★ Cinema of Brazil
Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century, but it took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment. The film industry of Brazil has gone through periods of UPS and downs, a reflection of its dependence on state funding and incentives.
1.1. History. The first days. (Первые дни)
After a couple of months after the invention of the Lumiere brothers, the exhibition of the film took place in Rio de Janeiro. In 1898 the Italian Alfonso Segreto supposedly filmed the Guanabara Bay from the ship Brazil on the way back from Europe, though some researchers to doubt the veracity of this event as no copy of the film remains. He would go on to make a documentary with his brother Paschoal Segreto. From the beginning of the 20th century, and in 1900 to 1912, Brazilian movies have made a major impact on the domestic market, as they are produced over an annual production of one hundred films. It is 1908, and invented Brazil "Golden age" of cinema, the countrys first widely popular film. The film was Antonio Leal, reconstruction film the Great train robbery, Edwin S. porter, under the name Estranguladores OS. An ad in the may 1987 issue of Gazeta De petrópolis, as shown in 1995 by Jorge Vittorio Capellaro and Paulo Roberto Ferreira, was introduced as a new "birth certificate" of Brazilian cinema, as three short films was announced: Chegada do Trem their petrópolis, Bailado de Crenças not Colegio de Andarahy and Ponto terminal da lingo DOS Bondes de Botafogo, Vendo-se OS Passageiros Subir e Descer.
During this "great era" of Brazilian cinema, when black and white silent movies were less expensive, most of the efforts of professionals who are ready to take on the task themselves rather than commercial enterprises. Not much attention is paid to the state, legislation practically does not exist. In theaters only become larger in Rio and são Paulo at the end of the next decade, as the power becomes more reliable. Foreign films, and short films about local events were the most common. Some of the first fictional work filmed in the country was the so-called "creates" a movie, reconstitutions of crimes, who recently made headlines press. The first success of the genre Francisco Marzullos OS Estranguladores 1908. "Singing" movies were also popular. Actors hiding behind a screen and dub themselves singing during projection. In the 1920s, the film production flourished throughout several regions of the country: Recife, Campinas, Cataguases, the Juiz de fora and Guaranesia.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian cinema, the lack of black presence in the movies that were made. Brazilian and American films are common in this aspect, as both countries have experienced similar styles of European colonization, and as a color is not given neither the time nor the confession on tape. Many of the earliest films produced in Brazil were also made by Americans of Italian descent in respect of such Affonso Segreto. Another way, Brazil and America were such moments in his films, is the idea of "nigger" in America and "redface" in Brazil. The culture of the indigenous peoples of Brazil was ashamed of how African-Americans were in the Americas, and both were used to convey the personality of people in films that were not this color.
At the end of the First world war, silent Brazilian cinema went to the growing expansion of women and their social class, mainly the middle and shows their modernization and diversification. Hollywood under the influence of the idea that women become more seductive in Brazilian cinema, as well as new hairstyles, cigarette Smoking, and looking" exotic”, in terms of appearance.
Hollywood movies were extremely popular during this time, amounting to 85 percent of the film material was exposed to Brazilian screens in 1928. This year, according to estimates 16.464.000 meters of film were exported to Brazil, Hollywoods making it the third largest foreign market. European films, mostly from Germany and France, was also exhibited with relative frequency. The fan magazines as Cinearte and Muda Shen was published during this time in domestic and Hollywood movies and stars.
1.2. History. The 1930-ies and 1940-ies. (В 1930-х и 1940-х годов)
Mario Peixotos limit 1930, were poorly received by audiences but eventually regarded as masterpiece of the silent film era, along with Humberto Mauro Ganga bruta 1933. Although Peixotos the film was seen by few people, very is considered the first experimental film in cinema history of Brazil, and it is only at the age of nineteen years. That is so exciting for the time integration of interrelated stories using the name of the card between three different characters three times. Sergei Eisenstein, who saw the film in London in 1932, described him as a pure language of cinema.
Cinedia was founded by adhemar Gonzaga in 1930 and was dedicated to the production of popular dramas and burlesque musical comedies, a genre which was negatively referred to as chanchada. In the chanchada was the well-known folk satire of Hollywood films, and dominated Brazil in the period from 1930 to the late 1950-ies. In the chanchada also acquired a large part of its influence Mardi Gras theme parties and movies in Brazil, mainly in Rio de Janeiro.
