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Cinema of India
                                     

★ Cinema of India

Cinema India consists films produced in the country of India. Cinemas are very popular in India, as many as 1.600 films produced every year in different languages. Indian cinema produces more movies watched by more people than any other country in 2011, over 3.5 billion tickets were sold in India, 900.000 more than Hollywood. Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Trivandrum, Cochin and Bangalore the largest centers of film production in India.

As of 2013, India ranks first in the annual release of the movie, then Nollywood, Hollywood and China. In 2012, India produced 1.602 feature films. The Indian film industry was at in 2011 overall revenues of ₹ 93 billion $1.86 billion In 2015 India had a total gross in US box office, the third largest in the world $ 2.1 billion.

Total revenue of Indian cinema reached in 2000,$ 1.3 billion of the Sector segmented by language. The Hindi language film industry bollywood is the largest sector, which accounted for 43% of the revenue office. Total revenue of Telugu and Tamil film industry is 36%. In the South Indian film industry covers five cultures film: Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Tulu. Another well-known film culture in Bengali cinema, known as Tollywood, which was largely associated with parallel motion movie, in contrast to the masala films more famous in bollywood and Tamil movies of the time.

Indian cinema is a global enterprise. His films have a following throughout South Asia and in Europe, North America, Asia, middle East Africa, China and other countries running in more than 90 countries. Biopics including Dangal became transnational blockbusters, collecting more than $ 300 million worldwide. Millions of Indians abroad to watch Indian films, which account for about 12% of revenues. Music rights account for 4-5% of revenues.

Global businesses such as universal pictures, 20th Century Fox, Sony pictures, Walt Disney and Warner Bros invested in the industry along with Indian enterprises such as AVM productions such group, Sun pictures, PVP cinemas, Zee, UTV, Suresh productions, Eros international, Ayngaran International, pyramid Saimira, Aascar Films and Adlabs. By 2003 as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National stock exchange of India, NSE.

                                     

1. History. (История)

History of cinema in India goes back to the early days of film. Following the screening of lumière, and Robert Paul moving pictures in London 1896, the commercial cinema has become a worldwide sensation, and by mid-1896 as Lumiere and Robert Paul films were shown in Bombay.

                                     

1.1. History. The silent films of the 1890s–1920s years. (Немые фильмы 1890-х–1920-х годов)

In 1897, the presentation of the film Professor Stevenson best stage show in Calcuttas star theatre. With the stevensons encouragement and camera Hiralal sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of Scenes from that show, namely the flower of Persia in 1898. The wrestlers 1899 by H. S. Bhatavdekar showing the match at the hanging gardens in Bombay, was the first film to be shot dead Indian and the first Indian documentary film.

The first Indian film released in India was Shree Pundalik, a silent film in Marathi Dadasaheb Torne on 18 may 1912 at coronation cinematograph, Bombay. Some have argued that Pundalik was the first Indian film because it was a photographic recording of the game, but because the operator was a British man named Johnson and was filmed in London.

The first feature-length motion picture in India was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke is considered as the pioneer of Indian film industry a scholar and Indias languages and cultures. He used elements from Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra 1913, a silent film in Marathi. The female characters in the film were played by male actors. Only one print was filmed for the show at the coronation cinematograph on 3 may 1913. It was a commercial success. The first silent film in Tamil, Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Nataraja, Mudaliar in 1916.

The first Indian chain of cinema, theatre Madan belonged to the Parsi entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan, who oversaw production of 10 films annually and distributed them throughout India beginning in 1902. He founded Elphinstone monument in Calcutta. Elphinstone merged into Madan theatres society in 1919 which brought many of Bengals most popular literary works to the stage. He also produced Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra in 1917, a remake of Raja Harishchandra 1913 Phalkes.

Raghupathi venkaiah Naidu Indian artist and a pioneer of the film. In 1909, he was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema, traveling to Asia. He was the first to build and own cinema in Madras. He was credited as the father of Telugu cinema. In South India, the first Tamil radio Kalidas was released on 31 October 1931. Nataraja Mudaliar created South Indias first film Studio in Madras.

