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★ Book - literature ..



E-book, also known as an E-book or e-book, this...


Mr. Peabody's Apples

Mr. Peabodys apples is a book written by Americ...


★ Book

The book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, usually consist of many pages linked together and protected by a cover. The technical term for this physical location code. In the history of manual physical support for the extended written works or records, the code replaces its predecessor, the scroll. A single leaf in the manuscript is a leaf, and each side of the sheet pages.

As an intellectual object, the book is preobrazovatelya in the composition of such great length that it requires a significant investment of time to compose and is still significant, although less extensive investment of time to read. In this sense, the book has a limited and unlimited sense. In a narrow sense, the book is self-contained section or part of a longer composition, the use that reflects the fact that in ancient times, long term work must be written on multiple scrolls, and every scroll must be identified by the book it contained. For example, each part of Aristotles physics name of the book. In an unlimited sense, the book is a composite of all these topics, whether books or chapters, or parts, parts.

The intellectual content in a physical book should not be song, or even to call a book. Books may consist only of drawings, prints, or photos, or things like crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In the book, pages may be left empty or may have an abstract set of lines as support for the current entry, for example, account book, diary, autograph book, notebook, diary, or Notepad. Some of the physical books with pages thick enough and sturdy to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photo album. Books can be distributed in electronic form as e-books and other formats.

Although in ordinary scientific terms of the monograph refers to specialist scientific work, not a test on one scientific topic in library and information science monograph means in a broader sense, any non-serial publication complete in one volume book or a finite number of volumes, even a novel like Prousts seven volume in search of lost time, unlike serial publications, such as journal, magazine or newspaper. The avid reader or collector of books is a bibliophile or colloquially, "the bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold in a bookshop or bookstore. Books are also sold in other places. Books can also be borrowed from the library. Google has estimated that in 2010, it was published about 130.000.000 different titles. In some wealthy countries, sales of printed books decreased due to the increased use of e-books.


1. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word book comes from Old English "bōc" which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate words for "Beech". Similarly, in Slavic languages "letter" letter "letter" is cognate with "Beech". In Russian, Serbian Macedonian, and the word "primer" primer or "Bukvar" primer refers specifically to the textbook of primary school which allows children to master the techniques of reading and writing. Thus, the experts found that early Indo-European writings can be carved on beech wood. Similarly, the Latin word Codex, i.e. book in the modern sense bound and with separate leaves, originally meant "block of wood".


2.1. History. Antiquity. (Древности)

When the script was created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets and the bones were used for writing, they were in epigraphy.


2.2. History. Pills. (Таблетки)

The tablet is physically strong writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that can be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a writing medium especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the bronze age and the iron age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered with a coating of wax, thick enough to record the impressions of a stylus. They were the normal writing material in schools in accounting and for taking notes. They had the advantage reusable: the wax could be melted and remade in the shuffle.

The custom of linking together several wax tablets Roman pugillares is a possible precursor of the modern book bound code. The etymology of the word Codex block of wood also suggests that can arise from wooden wax tablets.


2.3. History. Scroll. (Свиток)

Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant, then pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool, until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt perhaps as early as the first dynasty although the first evidence from the books of king Neferirkare Kakai of the fifth dynasty approximately 2400 BC Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Also was used the bark of trees such as lime, and other materials.

According to Herodotus history 5:58 the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece about 10 or 9th century BC. The Greek word for papyrus as writing material Biblion and book Biblos come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we also derive the word Tome Greek. τόμος, which originally meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with exactly the same meaning as volumen see below for an explanation of Isidore of Seville.

Was made from papyrus parchment or paper scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese, Hebrew, Macedonian cultures. In the more modern book format of the code captured the Roman world of late antiquity, but the scroll format persisted much longer in Asia.


2.4. History. Code. (Код)

Isidore d. 636 of Seville explained the then-current relation between Codex, book and scroll in his Etymologiae VI.13: "a Codex is composed of many books, the Book is of one scroll. This is called metaphorical code from the trunks Codex of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains many books, as it were, of branches". The modern usage is different.

