★ Cinema of Canada
The cinema of Canada or canadian cinema refers to the film industry in Canada. Canada is home to several studios and film centers, mainly located in three major cities: Toronto, Ontario, Montreal, Quebec, Vancouver, British Columbia. Industry and communities, as a rule, regional and niche in nature. About 1.000 English-speaking countries-Canada and 600 Francophone-canadian feature-length films have been produced, or partially produced by the canadian film industry since 1911.
Known filmmakers from English Canada, James Cameron, David Cronenberg, guy Maddin, Atom Egoyan, Patricia Rozema, Sarah Polley, Deepa Mehta, Tom Fitzgerald, John Greyson, Clement Virgo, Allan king, Michael McGowan, and Michael snow. Known filmmakers from French Canada include Claude Jutra, Gilles Karl, Denis Arkan, Jean Beaudin, Robert Lepage, Denis Villeneuve, Jean Marc Vallee, Lea Poole, Xavier Dolan, Philippe Falardeau and Michel, Bro.
Movie English-speaking Canada strongly intertwined with the cinema of the neighboring United States: though there is a distinctly canadian cinematic tradition, there are also Canadian films that have no obvious canadian identity examples include Porkys and meatballs, canadian-American co-production filmed in Canada, including my big fat Greek wedding and saw the TV series, American movies filmed in Canada, including "night at the Museum" and the final destination films, among hundreds of other and American films with canadian Directors and / or members. Canadian Directors known for their American production movie: Norman Jewison, Jason Reitman, Paul Haggis, James Cameron in particular, wrote the script and directed the second and third in the list of top grossing movies of all time Avatar and Titanic, respectively.
Canadian actors who achieved success in Hollywood include Mary Pickford, Norma Shearer, Christopher Plummer, Donald Sutherland, Michael J. Fox, Keanu Reeves, Jim Carrey, Ryan Gosling, Rachel McAdams, Ryan Reynolds, and Seth Rogen among hundreds of others.
1. History. (История)
The first films that were shot in Canada were made at Niagara falls, the French Auguste and Louis Lumiere in June 1896 and Edison Studios in December 1896. James freer is recognized as the first canadian Director. A farmer from Manitoba, his documentaries were shown as early as in 1897 and were toured across England, entitled ten years in Manitoba, to promote immigration to Manitoba.
The first fiction film, Hiawatha, the Messiah of the Ojibway, was made in 1903 by Joe Rosenthal. The first canadian feature film, Evangeline, was manufactured by the canadian company was founded in 1913 and shot in Nova Scotia.
In 1917, in the province of Ontario has established a Bureau of motion picture on, "to carry out educational work for farmers, school children, factory workers and other classes". The canadian government motion picture Bureau followed suit in 1918. British Columbia Patriotic and educational picture service, which produced and distributed short films about British Columbia in an attempt to counteract the "Americanism" in Hollywood movies, and worked from 1920 to 1923.
The 1927 cinematograph films act sets a quota of films shown in British cinemas, which will be filmed in the UK, and Nations in the British Empire, stimulated the production of canadian film. However, the cinematograph films act in 1938 to appease the British film industry, putting only movies shot and filmed in the UK will be included in the quota act, which sharply reduced the production of canadian film.
In 1938, the government of Canada invited John Grierson, a British film critic and filmmaker, the study of the state governments film production and this led to the national film Act of 1939 and the creation of a National film of Canada, an Agency of the canadian government. In particular, it was founded to create propaganda in support of World War II, and the national film act of 1950 gave it the mandate "to interpret Canada to Canadians and to other Nations". In the late 1950-ies, the Quebec film at the NFB and the NFB candid eye series of films by the pioneer of documentary processes, which became known as "direct cinema" and film.
Federal government action in 1954, and in 1960-ies and 1970-ies aimed at promoting the art of the film industry in Canada in 1968 the canadian film development Corporation was established later to become telefilm Canada and attempt to stimulate domestic production through tax shelters peaked in the late 1970s and meatballs see below.
2. Modern production and distribution. (Современное производство и распределение)
As with all movies, the line between broadcasting and film continues to be blurred in Canada as a means of production and distribution converge.
A typical canadian film production is made with money from a complex array of government funding and incentives, government mandated funds from broadcasters themselves, and film distributors. International co-productions are becoming increasingly important for canadian manufacturers. Smaller films are often funded by arts councils at all levels of government and film collectives.
National film Board of Canada-renowned for its animation and documentary production. More recently, he has been criticized for its increasingly commercial orientation, only a third of its budget now spent on the production of new films.
Much of Canadas film industry services American producers and films is driven by American distribution, and this part of the industry has been nicknamed North Hollywood ".
Major production centres are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. In 2011, Toronto ranked third in North America after Los Angeles and new York, in the total production of the industry, however, in the past several years, Vancouvers industry exceeded those for Toronto.
Alliance Atlantis acquired the following global communications in 2007-the largest canadian distributor of American and international films, and in 2003 he stopped making movies and almost all TV, to focus almost exclusively on distribution. Lions gate entertainment has also become a major distributor in recent years.