The film gradually gained popularity across India. The tickets were available to the masses, as low as one-sixteenth of a rupee in Bombay), with additional amenities available at a higher price.

Young producers began to incorporate elements of Indian social life and culture in the cinema. Others brought ideas from around the world. Only of global audiences and markets became aware of the industry Indias film.

In 1927 the British government to promote the market in India for British films over American, formed the Committee of Indian cinema request. The ICC consists of three British and three Indians, led by T. Rangachari, a Madras lawyer. The Committee does not support the desired recommendations of supporting British film, instead recommending support of the young Indian film industry. Their suggestions were shelved.

                                     

1.2. History. Sound cinema of the 1930s-mid-1940s years. (Звуковое кино 1930-х-середины 1940-х годов)

Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara, the first Indian talkie, on 14 March 1931. Irani later produced the first South Indian talkie film Kalidas Directed the H. M. Reddy released on 31 October 1931. Jumai Shasthi was the first Bengali talkie. Chicora V. Nagaiah, was one of the first multilingual film actor / singer / composer / producer / Directors in India. He was known as Indias Paul Muni.

In 1932, the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry, because Tollygunge rhyming with "Hollywood". Then Tollygunge was the center of the Indian film industry. Bombay later overtook Tollygunge as the center of industry, spawning "bollywood" and many other Hollywood-inspired names.

In 1933, East India film company produced its first Telugu film, Savitri. Based on the play by Mylavaram Bala bharathi Samajam, Director-P Pullaiah from the stage actors Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam. The film received an honorary diploma at the 2nd International film festival in Venice.

On March 10, 1935, another pioneer filmmaker Jyoti Prasad Agarwala made his first Assamese film Joymoti in. Jyoti Prasad went to Berlin to learn more about the movies. Indramalati is the other film he produced and directed after Joymoti. The first film Studio in South India, Durga Cinetone was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi of Surya in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh. In 1930-e years have seen the rise of music in Indian cinema with musicals such as Indra Sabha and Devi Devyani marking the beginning of the song-and-dance in Hindi films. The Studio appeared in 1935 in major cities such as Madras, Calcutta and Bombay, as Kino learned the craft example of the success of Devdas. directs Assamese film Director Pramathesh Barua. In 1937, cuisance Kanhiya Director Moti B was released the first color film shot in India. The 1940 film, Vishwa Mohini, is the first Indian film to portray Indian cinema world. Directed by Y. V. RAO and created by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi.

Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema in South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of a "cinema tent" in which a tent was erected on a plot of open area to screen movies. The first of its kind was in Madras, called Edisons Grand Cinemamegaphone. This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors. Open the Bombay talkies in 1934 and Prabhat Studios in Pune, started the production of Marathi films had in mind. R. S. D. Choudhury produced wrath 1930, which was banned by the British Raj for his depiction of Indian actors as the leaders during the Indian independence movement. Sant Tukaram, a 1936 film based on the life of Tukaram 1608-50 and Varkari Saint and spiritual poet was the first Indian film to be shown at the international film festival in the 1937 edition of Venice film festival. The film was recognized as one of the three best films of the year. In 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, co-produced and directed the social problem film, Raithu Bidda, which was banned by the British administration, depicting a peasant uprising among the zamindars during British rule.

The Indian masala film - a term used for a mixed-genre films that combined song, dance, romance etc. - came after the Second world war. In the movie 1940-ies in South India accounted for nearly half of Indias cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as instrument of cultural revival. The partition of India after independence has divided the assets of the United Nations and a number of studios have moved to Pakistan. Section steel strong theme of the film in the future.

After independence, the Indian film industry was investigated by the Commission S. K. Patil. Patil recommended that Finance film Corporation "peck" at the Ministry of Finance. This advice was adopted in 1960 and FFC to provide financial support to filmmakers. The Indian government has established a division of films of 1948, which eventually became one of the worlds largest producers of documentary films with an annual production of over 200 short documentaries, each released in 18 languages with 9.000 prints for regular cinemas across the country.