Code in the modern sense is the first information repository that modern people would recognize as a book": sheets of uniform size bound in some manner along one edge, and typically held between two covers made of some more durable material. The first written mention of the Codex as a form of book is from martial in his Apophoreta CLXXXIV at the end of the first century where he praises its compactness. However, the code has not gained much popularity in the pagan Hellenistic world and only within the Christian community, he received wide application. This change happened gradually during the 3rd and 4th centuries and the reasons for adopting the Codex form of the book are several: the format is more economical as both sides of the writing material can be used, and it is portable searchable and easy to conceal. The book is much easier to read to find the page you want and scroll. A scroll is more awkward to use. The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan and Judaic texts written on scrolls. In addition, some metal books were made, that required smaller pages of metal, instead of incredibly long, unbending scroll of metal. The book can also be easily stored in more compact places, or side by side in a tight library or shelf.


2.5. History. Manuscripts. (Рукописи)

The fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century of our era saw the decline of the culture of Ancient Rome. Papyrus became difficult to obtain due to the lack of contact with Egypt and parchment which had been used for centuries became the main writing material. Parchment is a material made from processed animal skin and used mainly in the past - for writing on. Parchment is most often made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin. It was traditionally used for writing documents, notes or pages of a book. Solenye parchment, scraped and dried under tension. Hes not tanned, and, thus, differs from the skin. This makes it more suitable for writing on, but leaves it very responsive to changes in relative humidity and makes it revert to rawhide if overly wet.

Monasteries carried on the Latin writing in the Western Roman Empire. Cassiodorus in the monastery of vivarium established around 540 stressed the importance of copying texts. St. Benedict of Nursia, in his rule of Saint Benedict was completed about the middle of the 6th century later also promoted reading. The rule of St Benedict CH XLVIII which set aside a certain time for reading, greatly influenced the monastic culture of the middle Ages and is one of the reasons why primarily the clergy readers of books. The tradition and style of the Roman Empire still dominated, but gradually arose the peculiar medieval book culture.

Before the invention and introduction of the printing press almost all books were copied by hand, which made books expensive and comparatively rare. Small monasteries commonly had a few dozen books, medium-sized perhaps a few hundred. In the 9th century, larger collections held around 500 volumes and even at the end of the middle Ages the papal library in Avignon and Paris library of Sorbonne held only around 2.000 volumes.

The scriptorium of the monastery was usually located over the Chapter house. Artificial light was forbidden for fear it may damage the manuscripts. There are five types of scribes:

  • Illuminators, who painted illustrations.
  • Scribes that dealt with basic production and correspondence.
  • Rubricators, who painted in the red letters.
  • Correctors and compared a finished book with the manuscript from which it was extracted.
  • Calligraphers, who dealt in fine book production.

The bookmaking process was long and laborious. The parchment must be prepared, then the unbound pages were planned and ruled with a blunt tool or lead, after which the text was written by the scribe who usually left blank areas for illustration and rubrication. Finally, the book was bound by the bookbinder.

Various types of inks, known in antiquity, usually prepared from soot and Gum and later also from gall nuts and iron vitriol. This gave writing a brownish black color but black or brown are not the only colors used. There are texts written in red or even gold, and different colors were used for illumination. For very luxurious manuscripts the whole parchment was purple, and the text was written on it with gold or silver for example Codex Argenteus.

Irish monks introduced spacing between words in the 7th century. This facilitated reading as these monks, as a rule, less familiar with Latin. However, the use of spaces between words did not become commonplace until the 12th century. It was argued that the use of spacing between words shows the transition from semi-value to read out loud in silent reading.

The first book of the parchment calfskin pages. Book covers were made of wood and covered with leather. Because dried parchment, as a rule, assume what it was before processing, the books were fitted with clips or straps. During the late middle Ages, when public libraries appeared up to 18th century books were often chained to a bookshelf or a Desk to prevent theft. These chained books are called libri catenati.

First, books were copied mostly in monasteries, one at a time. With the advent of universities in the 13th century, the manuscript culture of the time led to the increase in demand for books, and a new system for copying books. The books were divided into unbound leaves pecia which were put to different copyists, so the speed of book production was considerably increased. The system is supported by the secular Guild of stationery, which produced both religious and non-religious material.

Judaism has kept the art of the scribe alive up until now. According to Jewish tradition, the Torah scroll placed in a synagogue must be written by hand on parchment and a printed book would not do, although the company may use printed prayer books and printed copies of the Scriptures are used for study outside the synagogue. A Sofer "scribe" is a respected member of any observant Jewish community.


