The Baramulla is a town and a municipality in the district of Baramulla in the territory of the Indian Union Jammu and Kashmir. It is located on the banks of Jhelum river downstream of Srinagar, the state capital. The city was formerly known as Varahamula. The name comes from the two letters, where as Mul.
The city is situated on the banks of the river Jhelum at the highest point of the river. The river forms a Delta just in the outskirts of the city.
In the name Baramulla is derived from the Sanskrit Varahamula वराहमूल, a combination of Varaha the boar and the mule root or deep meaning "wild boar molar".
According to Hindu teachings, the valley of Kashmir was once a lake known as lake Parvatis Satisaras in Sanskrit. Ancient Hindu texts tell us that the lake was occupied by the demon Jalodbhava meaning "originated from water", while Lord Vishnu took the form of a boar and struck the mountain at Varahamula. This created an opening for water to flow out of the lake.
Modern Baramulla was called Varahamulaksetra or Varahaksetra in ancient times. Initially, it was the edge Huviskapura modern Ushkur. Related Adivaraha, the boar incarnation of Vishnu is considered very sacred. Consequently, many temples and monasteries were built in the 9th and 10th centuries, in the region of Lalitaditya Muktapida, the Queen Sugandha, and Ksemagupta when the cult of Vishnu flourished there.
2.1. History. Ancient and medieval. (Древняя и средневековая)
The city of Baramulla was founded by Raja Bhimsina in B. S. 2306, the number of visitors visited the Baramulla, including Xuanzang from China and a British historian named Moorcraft. In addition, the moguls were fascinated by the Baramulla. Gateway of the Kashmir valley, Baramulla was a staging post during their visits to the valley. In 1508 A. D. Emperor Akbar who entered the valley via Pakhil, spent a few days at Baramulla. According to Tarikh-e-Hasan, the city was decorated in Akbars to stay. The Emperor Jahangir stayed at Baramulla during his visit to Kashmir in 1620.
In the beginning, Baramulla had a religious significance. Hindu teertha and Buddhist Vihars, monasteries, the city sacred to Hindus and Buddhists. In the 15th century it became important for Muslims. Syed Janbaz Wali, who visited the valley with his companions in 1421, chose Baramulla as the centre of his mission and was buried there. His Shrine attracts pilgrims from all over the valley.
In 1620, sixth Sikh guru, Sri Hargobind visited the city. In Baramulla the Hindu, Muslims, Buddhists and Sikhs lived in harmony and contributed to its culture.
The Baramulla was the oldest and most important city in the North of Kashmir and Jammu princely state and the "gateway to the Kashmir valley" in Rawalpindi-murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla road until the 27th of October, 1947. She went to India when the Maharaja signed the instrument of accession of 26 October 1947. The city is headquarters in the district of Baramulla.
2.2. History. October 1947. (Октября 1947 года)
Pashtun tribes from South Waziristan Pakistan attacked Kashmir to grab the state. They were moving along Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla road on the 22 October 1947. They helped the Pakistani soldiers in civilian clothes. Muzaffarabad fell on 24 October 1947, and the soldiers captured Baramulla the next day. They looted, raped, killed, burned and destroyed shrines and temples. They raped and murdered Christian missionaries, nuns and nurses in the hospital Saint Josephs. According to Tariq Ali, the local cinema became a "rape Center", with the atrocities continuing for several days.
As of the morning of October 27, India airlifted troops from Delhi at Srinagar airport while the tribal forces were still at Baramulla, harassing and robbing people.
2.3. History. Reports. (Отчеты)
Aastair lamb wrote in incomplete partition, roxford 1997, pp. 186-187:
Tribal leaders completely lost control over their men, an Orgy of killing was the result. Including in Saint Josephs College, convent and hospital, on the site of what was to become one of the most publicized cases the whole of the Kashmir conflict. Here nuns, priests and congregation, including patients in the hospital were killed, and at the same time, a small number of Europeans, in particular, Lieutenant Colonel A. D. Dyke and his wife, an Englishwoman preparing to leave the hospital that day with her newborn baby, mother Teresalina, a twenty-nine-year-old Spanish nun, in Baramulla only a few weeks, and the Mother Aldertrude, assistant superior, and one Mr. Jose Barretto, husband of the doctor, met their deaths at tribal hands.
Charles Chevenix Trench wrote in the border scouts 1985:
In October Of 1947. tribal lashkari hastened in lorries – undoubtedly with official logistic support – into Kashmir. at least one British officer, Harvey-Kelly took part in the campaign. It seemed that nothing could stop these hordes of tribesmen taking Srinagar with its vital airfield. Really didnt do anything, but their own greed. In the Mahsuds, in particular, ceased to plunder, rape and kill Indian troops were deployed and lashkari forced out of Kashmir Valley in the mountains. In the Mahsuds returned home in a wild mood, having Muffed an easy chance, lost the loot of Srinagar and made fools of themselves.
