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★ Visual arts
Fine arts, forms of art such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, photography, video, film, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as art, conceptual art, textile arts also include aspects of fine art as well as arts of other types. Also it includes visual arts, applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion Design, interior design and decorative arts.
The current use of the term "visual arts" includes fine arts, decorative-applied and folk art and crafts, but this is not always the case. Before driving Arts and crafts in the UK and other countries at the turn of the 20th century, the term artist for several centuries were often restricted to a person working in the fine art and not decorative art, crafts, decorative arts or media. The distinction was emphasized artists Arts and crafts, which is highly valued folk art forms and also forms. Art schools made a distinction between fine arts and crafts, maintaining that a craftsman cannot be considered a practitioner of art.
The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and sculpture, to a lesser extent than the other art was a characteristic feature of Western art and East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman Amateurs. In the Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes.
1. Education and training. (Образование и обучение)
Training in the visual arts, usually through variations of the apprentice and workshop system. In Europe, the Revival movement, increasing the prestige of the artist led to the Academy system for training artists and today most of the people who pursue a career in art to train in art schools at tertiary level. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems.
2. Figure. (Рис)
Drawing is a means of creating an image, illustration or drawing using various tools and techniques available online and offline. Typically, it involves making marks surface applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils, pen and ink, paint, brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoal, pastel and markers. Digital tools, including pen, stylus Apple pencil that mimic the effects they are also used. The main techniques used in drawing: line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman and draftsman.
Figure it takes at least 16.000 years before the ideas of Paleolithic cave animals, such as at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In Ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus, often depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases, initially geometric, later developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC.
With paper becoming common in Europe of the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right, and not a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture.
3. Painting. (Живопись)
Picture literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier or carrier and a binder adhesive on the support surface, such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this action in combination with drawing, composition or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Painting is also used to Express spiritual motifs ideas sites this kind of series of paintings from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to the Sistine chapel to the human body itself.
3.1. Painting. The origin and early history. (Происхождение и ранняя история)
Like drawing, painting has its documented origins in caves and on rocks. The finest examples, believed by some to be 32.000 years old, in the Chauvet and Lascaux in the South of France. In shades of red, brown, yellow, and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle, horses and deer.
Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of Ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, Nefertari, his Queen, is depicted under the leadership of ISIS. The Greeks contributed to painting but much of their work was lost. One of the best remaining representations of the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example of the mosaic of battle of Issus at Pompeii, which was probably based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC which initiated a tradition in icon painting.
3.2. Painting. Renaissance. (Ренессанс)
In addition to the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks in the Middle ages, the next significant contribution to European art from the Italian Renaissance artists. From Giotto in the 13th century Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael in the early 16th century it was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in Northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful artists of our time. They used the glazing technique with oils to achieve depth and brightness.
3.3. Painting. Dutch masters. (Голландских мастеров)
The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt who is especially remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, and Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life.
3.4. Painting. Baroque. (Барокко)
Baroque started after the Renaissance, beginning in the late 16th century to late 17th century. The main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio, who made heavy use of tenebrism. Peter Paul Rubens Flemish painter, studied in Italy, worked for local churches in Antwerp and also painted a series for Marie de Medicis. Annibale Carracci drew inspiration from the Sistine chapel and created the genre of illusionist painting of the ceiling. Much of the development that occurred in the Baroque style was due to the Protestant reformation and resulting Counter-reformation. Much of what defines the Baroque is dramatic lighting and overall visual effects.
3.5. Painting. Impressionism. (Импрессионизм)
Impressionism began in France in the 19th century with a loose Association of artists, as Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Paul cézanne who brought a new freely brushed style to painting, often choosing to paint realistic scenes of modern life in the street than in the Studio. This was achieved through a new expression of aesthetic characteristics demonstrated by brush strokes and the impression of reality. They achieved intense colour vibration by using pure, unmixed colours and short brush strokes. The movement influenced art as a dynamic, moving through time and adaptation to new found methods and perception of art. Attention to detail became less important achievement, while studying a biased representation of landscapes and nature artists eyes.
3.6. Painting. Post-impressionism. (Пост-импрессионизм)
By the end of the 19th century, several young painters took impressionism further, using geometric forms and unnatural colour to depict emotions while striving for deeper symbolism. Special attention of Paul Gauguin, who was strongly influenced by Asian, African and Japanese art, Vincent van Gogh, a Dutchman who moved to France where he drew on the strong sunlight of the South, and Toulouse-Lautrec, I remember his vivid paintings of night life in the Montmartre district of Paris.