2.6. History. Middle East. (Ближнем Востоке)

People of different religious and ethnic groups in the middle East also produced and bound books in the Islamic Golden age of the mid-8th century to 1258, developing advanced techniques in Islamic calligraphy, miniatures and bookbinding. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world book production centers and book markets. Jacobi D. 897 says that in his time Baghdad had over a hundred booksellers. Bookstores are often located around major cities in the mosque as in Marrakesh, Morocco, that there is a street named Kutubiyyin or book sellers in English and the famous Koutoubia mosque is named so because of its location on this street.

In the medieval Muslim world also used the method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities known as check value, in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a manuscript. To check the value of the method, only "authors authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate." With this check reading system, "an author can create a dozen or more copies from a single reading," and with two or more readings, "more than a hundred copies of one book could easily be produced." When using as writing material the relatively cheap paper instead of parchment or papyrus the Muslims, in the words of Pedersen "accomplished a feat of crucial significance not only in the history of the Islamic book, but also to the whole world of books."


2.7. History. Wood block print. (Деревянный блок печати)

In woodblock printing, a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, dye and used to print copies of this page. This method originated in China in the Han dynasty around 220 ad, as the method of printing on textiles and later paper and was widely used throughout East Asia. The oldest dated book printed by this method is the Diamond Sutra 868 ad. The method called woodcut when used in art appeared in Europe in the early 14th century. Books known as block books as well as playing-cards and religious pictures, began to produce this method. Creating a book was a laborious process requiring the carved block for each page, and wooden blocks, usually crack, if stored for a long time. The monks or people who wrote them were paid highly.


2.8. History. Movable type and incunabula. (Подвижной тип и инкунабул)

The Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware gr. 1045 but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is usually regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented the Simi-lar in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix hand mould. This invention gradually made books less expensive to manufacture and more affordable.

Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created in Europe before 1501 are known as incunabula or incunables. "A person born in 1453 at the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year of life, in which about eight million books had been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe produced since Constantine founded his city in Ad 330."


2.9. History. 19th century to the 21st century. (19 века до 21 века)

Steam press printing became popular in the early 19th century. These machines could print 1.100 sheets per hour, but workers could only set 2.000 letters per hour. Monotype, and typesetting machine, the Linotype was introduced in the late 19th century. They could set more than 6.000 letters per hour and the whole line of type at once. There have been several improvements in the printing. As well, conditions for press freedom has been improved by the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws. Cm. also intellectual property, public domain, copyright. In the middle of the 20th century, European book production had risen to over 200.000 titles per year.

Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion. The advent of electronic publishing and the Internet means that much new information is not printed in paper books, but is available online through a digital library, on CD-ROM, in the form of electronic books or other electronic media. Online book is an electronic book that is available online via the Internet. Although a lot of books digitally, most digital versions are not available to the public, and there is no decline in St. Petersburg. There is an effort, however, to convert books that are in the public domain in the digital environment in Moscow and St. Petersburg available. This effort is the originator of the project Gutenberg combined with distributed proofreaders. There are also new developments in the publishing process of the book. Technologies such as Pod or "print on demand", which allow you to print as one book at a time, have made self-publishing and vanity publishing much easier and more affordable. On-demand publishing has allowed publishers, by avoiding the high costs of warehousing, to keep low-selling books in print, and not declaring them out of print.


3. Modern production. (Современное производство)

Methods used for printing and binding of books continued fundamentally has not changed since the 15th century to the early 20th century. While there was more mechanization, a book printer in 1900 had much in common with Gutenberg. Discover all that invention was the use of movable metal types, assembled into words, lines and pages and then printed by letterpress to create multiple copies. Modern paper books are printed on papers designed specifically for printed books. Traditionally, book papers are off-white or low-white paper easier to read are opaque to reduce show-through of text from one side of the page to another and generally made more caliper or thickness specifications, particularly if bound books. Various properties of paper are used depending on the type of book: machine finished coated paper, woodfree paper uncoated, thin coated paper, and special thin paper, or stamps.

Today most books are printed on offset lithography. When the book is printed, the pages are laid out on a plate so that after the printed sheet is folded the pages are in the correct sequence. Books are usually currently manufactured in a few standard sizes. The sizes of books are usually specified as "trim size": the size of the page after the sheet has been folded and trimmed. The standard sizes result from sheet sizes therefore machine, which became popular 200 or 300 years ago, and came to dominate the industry. British conventions in this field to prevail throughout the English-speaking world except the United States. The European book manufacturing industry works to a completely different set of standards.


