it also captured the enthusiasm and impulsiveness that there is no known film could be expected to equate. In addition, the Directors of the French New wave, as a rule, abandoned the use of remixing their sound. Instead, they used the soundtrack naturalist recorded during capture and illustrated unchanged, although it is included intrusions and errors. In addition, this gave the film a feeling of freshness and energy, like your other skills, which were not in past movies. They used hand-held cameras that could shoot in a confined space generate familiarity, more expensive and more cumbersome camera cant compete. Most New wave films used long, extended shots, which helped this kind of cameras. Finally, French films of acronyms used leap, which threw the audience the drama on the screen, unlike traditional film.
4.4. French Cinema. Vanguard. (Авангард)
It was the French cinema Impressionists, which indicates a cluster of French films and filmmakers of the 1920-ies. These filmmakers, however, believed to be responsible for the production of cinema, defined movies. The movement occurred between 1918 and 1930, the period which experienced rapid growth and change of French and world cinema. One of the main excitations for the French impressionist Avant-garde was to detect the impression of pure cinema and the style of the film into an art form and as an approach of symbols and demonstrations, not just telling a story. This avant-garde highlighted the Association between realism and camera. This was the result of photogenie’, Epstiens concept to identify the impression of reality specifically through the camera, emphasizing the fact that it depicts the personality in the film. Obvious methods of shooting used by the French impressionist Avant-garde slow motion, soft focus, dissolves, and the change of image for the development of creative expression.
4.5. French Cinema. Outstanding French Directors-of the Impressionists. (Выдающихся французских режиссеров-импрессионистов)
- Germaine Dulac. (Дюлак Жермен)
- Abel Gance. (Абель Ганс)
- Marcel LHerbier. (Марсель LHerbier)
- Louis Delluc. (Луи Деллюка)
- Jean Renoir. (Жан Ренуар)
- Jean Epstein. (Жан Эпштейн)
4.6. French Cinema. The famous French impressionist films. (Знаменитые французские фильмы импрессионистов)
- JAccuse 1919 Director Abel gance.
- Nana 1926, directed by Jean Renoir.
- The smiling Madame Beudet 1922 directed by Germain Dulac.
- Eldorado 1921 Director Marcel LHerbier.
- La Roue 1923, the Director Abel gance.
- La Dixieme Symphony 1918 film Director Abel gance.
- The 1927 Napoleon Director Abel gance.
- Coeur loyal 1923, Director Jean Epstien.
- La femme de Nulle part 1922 of film Director Louis Delluc.
5.1. Italian Neorealism. The rise of the movement. (Подъем движения)
The birth of Italian neorealism, also known as the Golden age came from living in a totalitarian society under the leadership of Benito Mussolini, a nationalist, a fascist leader and Prime Minister of Italy 1922 - 1943. One of the most notable turning points in Italian cinema was Italys transition from fascism to neo-realism. Mussolini established in Italy as a totalitarian state in 1925, after coming to power, but it doesnt impact the film industry until 1926, when he took over l Unione Rome Nations education, also known as national Institute of the Union of cinema and education.
It depicts an altered view of reality, he gave the Italians a chance to go out and portray the devastating consequences of world war II in Italy. Italian neorealism films are presented by non-professional actors purposefully, as they were considered low budget films and shot them live on the spot spot. In addition, they stressed that the use of non-professional actors, have the artistic beauty and a sense of realism in the movie.This particular movement of the film strongly focuses on the working class of the Italian population, as it also conveyed their problems and everyday life to represent the point of view of everyday life before and after the First world war, fascist Italy. Despite the lead, he gradually the influence of Italian films throughout the era, actually was released in the period 1930 - 1943 only 5% of Nazi films. Fortunately, Italian neo-realism in fact introduced the world to the very first film festival in 1932 in Venice, he was known as" the first international exhibition of cinematic art”. Since the influence of fascism in the film industry was quite slow, it was only in 1933 that had such a rule into effect, claiming, 1 Italian film should be shown in every 3 submitted foreign films.
5.2. Italian Neorealism. Before the war and after the war. (До войны и после войны)
Before the First world war, cinema of Italy is mainly dominated at the national level in the result of the outstanding support from the export and local market. Italian cinema, in fact, began with the introduction of moving pictures in the late 1890-ies, in fact, the first Italian film was a film made in 1896 showed the Queens and kings visit to Florence. The avant-garde movement began in 1911 with the experimental work and innovation in the film and was saved form that only a few films, including the last days of Pompeii 1913 directed by Mario Caserini. In 1914, 1027 Italian cinema produced films, and the year after in 1915 created a total of 563 films, almost half of the amount at the beginning of the year. In the same year, the Italian femme fatale was introduced in the industry and created notable Actresses and stars. Eleonora Duse was a famous Italian actress who was first shown the woman and the first Italian magazine of the time. During the 1930s, the years of Cinecittà, the movie Studio complex was built in Rome and was home to the Directors of the Italy star.