Distribution continues to be a problem for canadian filmmakers, although the network of film festivals also provide important marketing and audience for canadian films. The festival is an international film festival in Toronto, which is considered one of the most important events in North American film, showcasing Hollywood films, cinema from around the world, and canadian film. The smaller international film festival in Vancouver with films from around the world, and festivals in Montreal, Cinefest Sudbury, Ontario, Canada and Halifax Atlantic film festival - among other cities - are also important opportunities for canadian filmmakers to produce a sensation among the spectators of the film. Very often, however, canadian films on the biggest opportunity to achieve significant audience comes from TV rights negotiations the car with a broadcaster such as CBC television, crave, or Windows.
3. Problems in the canadian film industry. (Проблемы в канадской киноиндустрии)
Of all canadian cultural industries, the Anglo-canadian cinema has the hardest time escaping the shadow of its American counterpart. Between the marketing budgets of mainstream films, and the largely us-controlled film distribution networks, it was nearly impossible for most distinctively canadian films to break through to a wider audience.
Although canadian films have often received critical praise and the national film Board has won more Academy awards than almost any other institution, for their animation and documentary work in many canadian cities, the audience did not even have the opportunity to see such films as they have poor distribution and are not shown in any theaters. One this hour has 22 minutes sketch parodied an Atom Egoyan-like Director whose films had won numerous international awards, but in fact has not been published or exhibited.
Almost all canadian films, not to return their production costs in box office. For example, men with brooms CA$1.000 in its General domestic release, which by canadian standards is fairly high. However, this was done on a budget more ka-7.000.000$. French-canadian films, on the other hand, is often more successful, as from French television, the difference of languages makes the audience Quebec is much more receptive to canadian film production. In most years, the top-grossing canadian film is a French language film from Quebec. See also cinema of Quebec. In comparison, Australian films, made in a country with a smaller population than the Canadas, often to force them to return the money from the domestic market. Many do relatively better, the Most famous example is the "Mad Max", made with the then unknown Mel Gibson, and with a budget of$350.000, and which produced 5.6 million$us In domestic release alone.
Although many Canadians have made a name for himself in Hollywood, they often began their careers in Los Angeles, despite Toronto, Vancouver or Montreal, as a thriving cinema centers. Some actors or Directors who began their careers in Canada include: David Cronenberg, John candy, Lorne Michaels, Dan Aykroyd, Michael J. Fox, Mike Myers, Ivan Reitman, Derek Harvey, Seth Rogen, Eugene levy, Tom green, Scott immediately, and Paul Haggis. However, despite these successes, several participants were in favour of moving to Los Angeles to pursue his career.
The difficulties of the Canadas in the film industry it is often difficult to explain. The following explanation was offered why the canadian film and television often failed to create an audience in Canada or internationally:
- In a phenomenon which can be likened to the theory of cultural cringe, a considerable number of Canadians reflexively dismiss all canadian films as inherently inferior to Hollywood Studio fare. This is not necessarily linked to reality, as many critics of the films were made in Canada, but the idea nevertheless presents a significant problem for canadian filmmakers seeking to build its audience.
- When there are several major canadian industries, the lead roles often go to American or British actors. For example, in the apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, both the role of the Tempter and his father went to American-born actors, then unknown Richard Dreyfuss and established character actor Jack warden, respectively. Joseph Weisman, who played Duddys uncle, was born in Montreal but lived and worked in Canada for over forty years. Although this phenomenon is not as common today as it was in 1970-e years, canadian films still sometimes cast famous foreign actors: Michael Caine starred in the 2003 Film the statement, Helena Bonham Carter played a major role in 1996s Margarets Museum and Olivia Newton-John starred in score: a hockey musical.
- Unlike radio and television, which have strict canadian content rules, there is no protection for canadian content in movie theatres. Distribution networks for canadian movie theaters is largely controlled by the American Studio system, and Canada is essentially the only non-us country, which is part of the internal market for Hollywood studios. As a consequence, marketing budgets and opportunities for screening of canadian films limited. In many cities outside of Canadas largest Metropolitan markets, the local movie theatres almost never book a canadian film, and even in many major markets canadian films are usually only in repertory theatres or film festival. Again, the exception is Quebec, which has many French-canadian produced films running on multiple screens all over the province alongside both French-produced films and dubbed or subtitled American movies.
- While British, Australian and American filmmakers embrace their cultural heritage in film, canadian films often have no discernible connection to Canada. It often comes as a surprise to many people that movies like Porkys, Children of a lesser God and the art of war were partially produced in Canada, as they are indistinguishable from films made entirely in the United States.
- In the 1970-ies Canadas tax policy encouraged making films simply in order to obtain a significant tax benefit. Thus, many films were produced only for tax purposes, and quality became unimportant. For example, producers of canadian films were allowed to take a fee from production costs that are not allowed in the US, where producers can charge a fee once the film gets back their production costs in the same situation that drove the plot of the Producers. This rule, in particular, has led to a great surge of canadian B-movies in the 1970-ies and 1980-ies.
