Space is the universe. Using word space than the word Universe means to see the Universe as complex and orderly system, or person, as opposed to chaos. Space, and our understanding of the causes of its existence and significance, studied in cosmology is a very broad discipline, encompassing any scientific, religious or philosophical reflections about the Universe and its nature, or reason for existence. Religious and philosophical approaches can include in their conception of the cosmos of different spiritual entities or other issues, it is considered that exists beyond our physical Universe.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
Philosopher Pythagoras first used the term "cosmos" from the Greek. word meaning order of the Universe. The term has become part of modern language in the 19th century, when the geographer–scientist-polymath Alexander von Humboldt resurrected from the ancient Greek word for instructed his five-volume treatise "cosmos" that influenced the modern and rather holistic perception of the universe as a single interactive entity.
2. Cosmology. (Космология)
Cosmology is the science of the cosmos, and in a broad sense encompasses many very different approaches: the scientific, religious and philosophical. All cosmologies have in common an attempt to understand the implicit order within the whole of being. Thus, most religions and philosophical systems have a cosmology.
When the cosmology used without a qualifier, it often means physical cosmology, unless the context makes clear that a different meaning is intended.
2.1. Cosmology. Physical cosmology. (Физическая космология)
Physical cosmology is often simply described as a cosmology is the science about the Universe, from the beginning of his physical existence. It includes speculative concepts such as the multiverse, when this is discussed. In physical cosmology, the term cosmos is often used in a technical sense, referring to a particular spacetime continuum within the multiverse is postulated. Of our concrete universe, observable Universe, as a rule, kapitaliserede as space.
In physical cosmology, to write the lower case term refers to the space theme with the relationship to the Universe, such as cosmic time since the Big Bang, cosmic rays high energy particles or radiation from space, and the relic microwave radiation found in all directions in space.
According to Charles Peter Mason in sir William Smith, dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1870 see book for full quotation, the Pythagoreans described the universe.
It appears, indeed, from this and from the extant fragments that the first book, from Filala work contains a General account of the origin and structure of the Universe. The second book seems to have been the exposition of the nature of numbers, which in Pythagorean theory, are the essence and source of all things. S. 305
2.2. Cosmology. Philosophical cosmology. (Философская космология)
Cosmology is the branch of metaphysics which deals with nature, the Universe, the theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the Universe. The basic definition cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the Universe. In modern astronomy the Big Bang Theory is the dominant postulation.
2.3. Cosmology. Religious cosmology. (Религиозные космологии)
In theology, the cosmos created the heavenly bodies. In Christian theology the word is also used synonymously with Aion to refer to "worldly life" or "this world" or "this age" and not in the afterlife or world to come.
Book 1870 dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, to mentionThales dogma that water is the origin of things, that is, that it is that out of which every thing arises, and into which every thing resolves itself, Thales may have followed Orphic cosmogonies, while, unlike them, he sought to establish the truth of the assertion. Hence, Aristotle, immediately after he has called him the originator of philosophy brings forward the reasons which Thales was believed to have adduced in confirmation of that assertion, for that no written development of it, or indeed any book by Thales, was extant, is proved by the expressions which Aristotle uses when he brings forward the doctrines and proofs of the Milesian. p. 1016 Plato, describes the idea of the good, or the Godhead, sometimes teleologically, as the ultimate purpose of all conditioned existence, sometimes cosmologically, as the ultimate operative cause, and has begun to develop the cosmological, as also the physico-theological proof for the being of God, but has referred both back to the idea of the Good, as the necessary presupposition to all other ideas, and our cognition of them. p. 402
The book the works of Aristotle 1908, page 80 of the fragments mentionedAristotle says the poet Orpheus never existed, the Pythagoreans ascribe this Orphic poem to a certain Cercon see Cercops.