3.1. Modern production. Layout. (Макет)

Modern bindings of books organized in accordance with a specific format called the books breadboard. Despite the large difference in layout, modern books usually adhere to as a set of rules as to what parts of the layout and their contents usually includes. Basic layout will include front cover, back cover and book content, which is called its copy of the body or pages. Front cover often carries the books title and subtitle, if any and the name of its author or editors. On the inner side of the cover sheet usually remains empty in both hardcover and soft cover books. The next section, if present, is the book before the question, which includes all text materials after the front cover, but not included in the contents of the book such as the Preface, dedication, table of contents and publisher data, as the publication of books or print number and place of publication. Between the body copy and the rear cap goes at the end of the issue, which will include any parameters, sets of tables, diagrams, glossaries, bibliographies, although an edited book with multiple authors usually cited works at the end of each written Chapter. Inside page back cover, inside front cover, usually empty. Back cover is a common place for books ISBN and may be a picture of the authors / editors, perhaps with a brief acquaintance with them. Also here often appear plot summaries, barcodes and extracts of reviews of the book.


3.2. Modern production. Print. (Печать)

Some books, particularly those with shorter runs, i.e., smaller will be printed on offset printing, but most books are now printed in roll printing machines that come on a continuous roll of paper, and therefore unable to print multiple copies in a shorter time. As the production line circulates, a complete "books" together in one stack, next to another, and another web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of signatures sections ready to go in the Assembly line. Please note that book pages are printed two at a time, and not the full book. Excess numbers are printed to compensate for any damage to be done-prepares or test pages to assure final print quality.

Makeup ready preparatory work was undertaken with the journalists for getting a printing press up to the required quality of impression. Included in the training is the time required for mounting the plate on the car, clean up any mess from the previous work and make the press up to speed. Once a reporter decides what to print correctly, so the leaves will be discarded, and the press will start to publish books. Like preparing to take a seat in the folding and binding areas, each of which is associated damage the paper.


3.3. Modern production. Binding. (Привязка)

After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into the Bindery. In the middle of the last century, it was still a lot of binders – stand-alone binding companies which have no printing, specializing in binding alone. At that time, because of the dominance of letterpress printing, typesetting and printing took place in one location, and binding in a different factory. When type was all metal, a typical books worth of type would be bulky, fragile and heavy. The less it was moved in this condition the better: so printing would be carried out in the same place as the layout. Printed sheets on the other hand can be easily moved. Now, thanks to the increasing computerization of preparing a book for the printer, the typesetting part of the job already flowed upstream, where it can be done either separately Contracting companies working for the publisher, the publisher himself, or even by the authors. Mergers in the book manufacturing industry mean that it is now uncommon to find a Bindery which is not involved in book printing and Vice versa.

If the book is in hardback its path through the Bindery will involve more points of activity than if it is in paperback. Unsewn binding, is now increasingly common. Book signings can also be held together by "Smyth sewing" using needles, "McCain sewing", using drilled holes often used in textbook binding, or "Notch binding", where gashes about an inch taken with an interval through the crease in the spine of each signature. The rest of the binding process is similar in all cases. Sewn and notch bound books can be bound as either hardcover or softcover.


3.4. Modern production. Finish. (Отделка)

"Making cases" happens off-line and before the books arrival at the binding line. In the most General case that the two pieces of cardboard are placed on the glued piece of cloth with a space between them into which is glued a thinner Board cut to width of the spine of the book. The overlapping edges of the fabric about 5 / 8" round stacked over the Board and pressed down to adhere. After housing-a lot of things will go on three-dimensional square of foil for adding decorations and type.


4. Digital printing. (Цифровая печать)

Recent developments in book manufacturing include the development of digital printing. Book pages are printed, as well as an office copier works, using toner, not ink. Each book is printed in one pass, not as separate signatures. Digital printing allows us to produce much smaller numbers, partially due to the lack of making money and spoiling. You might think, web printing, as print volumes for 2000, in the amount of from 250 to 2000 printed on flat presses, and digital presses doing quantities below 250. These figures, of course, approximate and will vary from supplier to supplier, and from book to book depending on its characteristics. Digital printing has opened up the possibility of print-on-demand, where no books are printed only after receipt of the order from the customer.