Indian theatrical enterprises of the peoples of the IPTA, an Art movement with a Communist inclination, began to take shape through the 1940s and 1950s years. Realistic IPTA plays, such as, Association 1944, Bijon Bhattacharya prepared the way for realism in Indian cinema, for example, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Dharti ke Lal and the Children of Earth in 1946. The IPTA movement continued stresses realism and went on to produce mother India and thirst, among Indias most recognizable cinematic productions.



                                     

1.3. History. The Golden age in the late 1940s and 1960-ies. (Золотой век в конце 1940-х и 1960-х годов)

The period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s has been considered by movie historians as the Golden age of Indian cinema.

This period saw the emergence of the parallel cinema movement, mainly due to the Bengalis, who then was a quarter of Indias the films release. The movement emphasized social realism. Early examples include Dharti ke Lal in 1946, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Neecha Nagar 1946, Chetan Anand, Nagarik 1952, Ritwik Ghatak and do Bigha Zamin 1953, Bimal Roy, laying the foundations for Indian cinema and Indian New wave.

In 1955-1959 the APU trilogy, Satyajit ray has won top prizes at major international film festivals and have firmly established a parallel movement movie. Song of the road 1955, the first part of the trilogy, notes, tagged rays in Indian cinema. In trilogys influence on world cinema can be felt in the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties" which "owe a tremendous debt to the APU trilogy".

The operator Subrata Mitra, who made his debut in the trilogy, had its great influence on the cinema in the world. One of his most important methods of bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito 1956, the second part of the trilogy. Ray for the first time other effects, such as photo-negative flashbacks and x-ray digressions in Pratidwandi 1972.

In the 1960-ies, the intervention of Indira Gandhi during her reign as the information and broadcasting Minister of India supported the production of the original cinematic of the FPC.

Commercial Hindi cinema started flourishing, including the acclaimed movies lust for 1957 and Kaagaz Ke pool 1959, guru Dutt 1951 Awaara and Shree 420 1955, Raj Kapoor. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working class urban life in India, Awaara presented the city as a nightmare and a dream, and thirst criticized the unreality of city life.

The epic film mother India 1957, the Mehboob Khan, a remake of his earlier Aurat 1940 was the first Indian film to be nominated for an Oscar for Best foreign language film. Mother India certain conventions of Hindi cinema for many decades. It spawned a new genre around some rascals movies. Of Gunga Jumna 1961, Dilip Kumar was around some villains crime drama about two brothers on different sides of the law, a theme that has become widespread in Indian films in the 1970-ies. 1958 Madhumati, Bimal Roy popular theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture.

Dilip Kumar Muhammad Yusuf Khan made his debut in 1940-ies and became famous in the 1950s and was one of the biggest Indian movie stars. He was a pioneer of method steps, prior Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Like the Brandos influence the new Hollywood actors, Kumar was inspired by Indian actors, including Amitabh Bachchan, Naseeruddin Shah Rukh Khan and Amitabh Bachchan.

Also Neecha Nagar won the Palme dor at Cannes Dor, putting Indian films in competition for the "Palme dor" Dor almost every year in the 1950s and early 1960-ies, many of which won major prizes. Ray won the Golden lion at the Venice film festival for Aparajito in 1956 and "Golden bear" and two "silver bear" for best Director at the Berlin international film festival. Movies a screenwriter, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas was nominated for the Palme Dor three times. Neecha Nagar won, with nominations for and Awaara Pardesi 1957).

The rays of Ghatak and Dutts contemporaries were missed in their own lives but have also brought international recognition in the 1980s and 1990s years. Ray is considered one of the greatest filmmakers of the cinema of the 20th century, with Dutt and Ghatak. In 1992 in the form of the survey and sound critics ranked Ray at No. 7 in the list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time, while Dutt place in the form of sound 2002 poll and No. 73.