- Movies tagged as American movies can often be better described as cooperation between Canada and the United States. In addition, the paintings, sometimes called "American" production is often associated with higher participation rates for Canada, but "American" in the title is beneficial for tax purposes. Also, unlike other countries that tend to have citizens with discernible accents, the American media also rarely highlights or identifies actors, Actresses, Directors and producers as canadian in origin, leaving the false impression that few Canadians work in the industry.
- Canadas film industry competes directly with the United States. The costs of production between the two countries similar they are lower in Australia means that canadian films often need a budget equal to an American film of similar quality. Canadian film studios rarely, if ever, have the budgets to make films that can directly compete with the most popular Hollywood fare. Instead, the vast majority of canadian films are character-driven dramas or quirky comedies of the type that often appeal to critics and art house film audiences more than to mass audiences.
3.1. Problems in the canadian film industry. Case studies: Porkys and meatballs. (Кейсы: Porkys и фрикадельки)
For many years the most successful canadian film of all time in the canadian hire was Porkys, was produced by the canadian team, but only with a major U.S. studios support distribution.
Meatballs makes an excellent case for a General criticism of the canadian film industry. Produced and shot entirely in Canada on a budget of about$1.600.000, it was a huge hit, One of the most financially successful canadian films of all time. As children of a lesser God, though it happens in summer camp, there is nothing recognizably canadian about the location or characters, with the exception of the Montreal Canadiens sweater. The main role went to American comedian bill Murray in his first role of film. The main love interest was played by canadian Kate Lynch, which won the Genie award that year for Best actress. The casting of Americans in the "tax shelter era", and today, it is often suitable for the American audience. However, it provided Murray with his breakthrough role. Almost all of its box office gross in the US, where it took in US$43.000.000. He received a much more limited release in Canada.
In 2010, resident evil: afterlife grossed more than $ 280 million in theaters internationally and nearly $7 million domestic, making it the most successful production in the history of canadian cinema.
3.2. Problems in the canadian film industry. Current events. (Текущие события)
The Department of canadian heritage gave telefilm Canada more funds in 2001 to help develop the canadian film industry, with the aim of canadian films to five percent of the domestic box office in 2005. Telefilm divided this between English films after capturing four percent of the market and French films at 12%. First, the new initiative does not seem to make a lot of progress: at the end of 2003, English films represented only one percent of the domestic box office, while French films made up 20 percent. The overall goal of the Canada feature film Fund now is to have canadian feature films capture five percent of the domestic box office in 2006, with a delay of one year. It is now 2014 and they met their goal.
According to telefilm Canada, from script to screen, a two-year feature film policy designed to improve the success rate of canadian films, seeing the results. Before the initiative, the market share for canadian films was 1.4% and is now 3.6 percent. In addition, French-language movies account for 20 percent of the market.
Recent years have seen a cultural revival in the Canadas documentary the aforementioned thread. Films exploring Canadas identity and role on the world stage have become popular. Because of the political and social split between their American counterparts, the canadian independent documentaries began cult status. Live examples of award winning mark Achbars and the highest-grossing canadian documentary, the Corporation, and albert Nerenbergs underground hit escape to Canada. These films not only nurturing home-grown talent, inspiring the local industry, but also creating a unique voice for Canada itself.
In 2015, two canadian joint projects, partly financed by telefilm Canada, was nominated for the Best film of the 88th of the award "Oscar": the number and Brooklyn.
4. The most famous movies. (Самые известные фильмы)
Despite all the problems of the industry, quite a few canadian films have succeeded in creating a cultural influence. Some of the most famous and important canadian films include:
- Genie award for best achievement in direction.
- Award Canadian Film. (Награда Канадского Фильма)
- Genie award for Best film.
5. Of Directors. (Директоров)
Canadian film tends to be more Director than star-driven, and have much more in common with the European model of auteur cinema than with the Hollywood star system. The most famous canadian film Directors are very often the real star power of their films, more than the actors they cast. Notable canadian film Directors include:
Famous canadian expatriate Directors who are or have worked primarily in Hollywood include:
- Norman Jewison. (Норман Джуисон)
- Jason Reitman. (Джейсон Рейтман)
- Edward Himself Starred In Films.
- Bob Clark. (Боб Кларк)
- Ivan Reitman. (Иван Рейтман)
- Shawn Levy. (Шон Леви)
- Arthur Hiller. (Артур Хиллер)
- Mary Harron. (Мэри Харрон)
- Mark Robson. (Марк Робсон)
- Ted Kotcheff. (Тед Котчефф)
- Sidney J. Furie. (Сидни J. Фурие)
- Mack Sennett. (Мак Сеннетт)
- Paul Haggis. (Пол Хаггис)
- Daniel Petrie. (Дэниел Питри)
- James Cameron. (Джеймс Кэмерон)
- Silvio Narizzano. (Сильвио Narizzano)
- Roger Spottiswoode. (Роджер Споттисвуд)
- Allan Dwan. (Аллан Дуон)
Cm. also category:of Directors of the canadian film.
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