4.1. Digital printing. E-book

In 2000-ies in connection with the rise of affordable handheld computing devices, the ability to share texts through electronic means has become an attractive option for media publishers. Thus, "e-book" was made. The term ebook is short for "Electronic book", he refers to books and publications in digital form. The ebook is usually available through the Internet and on CD-ROM and other forms. E-books can be read either via a computer device with an LED display, such as a traditional computer, a smartphone or a tablet computer, or a portable E-Ink display device known as an e-book reader such as Sony reader, Barnes & Noble NOOK, Kobo eReader, or Amazon kindle. E-books attempt to mimic the experience of reading printed books using this technology as the displays on e-books, less reflection.


5. Design. (Дизайн)

Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. In the words of Jan tschichold, book design though largely forgotten today, methods and rules on which it is impossible to improve have been developed over the centuries. To produce perfect books these rules have to be brought to life and applied." Richard Handel of the book "the magic object" and refers to the right context to understand what that means. Many different creators can contribute to the design of the book, including graphic designers, artists and editors.


6. Dimensions. (Размеры)

The size of a modern book is based on the printing area of a common flatbed press. On the pages of type were arranged and clamped in the frame so that when printed on a sheet of paper the full size of pages printed will be correct and in order, if the sheet has been folded, and folded edges to trim.

The most common book sizes:

  • Octavo 8vo: the most common size for current hardcovers. The sheet is folded three times into eight leaves, 16 pages to 9 ¾ p. 23 cm tall.
  • 12mo DuoDecimo: a size between 8vo and 16mo, up to 7 ¾ p 18 cm tall.
  • Sextodecimo 16mo: a sheet folded four times, forming 16 leaves 32 pages for up to 6 ¾ S. 15 cm tall.
  • 4to quarto: a sheet of paper folded twice, creating four sheets, eight pages with about 11-13 inches. 30 cm tall.

Sizes smaller than 16mo are:

  • 24mo: up to 5 ¾ S. 13 cm tall.
  • 64mo: up to 3" "8 cm tall.
  • 48mo up to 4" P 10 cm tall.
  • 32mo up to 5" p. 12 cm tall.

Small books can be called booklets.

Sizes larger than Quarto are:

  • Elephant Folio: up to 23" W. 58 cm tall.
  • Folio: up to 15" S. 38 cm tall.
  • The double elephant folio: up to 50" C. and 127 cm in height.
  • Atlas Folio: up to 25" C. 63 cm tall.

The largest extant medieval manuscript in the world is Codex Gigas 92 × 50 × 22 cm, the Largest in the world of books-stone and kuthodaw Pagoda in Myanmar.


7. Types. (Типы)

Materials. (Материалы)

The General division according to the materials of fiction and non-fiction books. This simple separation can be found in most collections libraries and bookstores.


7.1. Types. Materials. (Материалы)

The General division according to the materials of fiction and non-fiction books. This simple separation can be found in most collections libraries and bookstores.


7.2. Types. Fiction. (Фантастика)

Many of the books published today are fiction, this means that they are in part or completely untrue. Historically paper production was considered too expensive to be used for entertainment. The rise in global literacy and print technology led to increased publication of books for entertainment, and allegorical social commentary. Most fiction is additionally categorized by genre.

Roman is the most common form of fiction book. Novels are stories that typically have a plot, settings, themes and characters. Stories and storytelling is not limited to any one subject, the novel can be whimsical, serious or controversial. The novel has had a tremendous impact on entertainment and publishing markets. A Novella is a term sometimes used for fiction prose typically between 17.500 and 40.000 words, and novels, and from 7.500 17.500. The story can be any length up to 10.000 words, but these word lengths vary.

Comic books or graphic novels are books in which the story is illustrated. The characters and narrators use speech or thought bubbles to Express verbal language.


7.3. Types. Non-fiction. (Нон-фикшн)

In the library, reference General types of non-fiction book which provides information as opposed to story, essay, commentary, or otherwise supporting their point of view. The almanac is a very General reference book usually one volume with lists of data and information on many topics. Encyclopedia is a book or set of books designed for more in-depth articles on many topics. Book list of words, their etymology, meanings, and other information is called a dictionary. The book is a collection of maps Atlas. A more specific reference book with tables or lists of data and information about a certain topic, often intended for professional use, is often called a Handbook. Books which try to list references and abstracts in a certain broad area can be called an index such as engineering index, or abstracts such as chemical abstracts and biological abstracts.

Books with technical information on how to do something or how to use some equipment are called instruction. Other popular how-to books are books and home improvement books.