After the Second world war was also known as the period of neorealism, so that presented the most famous and respected filmmakers, Directors and writers. Italian neo-realism was the dominant movement in the world of cinema after the war, in fact, he was known not only for its dedicated efforts to resolve solution to social issues and also gave an optimistic volume in the future and saves a clash between the individual and society. Italian neorealism films mostly revolved around the theme, depicting life under an authoritarian regime, poverty and the lower class, the effects of war on Italian society. Despite the Italian cinema is regarded as the author, it was actually as good as Hollywood movies with movies with graininess, the limited size of the budget and the quality of documentary films. Italian neorealism was represented by a surge of movies revolves around political and social conflicts, but was cautious in the transfer of doctrinaires or signs against the government. Instead, the films were heavily influenced by literature, history, art, and photographs to expand the perspective of the audience and expand the horizons of filmgoers.
5.3. Italian Neorealism. Styles and conventions. (Стили и конвенций)
Promotion styles of the film consists of a number of factors to be politically motivated in terms of contribution to the films produced. Some of the prominent popular styles included Patriotic / war movies, anti-Soviet films and Italy in a mission to Africa peacekeeping among the other types of civilization. Unlike typical movies of the genre exhibited melodramas, comedies and historical dramas suit. The term neo-realism is defined as a new realism. The meaning comes from the words quite difficult, as he puts before the audience the question of how the fact that the new and old film and limits its options in relation to society, culture and time periods. Thus, Italian neorealism developed their own unique characteristics that are based on social realism, historical and political loyalty. Movies has led to a surge of raw emotions between actor and audience, as a result, the attitude to Marxisthumanism, a concept that fulfilled the realism in the film.
In order to better understand Italian neorealism should be viewed through the prism of understanding of the class struggle. It is important to distinguish between the Lower working class minorities of the rich high class population and, perhaps, to compare their circumstances to truly understand social realism in Italy. After a brief analysis and looking at the years 1945 - 1953 it was interesting to note that only 11% of 822 films produced during this period will be considered neorealist films. Despite the enormous influence of the Second world war in Italy, Italian neorealism films, in fact, rejected the traditional movies by genres and adopted literary text adaptations such as Poweri Cronache Di Amanti translated as 1954 Chronicle of poor lovers Director Carlo Lizzaniand 1954 Senso directed by Luchino Visconti featuring romantic melodramas and historical costume drama. The films created during the period of Italian neorealism has depicted a mixture of regular and daily basis life, in order to emphasize the realistic elements as shown in numerous films, including Bicycle thieves 1948, also known as Ladri Di by Vittorio De sica. The film was accurate bright modern concepts of social economic system Bondanella 2009, 86. The consequences of the war were eternal and even in the form of contemporary cinema as it gave them stories worth sharing.
5.4. Italian Neorealism. Prominent Italian Directors of the neorealism film. (Выдающихся итальянских режиссеров неореализма фильм)
- Luchino Visconti. (Лукино Висконти)
- Federico Fellini. (Федерико Феллини)
- Vittorio De Sica. (Витторио Де Сика)
- Roberto Rossellini. (Роберто Росселлини)
5.5. Italian Neorealism. The famous Italian neo-realism movies. (Знаменитый итальянский Нео-реализм фильмы)
- The second 1961 posto directed by Ermanno Olmi.
- Rome, open city 1945 directed by Roberto Rossellini.
- Germany Year zero 1947, directed by Roberto Rossellini.
- The La Terra Trema 1948 directed by Luchino Visconti.
- La Strada 1954 directed by Federico Fellini.
- 1946 Paisan directed by Roberto Rossellini.
- Bicycle thieves 1948 Director: Vittorio De sica.
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- The cinema of Vietnam originates in the 1920s and has largely been shaped by wars that have been fought in the country from the 1940s to the 1970s. The
- Cinema in Estonia is the film industry of the Republic of Estonia. The motion pictures have won international awards and each year new Estonian films
- The term Cinema of Korea or Korean cinema encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life
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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!online intellectual game →