Several films from this era are among the greatest films of all time in various critics and election of Directors. There are several Ray films in the Sight & sound critics poll, including the APU trilogy ranks in 1992 № 4 If the votes are combined, Jalsaghar place in 1992, № 27, Charulata place in 1992 № 41 and Aranyer DIN Ratri ranked No. 81 in 1982. In 2002 Sight & sound critics and Directors poll also included Dutt films thirst and Kaagaz ke pool both tied at #160, Ghataks films Meghe Dhaka Tara is #231 and Komal Gandhar is ranked #346, and Raj Kapoors Awaara, Vijay Bhatts building bitsui Bavra, a Mehboob khans mother India and K. Asifs Mughal-I-Azam all tied at #346. In 1998, according to a survey of critics conducted by the Asian film magazine Cinemaya included the APU trilogy ranked No. 1 if votes are combined, the rays Charulata and Jalsaghar both tied at # 11, and Ghataks Subarnarekha is also tied for #11.

South Indian cinema saw the production works based on the Mahabharata, such as Mayabazar, listed by Ibn lives 2013 poll as the greatest Indian film of all time. Shivaji Ganesan Indias became the first actor to receive international award when he won the award "Best actor" award at the festival of Afro-Asian cinema in 1960 and was awarded the title of Chevalier of the Legion of honor by the French government in 1995. Tamil cinema influenced by Dravidian politics, with prominent personalities of the film With N Annadurai, M. G. Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa becoming chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu.

Kamal haasan was introduced as a child actor in the 1960 Tamil movie Kalathur Kannamma, Haasans performance earned him the presidents gold medal at the age of 6 years.

                                     

1.4. History. Classic bollywood-1970s–1980s years. (Классика Болливуда 1970-х–1980-х годов)

Realistic parallel cinema continued throughout the 1970s, is practiced in many native American cultures of the film. The FFCS feature film orientation came under criticism in the Committee on investigation of public enterprises in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema.

Commercial Hindi cinema continued with such films as 1969 Aradhana, Sachaa Jhutha 1970, fun simple Assembly group sathi 1971, Anand 1971 Kati Patang Amar Prem 1972, dushman 1972 and 1973-N Doug.

To the beginning 1970-x years, Hindi cinema is the thematic stasis, the music is dominated by romantic movies. The arrival of the screenwriter Duo Salim-Javed, Salim and Javed Akhtar, composed of Khan, revived the industry. They created the genre of sand, the cruel, the Bombay underworld crime movies, with films such as zanjeer profile 1973 and 1975 Deewaar. They altered it on rural themes mother India of the Ganges and Jumna in urban areas, reflecting the 1970-ies of India, to direct the growing discontent and frustration among the masses, the unprecedented growth of slums and urban poverty, corruption and crime, and against creation of threads. This resulted in the creation of the "angry young man" in the person of Amitabh Bachchan, who redefined the idea Kumars of in Gunga Jumna, and gave his voice for the poor strata of urban population.

By the mid-1970s, a crime-action movies like zanjeer profile and revenge and the law 1975 strengthened the position of the Bachchans as a lead actor. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi MA 1975 was made on a Shoe string budget and was a box office success and a cult. Another important film was 1975 and Deewaar, Yash Chopra. This crime film pits "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastanah", portrayed by Bachchan. Danny Boyle described it as "absolutely key to Indian cinema".

"Bollywood" was coined in the 70-ies, when the conventions of commercial films were created. The key to this was Nasir Hussain, Salim-Javeds create the genre of the masala film, which combines elements of action, Comedy, romance, drama, melodrama and musical. Even Hussain / Salim-Javed brew, Yaadon Ki Baarat 1973, was identified as the first masala film and the "first" typical "bollywood" film. Salim-Javed wrote a more successful masala films in the 1970-ies and 1980-ies. Movies masala made Bachchan is the biggest bollywood movie star of the period. Another attraction was Amar Akbar Anthony 1977, Manmohan Desai. Desai expanded the genre in the 1970-ies and 1980-ies.

Commercial Hindi cinema grew during the 1980s, with films such as EK Duuje Ke Liye 1981, the profile of 1983 himmatwala, Tohfa 1984, Naam 1986, Mr India 1987, and profile tezaab 1988.