Students typically store and carry textbooks and teaching AIDS for training purposes. Primary school pupils often use workbooks which are published with spaces or blanks to be filled by them for study or homework. In the United States higher education, it is common for students to take the exam using a blue book.

There is a large set of books that are made only to write private ideas, notes, and accounts. These books are rarely published and typically are destroyed or remain closed. Notebook blank sheets of paper should be written by the user. Students and writers often use them for taking notes. Scientists and other researchers use notebooks to record their notes. They often feature spiral coil bindings at the edge so that pages may easily be torn out.

Address book, phone book, and calendar / appointment books are commonly used on a daily basis for recording appointments, meetings and personal contact information.

Books for recording periodic entries user such as daily information about a journey are called journals, or simply magazines. A similar book for writing the owners daily private personal events information and ideas is called a Diary or personal journal.

Businesses use accounting books such as journals and books to record financial data in accounting practice.


7.4. Types. Other. (Другие)

There are several types of books that are not commonly found under this system. Albums are books for holding a group of items relating to a particular subject, for example, a set of photographs card collections and memorabilia. One common example is stamp albums which are used by many hobbyists to protect and organize their collections of postage stamps. Such albums are often made using removable plastic pages inside in a ringed binder or other similar holder. Picture books childrens books with pictures on every page and less text or no text.

Songbooks, books with collections of musical hymns that can typically be found in the Church. The prayer books or service books that contain written prayers and are usually accessed monks, nuns, and other devoted followers and clergy.


7.5. Types. Readers and decodable books. (Читатели и декодируемыми книги)

A leveled book collection is a set of books organized in levels of difficulty from easy books are appropriate for emergent reader is more complex books, enough for advanced readers. Decodable readers or books are a special type of book that use decodable text only, including the controlled word lists, sentences and stories in accordance with letters and sounds taught in the formative stage of the reader. New sounds and letters are added to the highest decodable books level, as the level of teaching progresses, providing a higher level of accuracy, understanding and fluency.


7.6. Types. Physical format. (Физический формат)

The hardcover books have a stiff binding. The paperback is cheaper, flexible coatings that are usually less durable. Alternative to a soft cover and glossy cover, otherwise known as a dust cover, found on magazines, and comic books. Spiral-bound books are bound by spirals made of metal or plastic. Examples of spiral-bound books include textbooks teachers and puzzle books crosswords Sudoku.

Publishing is the process of getting pre-printed books, magazines and Newspapers for the reader / user to buy.

Publishers can produce a low-cost, pre-publication copies known as galleys or bound proofs for promotional purposes, such as generating reviews and publishing them. Galleys are usually made as cheaply as possible, as they are not for sale.


8. Library. (Библиотека)

Private or personal library consists of popular science and art books, in contrast to the state or institutional records kept in archives first appeared in classical Greece. In the ancient world, the maintenance of the library, usually but not exclusively a privilege of the wealthy man. These libraries can be private or public, i.e. for people who were interested in using them. In contrast to the modern public library lies in the fact that they, as a rule, are financed from public sources. It is estimated that in the city of Rome in the late 3rd century there were around 30 public libraries. Public libraries also existed in other cities of the ancient Mediterranean region, for example, the library of Alexandria. Later, in the Middle ages, monasteries and universities and libraries which may be available to the General public. Typically not the whole collection was available to public the books could not be borrowed and often were chained to reading stands to prevent theft.

The beginning of modern public library begins around 15th century when individuals started to donate books to towns. The development of the public library system in the United States began in the late 19th century and was much helped by donations of Andrew Carnegie. This reflected classes in a society: the poor or the middle class had to access most books at the public library or otherwise, while the rich could afford to have a private library built in their homes. In the United States in Boston, the report of the Public library in 1852, the Trustees established the justification for public libraries as tax-supported institution intended to extend educational opportunities and to provide General culture.

The advent of paperback books in the 20th century led to an explosion of popular publishing. The paperback books Made owning books affordable for many people. The paperback books often included works from genres that had previously been published mostly in pulp magazines. As a result of low cost of such books and the spread of bookstores filled with them in addition to creating other items used paperback owning a private library ceased to be a status symbol for the rich.

In library and booksellers catalogues, it is common to include an abbreviation such as "crown 8vo" to indicate the paper size from which the book is written.

When rows of books are lined on a book holder, bookends are sometimes needed to keep them from slanting.