Bertrand Russell noted, 1947The Orphics were an ascetic sect, wine, to them, was only a symbol, as, later, in the Christian sacrament. The intoxication that they sought was that of "enthusiasm," of union with the god. They believed themselves, in this way, to acquire mystic knowledge not obtainable by ordinary means. This mystical element entered into Greek philosophy with Pythagoras, who was a reformer of Orphism as Orpheus was a reformer of the religion of Dionysus. From Pythagoras Orphic elements entered into the philosophy of Plato, and from Plato into most later philosophy that was in any degree religious.
3. Early view from space: European and Chinese. (Начала смотреть из космоса: Европейский и китайский)
Eastern and Western thought differ markedly in their understanding of space and organization of space. The Chinese saw the Cosmos as an infinite and intertwined with the Earth. Western ideas from the ancient Greeks understanding of the cosmos, believed in multi-plane to divide the space, which of course is filled with air.
3.1. Early view from space: European and Chinese. European view. (Европейский взгляд)
Early Europeans watched cosmos as a divine creation, spatial finite divided space, divided into the sublunary and superlunary worlds. Objects above the lunar sphere, is considered to be stable, celestial bodies, believed to be made from a refined substance called "quintessence". It is understood as a crystalline, completely transparent substance that held all the superlunary spheres in perfect order. After their creation God, the sphere does not change, except for their rotation over the ground. Objects below the lunar sphere was the subject of a continuing combination, separation and recombination. This is because they consisted of the chaotic elements of Earth, Air, Fire and water.
The idea of the celestial spheres was developed in cosmological models and Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus and others. They believed in a stable space that God created where separate spheres were exposed to a different sort order. The Europeans supported the opinion of Aristotle, that infinity can only be viewed as an attribute of God, with the cosmos, being finite. In addition, based on the opinion of Aristotle, that "nature abhors a vacuum", the Europeans believed that the space between the spheres were filled with air. This theory lasted until the scientific revolution, when the discovery that the Sun is in the center of the planetary system rocked the cosmological understanding of his essence.
3.2. Early view from space: European and Chinese. The Chinese view. (Китайский вид)
The Chinese had several theories, processes and components space. The most popular of these beliefs was the theory of the Xuan ye, the astronomical view of the cosmos as an infinite space, floating in it bits of condensed steam. The Chinese believed that the Earth consisted of condensed Yin and Yang heaven and that these properties coexisted in constant relation to each other, Yin and Yang are used together to explain the processes on Earth also those that touch the ground in cooperation with heaven. This idea was described by Joseph Needham in space that function as a complex organism, with distinct patterns in the ever-changing structure. There was a pattern and coincidence in space. Because of this, the Chinese believed that terrestrial phenomena could affect the heavenly bodies.
The Chinese believed that Qi is the substance of all things in space and on Earth, including inanimate matter, people, ideas, emotions, heavenly bodies and everything that exists or existed, and that this qi condensation that created all matter in space. This is relatively consistent with our modern understanding of the Assembly of matter through gravitational fields.
The Chinese believe associated with the theory of Xuan ye, which held the space as empty and endless. This is contrary to the concept of Aristotle, that nature does not contain a vacuum, and that infinity can only be a divine attribute. The idea of the nothingness of space was later recognized as one of the most important discoveries of modern science.
3.3. Early view from space: European and Chinese. The similarity in the observation. (Сходство в наблюдении)
There is one way that the Chinese and Europeans, along with countless other ancient societies associated with the space. It was through the meaning placed on celestial bodies that were observed moving over the ground. The Chinese had very sophisticated astronomical understanding of the stars and the cosmos which has influenced all of their arts and architecture, in their myths and science. So it was with the Greeks and Romans, whose 48 constellations, including zodiac signs and the constellation of Orion, has been transmitted to modern Western cultures. It was probably transmitted to them from ancient Babylonian and Egyptian astronomers. Copernicus is said to have been inspired by the fertile sun deity of Neoplatonic thought, which may initially inspired his vision of a heliocentric Universe.
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