                                     

1.5. History. New bollywood-1990s–present. (Новый Болливуда 1990-х–настоящее время)

At the end of 1980-x years, Indian cinema has gone through another period of stagnation, with the decline in turnout in the box office, in connection with the increased violence, the decline in musical melody, and the growth of videoerotico, which leads to a middle class family audience abandoning theatres. The turning point came with the music of Yash Chopras romance Chandni 1989, starring Sridevi. He played an important role in ending the era of violent action movies in Indian cinema and rejuvenation of romantic music genre. He also set a new template for a bollywood musical romantic movies that defined Hindi cinema in the coming years. Commercial Hindi cinema has evolved in the late 80-ies and 1990-ies, with the release of Mr India in 1987, the SE of the Quran. Of the Quran. so 1988, 1989 chaalbaaz profile, the full profile Maine pyar Kiya 1989, Lamhe 1991, Saajan 1991, 1992 Khuda gawah, Khalnayak 1993, Darr 1993, hum Aapke Hain Koun.! 1994, film dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge, the 1995, DIL to pagal Hai 1997 full profile pyar Kiya Toh DARNA Kya 1998 Kuch HOTA Hai 1998. The cult 1994 bandit Queen, Shekhar Kapur has received international acclaim and controversy.

In the late 1990-ies of parallel cinema began a revival in Hindi cinema, largely due to the critical and commercial success of crime films such as Satya and Vaastav 1999 and 1998. These movies started a genre known as Mumbai Noir, urban films reflecting social problems.

Since the 1990s, three major bollywood movie stars were the "three Khans": Aamir Khan, Shahrukh Khan and Salman Khan. Together they starred in top ten grossing bollywood films. Three khans had a successful career since the late 1980-ies and has dominated the Indian box office since 1990-ies. Shahrukh Khan was the most successful for most of the 1990s and 2000s years, while Aamir Khan was the most successful since the end of 2000-ies, according to Forbes, the Aamir Khan ", arguably the biggest movie star in the world" in 2017, because of its huge popularity in India and China. Other Hindi stars Anil Kapoor, Madhuri Dixit and Kajol. Haider 2014, Vishal Bhardvadzh, the third part of the trilogy of Indian Shakespeare after Maqbool 2003 Omkara 2006 and the year has been awarded peoples choice at the 9th Rome film festival in the Mondo genre, making it the first Indian film to achieve this honor.

2010 years also saw the rise of a new generation of popular actors like Ranbir Kapoor, Ranveer Singh, Varun Dhawan, sidharth Malhotra, in Sushant Singh Rajput, Arjun Kapoor, Aditya Roy Kapoor and tiger Shroff and actress like Vidya Balan, Katrina Kaif, of Kangana Ranaut, Deepika padukone, Sonam Kapoor, Anushka Sharma, Sonakshi Sinha, Jacqueline Fernandez, Sraddha Kapoor and alia Bhatt, with Balan and Ranaut is gaining wide recognition for successful women, focused on the creation of films such as dirty picture 2011, 2012 Kahaani and Queen 2014, and TANU Weds Manu returns 2015. Kareena Kapoor and Bipasha Bass is one of the few Actresses working with 2000 years who have successfully completed 15 years in the industry.



                                     

1.6. History. Regional 1970s–Present movie. (Региональный 1970-х–Настоящее кино)

Kannada film samskara 1970, Pattabhirama Reddy, pioneered the parallel cinema movement in South Indian cinema. The film won the Bronze Leopard at the International film festival in Locarno.

Malayalam cinema is going through its own Golden age in the 1980s and early 1990s years. Famous Malayalam industry filmmakers, the included Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, T. V. Chandran and Shaji N. Karun. A Gopalakrishnan, rays often considered the spiritual successor. He took some of his most famous films during this period, including Elippathayam 1981, which won the Sutherland Trophy at the London film festival. Debut Karuns the 1989 film Piravi won the camera Dor at the Cannes film festival in 1989, while his second film Swaham 1994 in competition for the Palme Dor at the 1994 event. Vanaprastham was screened in the certain regard section of the Cannes film festival UN. Malayalam commercial cinema began gaining popularity with the action films of Jayan, a popular stunt actor who died while filming the helicopter stunt.