9. Identification and classification. (Идентификация и классификация)

During the 20th century, librarians were concerned about tracking the number of books added annually to the Gutenberg galaxy. In a global society the international Federation of library associations and institutions IFLA, they have developed a number of tools including the international standard bibliographic description isbd was. Each book is specified by international standard book number or ISBN, which is unique to every edition of every book produced by publishers around the world. It is managed by the ISBN society. ISBN consists of four parts: the first part is the country code, the second the publisher code, and the third the title code. The last part is a check digit and can take values from 0 to 9 and X 10. EAN numbers barcodes for books are drawn from the prefix 978, the site Bookland and calculating a new check digit.

Commercial publishers in industrialized countries generally assign ISBNs to their books so buyers may presume that the ISBN is part of a total international system with no exceptions. However, many government publishers, in industrial and developing countries do not fully participate in the ISBN system, and publish books which do not have ISBNs. Great online catalog. Codes called "phone numbers" to tie the books to the catalogue and determine their locations on the shelves. The number of calls based on the classification system of the library. The phone number is on the spine of the book, usually for a short distance to the bottom, and inside. Institutional or national standards such as ANSI / NISO, the z39.41 - 1997, establish the correct way to place information such as the name, or the name of the author on the spines of books on "the book As shelvable" objects, such as containers for DVDs, video tapes and software.

One of the earliest and most widely known systems of cataloguing books is the decimal system of Dewey. Another widely known system is the system of transliteration of the Library of Congress. Both systems lean towards subjects which were well represented in US libraries when they were developed, and hence have problems handling new subjects, such as computer science, or related issues with other cultures. Information about books and authors can be stored in databases like online General interest Book databases. Metadata means "data about data" information about the book. Metadata about a book may include its title, the ISBN or other classification number see above the names of the authors and publisher, its date and size, and the language of the text, its subject matter, etc.


9.1. Identification and classification. Classification system. (Система классификации)

  • Classification Harvard Arcsine. (Классификация Гарвардской Арксинус)
  • Bliss bibliographic classification BC.
  • A new classification scheme for Chinese libraries.
  • Universal decimal classification UDC.
  • Library of Congress classification LCC.
  • Chinese library classification CLC.
  • Classification Of The Colon.
  • Of the Dewey decimal classification DDC.

10. Uses

In addition to the main purpose of reading them, books are also used for other purposes:

  • The book can be appreciated by the reader or writer to create a book review.
  • The book can be read group of people to use as a spark for social or academic discussion, and book club.
  • Books may be studied by students as the subject of writing and analysis of the results in the form of a book report.
  • Books are sometimes used for their exterior appearance to decorate a room, for example, the Cabinet.
  • The book can be an artistic artifact, a piece of art, it is sometimes known as the book of the artist.

11. Books on marketing. (Книги по маркетингу)

After the publication of the book, she is put on the market distributors and bookstores. Meanwhile, his promotion comes from a variety of media. Books on marketing are regulated by law in many States.


11.1. Books on marketing. Other forms of secondary distribution. (Другие формы вторичного распределения)

In recent years, the book a Second life in the form of reading aloud. Its called public readings of literary works, with professional readers often famous actors and in close collaboration with writers, publishers, booksellers, librarians, heads of the literary world and the arts.

Many individual or collective practices exist in order to increase the number of readers of the book. Among them:

  • Visiting or temporary libraries.
  • Leaving books in a public place, in combination or not with the use of the Internet, known as bookcrossing.
  • Free public libraries in the area.
  • The provision of free books in third places like bars or cafes.

11.2. Books on marketing. The evolution of the book industry. (Эволюция книжной индустрии)

This form of book chain has hardly changed since the eighteenth century, and was not always so. Thus, the author was gradually established over time, and copyright appeared only in the nineteenth century. For many centuries, especially before the invention of printing, each freely copied out books that passed through his hands, adding if necessary his own comments. Similarly, bookseller and publisher jobs came with the invention of printing, which made the book a commercial product that requires the structure of production and sales.

The invention of the Internet, e-books, tablets, and projects like Wikipedia and Gutenberg, is likely to greatly change the book industry in the coming years.


12. Paper and conservation. (Бумага и сохранения)

Paper was first made in China as early as 200 BC, and reached Europe through Muslim territories. At first made of rags, the industrial revolution changed paper-making practices, allowing for paper made from wood pulp. Papermaking in Europe began in the 11th century, although vellum was also common there as page material up to the early 16th century, the parchment is more expensive and durable option. Printers and publishers often produces the same publication on both materials, to cater to more than one market.