Sam Mancuso late field Marshal was a Colonel in the Directorate of military operations who went to Srinagar with V. P. Menon to assess the situation on 26 October 1947. He later said in an interview:
Fortunately for Kashmir, the tribes were busy raiding, raping all along. In Baramulla they killed Colonel D. O. T. dykes. Dykes and I have the same precedence. We made our first years of attachment with the Royal Scots in Lahore, in 1934-5. Tom went to the Sikh regiment. I went to the border regiment. The CP lost contact with each other. He became a Lieutenant Colonel. ID become a Colonel. Tom and his wife were vacationing in Baramulla when the tribesmen killed them.
Tom Cooper combat information group Air wrote: "the Pathans appeared foremost interested in looting, murder, robbery and other crimes against the inhabitants instead of a serious military action."
According to Mohammad Akbar Khan in his war for Kashmir in 1947 "weirdo, raiders delayed in Baramulla for two days for an unknown reason."
Late Biju Patnaik chief Minister of Orissa piloted the first plane to land at Srinagar airport that morning. He brought 17 soldiers from the 1st Sikh regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Dewan Ranjit Rai. The pilot flew low over the airstrip twice to ensure that no raiders were around. Prime Minister Nehru was clear: if the airport was captured by the enemy, they were not on the ground. Taking a full circle, the DC-3 flew at ground level. The soldiers looked out of the plane and found the airport empty. The raiders were too busy, the distribution of the spoils of war among themselves in Baramulla.
Lieutenant Colonel Dewan Ranjit Rai immediately moved with his small platoon to Baramulla hoping to stop the tribal raiders at the mouth of the funnel, which opens at 5 kilometres East of Baramula into a wide valley. He led his men from the front and died from a gunshot wound the same day, 27 October 1947, Patan, and detained the hijackers on the day. And Indian troops flew into Srinagar the next day, they began to push the raiders back. It took two weeks for the Indian army to evict the raiders, who have joined the Pakistani regulars and well-entrenched, from Baramulla on 9 November 1947.
Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah told the UN Security Council on 5 February 1948: "the raiders came to our land, massacred thousands of people - mostly Hindus and Sikhs, but Muslims, too - abducted thousands of girls, Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, looted our property and almost reached the gates of our summer capital Srinagar."
Robert Trumbull, new York times, November 10, 1947, a report from Baramulla:
"Their buses and trucks, loaded with booty, arrived every other day and took more Pathans to Kashmir. They supposedly wanted to liberate their Muslim brothers in Kashmir, but their main goal is to riot and loot. In this they made no distinction between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims. The raiders advanced into Baramulla, the biggest commercial center of the region with a population of 11.000, until they were only an hour drive from the city. For the next three days they were engaged in massive plunder, rioting, and rape. No one is spared. Even the mission hospital St Josephs were brutally murdered".
Halfway to freedom Margaret Bourke-white
Andrew Whitehead, who was the correspondent Bi-bi-si in India, reported on the October 1947 atrocities in Baramulla, especially about the Christian mission in the monastery and in the hospital, in his book "Mission Kashmir".
2.4. History. Recent years. (Последние годы)
The road network was improved in Baramulla in 1947, and was created by the best educational institutions. Bridges on the river Jhelum was built or planned to connect the Old town on the North Bank of the river with the new town on the South shore. Urban renewal in the Old town was the attempt to move residents to the new town. Uptown Baramulla is a developed area with shopping malls and luxury housing colonies. The connected by rail Baramulla Srinagar, Anantnag, Qazigund and Banihal.
3. Geography. (География)
The Baramulla situated on the banks of Jhelum river, at its highest point. The Baramulla Tehsil stretched from the village Khushalpora in the East village in Boniyar in the West. The old city is located on the North Bank of the river, and the new town on the South shore. They join five bridges including a suspension bridge connecting Gulnar Park with Dewan Bagh and. Five more bridges are being built or planned. The bridge will connect Khanpora and Drangbal areas of the city.
The old town is densely populated and smaller than the New town. State institutions, hospitals, bus station and most other buildings in the new town. The train station is in the Eastern part of the new town, on the banks of the river. Outside the Old town, the river divides into two channels in Khadanyar near the headquarters of the police, forming an island, known as eco-Park.
The Baramulla is situated at 34.2° n 74.34° E. It has an average elevation of 1.593 m 5.226 feet. Eight "tehsilimi" of Baramulla are URI, Sopore, Gurez,Tangmarg,Baramulla the,Sambale, Pattan and Bandipur.
4. Demographics. (Демография)
Baramulla is the fourth most populous city in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Men accounted for 55% of the population and females 45%.