Actress Carmen Miranda gained visibility overseas. In 1946, Gilda de Areause about Ebrio, the film is very typical Latin melodrama, became a major hit and attracted about four million viewers. President getúlio Vargas, as it became known about the growth of the films, and in 1939 he established a decree that guaranteed Brazilian films an exhibition quota in cinemas, the law, which still exists, although now largely ignored due to the lack of proper control. Although decree, Vargas can be considered as a positive or nationalistic measures, it is also interpreted as a means of state control and intervention.
1.3. History. Atlantis. (Атлантис)
During the 1940s and 1950s years, the movie "Atlantis" Rome peaked and attracted large audiences by continuing with chanchadas. Among the actors, which have become firmly associated with "Atlantis", who earlier worked in the films of Oscarito Cinedia, comedian, very similar to Harpo Marx and commonly cast as the lead, and Grande Otelo, who usually had a lesser role and often Oscaritos sidekick. The two actors became widely popular in Brazil as an amazing comedic Duo. Otelo, going to see a lot of humor, getting on it at the time because of its Afro-Brazilian characteristics, and Oscarito was the comic foil in the film, more pale man with similar characteristics. The two helped to show the diversity of Brazilian cinema, for a change to reflect on the Brazil. José Lewgoy was usually on the role of the villain, while Zeze Macedo often took on the role of the undesired, nagging wife.
The films of this period were often dismissed as too commercial and Americanized, although the seventies a certain amount of revisionism seeks to restore its legitimacy. Despite the fact that overlooked the intellectual elite, these films attract a large audience, as no new films will achieve. Today, the television series, especially the "novela Das Sete", the nickname given to a soap Opera produced by rede Globo channel aired around seven in the evening from Monday to Saturday, sometimes identified as carrying on the spirit of chanchada. Many of the films created by the company have been lost over the years due to fire and flood storage.
1.4. History. Vera Cruz. (Вера-Крус)
In Rome Compañía Vera Cruz production company based in Sao Paulo during the forties and most notable for its production in the next decade. It was during this period Barretos Lima classic o Cangaceiro was produced. The movement was named after a major production Studio, inspired by Hollywood scale. However, in spite of O Cangaceiro, which was clearly inspired by the Western genre, the essence of these films followed the style of Italian cinema, popular between são Paulos cultural elite at the time. Movies of Vera Cruz was heavily commercialized, which led some Directors to begin to experiment with independent cinema. This movement away from the commercialization of films in the style of Vera Cruz became known as a new movie or a new movie. Vera Cruz, in the end, bankrupted and shut down.
1.5. History. New Movie. (Новый Фильм)
Italian neo-realism, then, in the sixties of the French New wave and the New wave fueled a new kind of modernistic and experimental cinema across the world. In Brazil, this tendency was carried out in her own New wave movement, cinema Novo. Glauber Rocha, a very political filmmaker from Bahia, quickly became the most notable Director, often held as the "leader" of the movement. His work possesses many allegorical elements, strong political critique and an impeccable mise-EN-scene, which eagerly embraced intellectuals.
Rocha often spoke of his films as a departure from what he considered the view of the colonizers, in which poverty is exotic and far from reality, as well as the colonized who think that their third world status as shameful. He sought to portray misery, hunger and violence they generate and thus indicate the need for revolution. Deus E Diabo on Terra do Sol and Terra Transe them some of his most famous works.
Other key leaders of the movement, including Nelson Pereira DOS Santos, RUY Guerra, Leon Hirszman, Carlos Diegues. Freedom of expression of political views becomes scarce, as in the 1964 Brazilian coup detat is and enhances repression in the following years, forcing many of these artists in exile.
1.6. History. Movies B. (Фильмы)
A "marginal cinema" emerges associated with the Boca de Lixo in Sao Paulo. In 1968, rogério Sganzerla releases o Bandido Da Luz Vermelha, the story is based on a famous criminal of the period. The following year Julio Bressanes killed the family and went to the movies matou came Familia e Cree AO cinema, a story in which the protagonist does exactly what is described in the title. Marginal cinema of this period is sometimes referred to as "udigrudi", a mocking of the English word underground. Also popular was zé do Caixão, the screen alter ego of actor and horror Director josé Mojica Marins.
Associated with the genre, too, pornochanchada, a genre popular in the 1970-ies. As the name suggests, it was sex-comedies, although they are not directly depicted sex. One of the key factors why these marginal films thrived that theaters were required to meet quotas for national films. Many owners of such institutions to Finance low-budget films, including pornographic content. Although the country was under dictatorship, censorship tended to be more political than cultural. As these films flourished may be perceived by many as the cause of the embarrassment, but they managed to attract enough audience to be able to be in the market for all these years.