Telugu cinema has a history of producing at the international level, noted fantasy and mythological films, such as the 1933 film Savitri received an honorary diploma in the 2nd Venice international film festival, as well as works like Nartanasala, Mayabazar, and the favorites of the series won the American award "Saturn" for best international film. Daasi and Matti Manushulu Director B. Narsing RAO has received the award of merit at the Moscow international film festival in 1989 and 1991, respectively. Maa Ooru he received the award media wave Hungary international festival of visual arts. Sankarabharanam 1980 were engaged in the revival of Indian classical music, received the audience award at the international film festival in 1981 from France. Swati Mutyam was India chosen in the entry for Best foreign film for "Oscar" in 1986. The film was shown at the Moscow film festival, Asian and African film festival in Tashkent, the 11th international film festival of India in the first primary partition, and the Asia-Pacific film festival, where it received awards for "Best film" and "Best actor" category.

Tamil movies has appeared in several film festivals. Ratnam Kannathil Muthamittal, Vasanthabalan Paruthiveeran Veyyil and Ameer Sultan, Kanchivaram Priyadarshan took place at the International film festival in Toronto. Tamil films was introduced in India for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign-eight times. Nayakan 1987, Kamal haasan, was included in time magazines "all-time" 100 best movies List. In 1991, Marupakkam directed by S. K. Sethu Madhavan, became the first Tamil film to win National film award for Best feature film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram in 2007.

Salim-Javed were very influential in South Indian cinema. In addition to writing two Kannada films, many of their films were remakes produced in other regions, including Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam movies. While bollywood Directors and producers owns the rights to their films in North India, Salim-Javed retained in South India, where they are sold the remake rights, usually around ₹ 1 lakh, equivalent to ₹ 29 crore or$40.000 each in 2018, for movies such as profile zanjeer, Yaadon Ki Baarat and whats not. Some of those remakes was the breakthrough for Rajinikanth, who played the role of the Bachchans in a few Tamil remakes.

Sridevi was widely known as the first female superstar of bollywood cinema because of her pan-Indian appeal and a rare actor who was equally successful career in a large Indian film industry: Hindi, Telugu and Tamil. She is also the only movie star in history of bollywood to star in top 10 highest grossers per year throughout its active period 1983-1997.

By 1996, the Indian film industry estimated a national television movie for 600 million viewers, making India as one of the largest film markets, with the largest regional industrial enterprises, Hindi and Telugu films. In 2001 the sales of tickets of Indian movies sold some 3.6 billion tickets a year worldwide, compared with Hollywoods 2.6 billion tickets sold.

                                     

2. The impact for Indian cinema. (Последствий для индийского кино)

Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake there are six major factors that have shaped Indian popular cinema:

  • The Parsi theatre "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into dramatic melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling scenography". These effects become apparent in masala films such as coolie, 1983, and to some extent in more recent critically acclaimed films such as rang de Basanti.
  • Western musical television, particularly MTV, which had a greater impact in the 1990-ies, as is evident in the PACE, camera angles, dance and music of recent Indian films. An early example of this approach was Bombay 1995, Mani Ratnam.
  • Ancient epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana influenced by the history of Indian cinema. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story, background and the story in history. Indian popular films often have plots that branch into sub-plots, such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish.
  • Traditional folk theatre became popular around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. These regional traditions include the Yatra of West Bengal, in the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, Yakshagana of Karnataka, Chindu Natakam of Andhra Pradesh, and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.
  • Ancient Sanskrit drama, with its emphasis on spectacle, combining music, dance and gesture combined "to create a bright creative Union with dance and MIME being Central to the dramatic experience." Sanskrit dramas were known as Natya, derived from the root word nrit dance, featuring spectacular dance-dramas. Method race performance, since ancient times, is one of the fundamental features that differentiate Indian from Western movies. In the Rasa method, empathetic "emotions are transferred by the performer and thus felt by the audience", in contrast to the Western Stanislavski method where the actor must become "a living, breathing incarnation of a character", and not "just to convey emotions". Method race manifests itself in the performances of the Hindi actors like Bachchan and Shahrukh Khan and Hindi films such as rang de Basanti 2006, and the rays working.
  • Hollywood made popular musicals from the 1920s to the 1960-ies. Indian music producers have departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. "For example, the Hollywood musicals as their story of the fun. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy tales, etc. Through song and dance." In addition, "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was completely dominant, Indian filmmakers make no attempt to hide the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with peoples everyday lives in complex and interesting ways.".