3.7. Painting. Symbolism, expressionism and cubism. (Символизм, экспрессионизм и кубизм)
Edvard Munch, the Norwegian artist, developed his symbolist approach in the late 19th century, inspired by French impressionist Manet. 1893 the scream, his most famous work, is widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man. Partly as a result of the influence of childrens art, German expressionist movement originated in Germany in the early 20th century by artists such as Ernst Kirschner and Erich Heckel began to distort reality for emotional effect. In parallel, the style known as cubism developed in France as artists focused on the volume and space of sharp structures in the composition. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the leading proponents of the movement. Objects broken up, analyzed and reassembled in abstract form. In the 1920-ies, the style was developed into surrealism with Dali and Magritte.
4. Print. (Печать)
Printmaking is creating for artistic purposes an image to a matrix which is then transferred to a two-dimensional flat surface with ink or another form of pigmentation. Except in the case of a monotype, the same matrix can be used to produce many examples of printing.
Historically, the main methods involved are also called media woodcut, Burin engraving, etching, lithography, silk screen printing, screen printing, silk screen printing, but there are many others, including modern digital technology. As a rule, is printed on paper, but other media ranging from cloth and vellum to more modern materials. Major printmaking traditions stipulate that in Japan, Ukiyo-e.
4.1. Print. European history. (Европейской истории)
Prints in the Western tradition produced before about 1830 are known as old master prints. In Europe, from around 1400, the woodcut ad, was used for master prints on paper by using printing technology, developed in the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world. Michael Wohlgemuth improved German woodcut from about 1475, and Erhard Reuwich, a Dutchman, was the first to use cross-hatching. At the end of the century Albrecht dürer brought the Western woodcut on stage that has never been surpassed, increasing the status on a single sheet woodcut.
4.2. Print. Chinese origin and practice. (Китайского происхождения и практики)
In China, the art of printmaking developed some 1.100 years ago as illustrations alongside text cut in woodblocks for printing on paper. Initially images were mainly religious but in the song dynasty, artists began to cut landscapes. During the Ming 1368-1644 and Qing dynasty, 1616-1911, the technique has been perfected for both religious and artistic engravings.
4.3. Print. The Development In Japan 1603-1867. (Развитие В Японии 1603-1867)
Woodcut Japan Japanese: 木版画, Moku Hanga is a technique best known for its use in the Ukiyo-e artistic genre however, it is also used very widely for printing books in the same period. Woodblock printing was used in China for centuries to print books, long before the advent of movable type, but was only widespread in Japan surprisingly late, during the Edo period 1603-1867. Although similar to woodcut in Western printmaking in some regards, Moku Hanga differs greatly in that water based ink is used in contrast to Western woodcut, which uses oil-based inks, allowing a wide range of vivid colors, glazes and color transparency.
5. Photo. (Фото)
Photography is the process of creating images by the action of light. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded on a sensitive medium or the manufacturer of the memory chip through a timed exposure. The process is carried out using mechanical shutters or electronic exposure time of the photons in the chemical processing and digitizing device known as a camera.
The word comes from the Greek words φως PHOS "light", and γραφις graphics "pen", "brush" and γραφη graphê, together means "drawing with light" or "representation by means of lines" or "drawing". Traditionally, the product photo was named photo. The term photo is an abbreviation many people also call them pictures. In digital photography, the term image began to replace the photo. The term image is traditional in geometric optics.
6. Architecture. (Архитектура)
Architecture is the process and product of planning, designing and construction of buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
The earliest surviving written work subject architecture de architecture by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century ad. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, and venustas, the famous original translation – firmness, goods and delight. The equivalent in modern English would be:
- Durability – a building should stand up resolutely and will remain in good condition.
- Beauty is supposed to be aesthetically pleasing.
- Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used.
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs and means available building materials and attendant skills. As human culture developed and knowledge began, which needs to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and "architecture" is the name of the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft.