1.7. History. 1970-ies and 1980-ies. (1970-х и 1980-х годов)
The films in this period have benefited from state agencies, especially Embrafilme. His role was perceived as somewhat ambiguous. It was criticized for its dubious selection criteria, bureaucracy and cronyism, and is regarded as a form of state control over artistic production. On the other hand, much of the work of this period was produced mainly because of its existence.
A varied and memorable filmography was produced, including Arnaldo adaptation Jabors Nelson Rodrigues nudity shall be punished in 1973, Carlos Diegues bye Brazil 1979, Hector Babencos pixote: the law of the weakest 1981 and Nelson Pereira do Santos prison memoirs of 1984. One of the most successful films in the history of Brazilian film is an adaptation of Jorge AMADOS Dona Flor and her two husband, 1976, Bruno Barreto.
The peak number in theaters is reached in 1975, when 3.276 projection rooms were available. Brazilian films sold a total of 275.4 million tickets that year.
1.8. History. Retomada and modern cinema. (Retomada и современный кинотеатр)
In the early nineties, under the Collor government, saw a significant decrease in state funding that will lead to the practical production of the film and the closing of Embrafilme in 1989. However, in the mid-nineties, the country experienced a new surge in the movie, mainly due to the introduction of incentive laws under the new government of USF. The Comedy Carlota Joaquina, Princess of Brazil came out in 1995, and is a lot like the first film retomada, or the return of national film production. Since then there have been films with nominations for "Oscar", such as o Quatrilho, four days in September, Central station and City of God. Dark city the film the offender was chosen as the best film of the period, the magazine revista De cinema. Some other films that attracted the attention of the Carandirú, the man who copied, Madame Satã, behind the Sun, Olga and two sons of Francisco, though perhaps some of them are not movies retomada, since the term is only adequate to describe the initial boost that occurred in the nineties.
Still common in Brazilian cinema is a taste for social and political criticism, a trait that reflects its strong cinema Novo impacts. Poverty, favelas, drought and famine are themes so common that the term "cosmetics yeah hunger" or "hunger cosmetic" a new take on Glauber Rocha "Yes, the aesthetics of hunger" or "hunger esthetics" was invented as a way to criticize his alleged exhaustion if not exploitation. For the average movie goer there has been a shift in perception towards Brazilian cinema how to become more audience friendly.
TV shows in the rede Globo network, such as Casseta & Planeta and OS Normais also received the cinematic version and the website of Globo Filmes, Globos film production branch, for many movies that have come out for many years, often as co-producer. The presence globos is perceived by some critics as being too commercial, thus forcing certain filmmakers to work outside the system to create independent work.
Documentary films also had a strong place in Brazilian cinema thanks to the work of famous Directors such as Eduardo Coutinho and joão Moreira Salles.
In 2007 film elite squad has attracted widespread attention because of how quickly leaked copies of the DVD were distributed among the audience before its release in cinemas, but also due to the large number of spectators who cheered police brutality scenes. The image of drug users as crime sponsors also caused controversy on the legalization of drugs.
2. Domestic market. (Внутренний рынок)
Since 1970-ies, the number of cinemas the film is strongly reduced. In 1990-e years, it became common for Small theaters to close the multiplex theaters, which are typically located in shopping centers, increased its market share. In recent decades, the availability of televisions sold at lower prices, combined with the success of Reid Globos in telenovelas of high production quality movies less attractive for audience of lower income. In addition, ticket prices increased for 20 years, more than 10 times.
In the early 1990-ies the production of Brazilian film caused by Collors non-interference policy, the sector dependent on government support and protection. However, with the Brazilian retomada film restored the speed, but not to the same degree he had already seen before. A significant increase in audience was recorded, however, from 2000 to 2002, with 7 million viewers in 2003, when 22 million viewers came to theaters to watch a movie. Because these films were made possible thanks to the incentive laws, introduced in 1990-e years and that the number of viewers drawn in from year to year can fluctuate significantly, it is often questioned whether the film, in fact, reached a certain amount of stability, and you never know, may in the future succumb to any governments whims.
The laws of a stimulus will allow the Brazilian films receive funding from companies that, acting as sponsors, are allowed tax deductions. A common criticism is that, thanks to this system, Although the films are not directly controlled by the state, they are, nevertheless, subject to the approval of entrepreneurs that are logically careful what content they want to associate their brands. Even with funding, there are still areas that require some struggle with the film, such as distribution, participation television and DVD release.
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