Paper made from wood pulp became popular in the early 20th century because it was cheaper than linen or Abaca cloth-based papers. Pulp and paper made books less expensive to the General public. This paved the way for huge leaps in the level of literacy in the industrialized countries, and the possibility of the spread of information during the Second industrial revolution.

Pulp and paper, however, contains acid which eventually destroys the paper from within. Earlier techniques for making paper used limestone rollers which neutralized the acid in the pulp. Books printed between 1850 and 1950 primarily at risk, more recent books are often printed on acidic or alkaline paper. Today, libraries must consider the mass neutralization of their older collections in order to prevent rotting.

Climate stability is crucial for long-term preservation of paper and book material. Good air circulation is important to keep fluctuation in climate stable. The system of ventilation and air conditioning needs to be relevant and effective operation. Light is detrimental to collections. Therefore, attention should be given to the collections by implementing light control. General economic issues may be addressed, including pest control. In addition to these helpful solutions a library must also make an effort to be prepared in case of an accident that they cant control. Time and effort should be given to create a concise and effective plans of action in emergency situations allows to avoid the damage caused by "force majeure" therefore, the management plan in emergency situations must be in place.

  • Book reports redirects here. For the term Book report in teaching, see Book report. A book review is a form of literary criticism in which a book is
  • Book collecting is the collecting of books, including seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining whatever
  • Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components and elements of a book into a coherent
  • An electronic book also known as an e - book or e Book is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable
  • Domesday Book ˈduːmzdeɪ or US: ˈdoʊmzdeɪ Latin: Liber de Wintonia Book of Winchester is a manuscript record of the Great Survey of much of England
  • The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text generally written on papyrus and used from the beginning of the New Kingdom around 1550 BCE
  • The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which, according to adherents, contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on
  • The Book of Haggai, also known as the Book of Aggeus, is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and has its place as the third - to - last of the Minor Prophets
  • The Book of Abraham is a work produced between 1835 and 1842 by Joseph Smith based, he said, on Egyptian papyri purchased from a traveling mummy exhibition
  • The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible. Before that date, it had been included in the Book of Ezra
  • The size of a book is generally measured by the height against the width of a leaf, or sometimes the height and width of its cover. A series of terms is
  • A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed
  • Book scanning or book digitization also: magazine scanning or magazine digitization is the process of converting physical books and magazines into digital
  • World Book Day, also known as World Book and Copyright Day, or International Day of the Book is an annual event organized by the United Nations Educational
  • A book town is a town or village with many used book or antiquarian book stores. These stores, as well as literary festivals, attract bibliophile tourists
  • A book discussion club is a group of people who meet to discuss a book or books that they have read and express their opinions, likes, dislikes, etc. It
  • Book of Common Prayer BCP is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by other Christian churches
  • The British Book Awards or Nibbies are literary awards for the best UK writers and their works, administered by The Bookseller. The awards have had several
  • The Book of Zephaniah ˌzɛfəˈnaɪ.ə Hebrew: צ פ נ י ה, Tsfanya is the ninth of the Twelve Minor Prophets, preceded by the Book of Habakkuk and followed
  • Book Book is a rural community in the central east part of the Riverina. It is situated about 12 km 7 mi north of Kyeamba and 15 km 9 mi south of
  • The International Kolkata Book Fair Old name: Calcutta Book Fair in English, and officially Antarjatik Kolkata Boimela or Antarjatik Kolkata Pustakmela
  • Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context. The burning of books represents
  • The Book of Daniel is a 2nd - century BC biblical apocalypse combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology a portrayal of end times which is both
  • The Book of the Month Club founded 1926 is a United States subscription - based e - commerce service that offers a selection of five new hardcover books
  • According to most adherents of the Latter Day Saint movement, the Book of Mormon is a 19th - century translation of a record of ancient inhabitants of the
  • An address book or a name and address book NAB is a book or a database used for storing entries called contacts. Each contact entry usually consists
  • The Book of Concord 1580 or Concordia often referred to as the Lutheran Confessions is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting
  • Book censorship is the act of some authority taking measures to suppress ideas and information within a book Censorship is the regulation of free speech
  • Limca Book of Records is an annual reference book published in India documenting human and natural world records. The world records achieved by humans
  • The term pop - up book is often applied to any book with three - dimensional pages, although properly the umbrella term movable book covers pop - ups, transformations

Encyclopedic dictionary

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