The population of the city was little less than 200.000 in the 2011 census. Baramullas Old town is known as Sher-e-Khas, and new town as greater Baramulla. According to the 2011 census, the city population was 167.986 for Srinagar, Jammu and Anantnag. The Baramulla average level 66.9% literacy 61% of men and 49% among women is lower than the national average. 11% of the population under the age of six. Both of Baramulla district and the city have the majority of the Muslim minority Sikh and Hindu population.
5. Education. (Образование)
Schools Saint Josephs, the oldest missionary school in Kashmir valley. He is considered a pioneer of education for the entire North Kashmir. Other famous schools include Delhi public schools, public schools of Baramulla, school Beacon house, Hanfia school, Nur-ul-Islam school, guru Nanak Dev school, among others.
The Baramulla has a number of public schools. Higher secondary schools are called intermediate colleges. Baramulla has a Kendriya Vidyalaya, Vidayala suggestive in Shahkot and a Sainik military school, both affiliated with the Central Board of secondary education.
The Baramulla has separate government degree from the colleges for men and women, and in med school related to district hospital. In North campus of University of Jammu to Baramulla degree College joint training and engineering school was established.
The Baramulla government Polytechnic College Baramulla, which was created in 2012. It is in Kanispora district of the city of Baramulla. The Polytechnic teaches three-year diploma courses in electrical engineering and architecture. The government medical College Baramulla is under construction and will start functioning normal classes in August 2018.
6. Health. (Здоровья)
The Baramulla district hospital and the medical district veterinary hospital, radiology x-ray and ultrasound services. The new building of the veterinary hospital, the construction of which is nearing completion, and has indoor room for the Pets-the patients.The district medical hospital is a hospital of 300 local and has all specializations of the facilities.
The Baramulla has a private room for mother and child hospital is called St. Joseph hospital. It was founded in 1921 and operates smoothly, to the full satisfaction of the population.
Government medical College, Baramulla was open in 2018 and started its function from the first party in 2019.
7. Eco-Park. (Эко-Парк)
Eco-Park is located on an island in the middle of Jhelum river on the road from Baramulla town to URI. He approached a wooden bridge. It was developed by J& development Corporation to tourism with a blend of modern substructure and natural sophistication. This eco-tourism Park offers a view of the mountain in the background, Jhelum river flowing along the island and lush green well maintained gardens with some beautifully designed wooden huts. This is one of the best places to visit in Baramulla and is a popular place for locals, especially on summer evenings, he develops into a major tourist attraction as well.
The planned cable car project and expansion of the Ecological Park.
8.1. Transport. From Srinagar. (Из Шринагар)
The Baramulla is approximately 55 km, 34 km from Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. National highway NH-1, starting from the line of control through URI connects the city with Srinagar and Leh continues. NH-1 was formerly known as ck-1A prior to renumbering of all the national highways, national highway authority of India in 2010. HX-1 is connected to the NH-44 in Srinagar. Taxis and buses from Srinagar and Jammu. The road from Srinagar to Baramulla is considered the best road and best road in the valley. The Boulevard is surrounded by scenic rice fields and meadows. It passes through Sangrama, Wagoora, Hygam, Pattan and Zainakot.
8.2. Transport. From URI and Muzaffarabad. (От Ури а Музаффарабад)
123 km 76 mi road from Muzaffarabad to Baramulla runs along the river Jhelum. On the Pakistani side, it is known as "Srinagar".Since the Domel bridge, Mutare and ending Chaktothi-URI border crossing at LOK it crosses the line of control and goes through a URI, 45 km 28 miles West of Baramulla national highway NH-1. The first 5 kilometers, 3.1 Mi road from URI to Baramulla is not to run along the river, but the remaining 40 km 25 miles is scenic, passing wooded hillsides and cliffs. The road was reopened in 2005 for the monitored bus, but was closed again in 2019.
8.3. Transport. From Kupwara through Watergam. (От Kupwara через Watergam)
The Baramulla to Kupwara is connected by national highway NH-701 130 km road from Tangdhar in Baramulla passing through the cities of Watergam and Handwara. Distance from Baramulla in Watergam is located 15 km from Baramulla and Handwara in is 29 km from Kupwara to Baramulla is 47 km away.
8.4. Transport. Air
Sheikh-ul-Alam international airport Srinagar is the nearest airport, 60 km 37 miles to the South-East, the airport is Jammu, the winter capital of the state.
8.5. Transport. Train. (Поезд)
Baramulla is the last station on the 119 km 74 Mi-long Banihal-Srinagar-Baramulla railway the line was opened in October 2009, connecting with Srinagar, Qazigund and Banihal through the PIR and Prices the mountains through the 11.2 km 7.0 Mi-long Banihal railway tunnel. Line Jammu–Baramulla the plan to connect to the network of Indian Railways.
The nearest railway station for long distance trains is Udhampur, about 320 km 200 miles South.
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