7. Movie. (Фильм)
Filmmaking is the process of creating a film from initial concept and research, through scriptwriting, shooting and recording, animation and other special effects, editing, sound and music work and finally distribution to the audience, it refers broadly to the creation of all types of films, embracing documentary, strains of theatre and literature in film, and poetic or experimental methods and is often used to refer to video processes, as well as
8. Computer art. (Компьютерное искусство)
Artists are no longer limited to traditional media art. Computers are used increasingly common tool in the visual arts since 1960-ies. Used for capturing or creating of images and forms to edit these images and forms, including the study of numerous compositions and final visualization or printing, including 3D printing. Computer art is any in which computers play an important role in production or display. Such art can be an image, sound, animation, video, CD, DVD, video game, website, algorithm, performance or gallery installation. Many traditional areas of integrating digital technologies and, as a consequence, the boundaries between traditional art and new media works created using computers have been blurred. For example, an artist may combine traditional painting with algorithmic art and other digital techniques. As a result, defining computer art on his end product can be difficult. However, this type of art is beginning to appear in art Museum exhibits, though it has yet to prove its legitimacy as a form in itself and this technology is widely seen in contemporary art more as a tool, not a form as with painting. On the other hand, there are computer-based works of art that belong to a new conceptual and postdigital thread, assuming the same technology, and their social consequences as the object of study.
Computer usage has blurred the distinctions between illustrators, photographers, photo editors, 3-D modelers, artists, and artisans. Complex imaging and software for editing, led to multi-skilled image developers. Photographers may become digital artists. Illustrators may become animators. Handicraft can be a computer or use computer graphics as a template. Computer use clipart also made a clear distinction between visual arts and page layout less obvious due to the easy access and editing pictures in the process the pagination of the document, especially to an untrained observer.
9. Plastic arts. (Пластические искусства)
Plastic arts is a term of art related to physical processing environments, by plastic molding and modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. The term is also applied to all the visual works of non-musical art.
Materials that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, concrete or steel, were also included in the narrower definition, since, with appropriate tools, such materials are also capable of modulation. This use of the term "plastic" in the arts should not be confused with Piet Mondrians use, nor with the movement, according to him, in French and English, "the neoplasticism@"
9.1. Plastic arts. Sculpture. (Скульптура)
Sculpture is three dimensional artwork created by shaping or merge hard or plastic material, sound, or text and or light, commonly stone or stone or marble, clay, metal, glass or wood. Some sculptures are created directly from the search or thread, others are going, have built together and fired, welded, molded or cast. Sculptures often depict. The person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor.
Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be molded or modulated, it is one of the plastics. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden can be referred to as garden sculptures. Sculptors dont always do sculptures by hand. With the growth of technology in the 20th century, and the popularity of conceptual art for the technical skill, more sculptors turned to art producers for the production of their work. With the manufacturer, the artist creates a design and pays the producer to produce it. This allows sculptors to create larger and more complex sculptures out of a material similar to cement, metal and plastic, that they could not create it manually. Sculptures can also be made with 3-D printing technology.
10. Definition of copyright in the visual arts USA. (Определение авторского права в изобразительном искусстве США)
In the United States, the law On the protection of copyright in a work of visual art gives a more restrictive definition of "art".
A" work of visual art” - 1 painting, drawing, print or sculpture, existing in a single copy, in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer signed and numbered by the author, or, in the case of a sculpture, in multiple cast, carved, or finished sculptures of 200 or less consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author, or 2 in the photographic image produced for exhibition purposes, existing in single copy, signed by the author or in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer signed and numbered by the author. "Work of visual art" does not include AI any poster, map, globe, chart, technical drawing, diagram, model, applied art, cinematographic and other audiovisual works, books, magazines, newspaper, periodical, database, electronic information service, Electronic publication, or similar publication, second goods item or advertising, promotional, descriptive, covering or packaging material or container, III any part or parts of the items specified in clauses I and II B any work made for hire, or any work not subject to copyright protection under this title.
11. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- The University Of Pennsylvania. 1969. Plastics and new art. Philadelphia: The Falcon PR.
- Geron, S. 2000. Encyclopedia de Las Artes plasticas connection: 1844-2000. 4-e Izd. Dominicana S. N.
- Laban, R. V. 1976. Language movement: a guide to choreutics. Boston: Plays.
- Fazenda, M. J. 1997. Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: visual art and literature in the dance of Paula Massano. N. With.
- La Fargem, O. 1930. Plastic prayers: dances of the southwestern Indians. N. With.
- Bukumirovic, D. 1998. Maga Magazinovic. Library Fatalne srpkinje knj. BR. 4. Beograd: national knj.
- Restani, P. 1974. Plastic in art. Paris, New York: N. With.
- Oliver Grau Ed.: MediaArtHistories. MIT-press, Cambridge 2007. with Rudolf Arnheim, Barbara Stafford, Sean Cubitt, W. J. T. Mitchell, Lev manovich, Christiane Paul, Peter Weibel a.about. Rezensionen.
- Barnes, A. S., the art in painting, 3rd ed., 1937, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. New York.
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