Sudarshan Sharmistha Gupta and Bhaumik define Indo-Persian / Islamicate culture as another major influence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Urdu was the lingua Franca of popular productions throughout North India, based in performance art traditions, such as dancing dancer, Urdu poetry and theatre of the Parsees. Urdu language and related dialects of Hindi was the most widely understood all over Northern India, thus, Hindi-Urdu became the standardized language of ancient Indian talkies. The thousand and one nights "Arabian nights" had a strong influence on the Parsi theatre, which adapted the "Persian adventure novels" in the movies, and at the beginning of the movie Bombay, where the "thousand and one nights movie" has become a popular genre. Stadtman identificeret foreign influence in commercial bollywood masala films: a New Hollywood, Hong Kong martial arts cinema, and Italian exploitation films.

Like mainstream Indian popular cinema, Indian parallel cinema was influenced by a combination of Indian theatre and Indian literature such as Bengali and Urdu literature poetry, but differs when it comes to foreign influences, where it affects more on European cinema, particularly Italian neorealism and French poetic realism than Hollywood. Ray led Bicycle thieves 1948 Vittorio De sicas offer and Jean Renoir the river 1951, where he helps as an influence on his debut film pather Panchali in 1955.

                                     

3. The influence of cinema of India. (Влияние кино Индии)

During the Indian colonial rule bought film equipment from Europe. British propaganda films funded by wartime during the Second world war, some of which showed the Indian army pitted against the Axis powers, in particular the Japanese Empire, which managed to penetrate to India. One such story was Burma Rani, which depicted civilian resistance to the Japanese occupation of British and Indian troops in Myanmar. Pre-independence businessmen such as I. F. Madan and Abdulally Esoofally traded in world cinema.

More Indian films made the early inroads into the Soviet Union, the middle East, Southeast Asia and China. The main Indian movie stars gained international fame across Asia and Eastern Europe. For example, Indian movies were more popular in USSR than in Hollywood movies, and occasionally domestic Soviet films. From 1954 to 1991, 206 Indian cinema was sent to the Soviet Union, drawing higher average audience than the domestic Soviet plays, films like Awaara and Disco Dancer attracted more than 60 million viewers. Films such as Awaara, 3 idiots and Dangal, was one of the 20 highest-grossing films in China.

Indian movies often spoke at international forums and festivals. In parallel this allowed Bengali filmmakers to achieve worldwide fame.

Many Asian and South Asian countries often can be found in Indian cinema as more suited to their feelings than Western movies. Jigna Desai believes that in the 21st century, Indian cinema became deterritorialised, common in those parts of the world where Indian expatriatres present in significant quantities, and was supposed to be an alternative to other international cinema.

Indian cinema has recently begun influencing Western musical films and played a particularly important role in the revival of the genre in the Western world. The rays had an influence in the world, with Directors such as Martin Scorsese, James ivory, Abbas Kiarostami, françois Truffaut, Carlos Saura, Isao Takahata and Gregory Nava citing his influence, and others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work. "A young coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the APU trilogy". Since the 1980-ies, overlooked Indian filmmakers such as Ghatak and Dutt posthumously gained international recognition. Baz Luhrmann stated that his successful musical film Moulin Rouge!" 2001 was directly inspired by bollywood musicals. The success of the movie, a renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre, subsequently contributes to the Renaissance. Danny Boyle Oscar-winning film "Slumdog Millionaire" in 2008 was directly inspired by Indian films and was considered a "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".

Indian cinema has repeatedly recognized at the ceremony of the Oscar. Indian movie mother India 1957, Salaam Bombay! 1988 and 2001, Lagaan, was nominated for an Oscar for Best foreign language film. The Indian Oscar winners to include Bhanu Athaiya, costume designer, Director, ray, A. R. Rahman, composer, Pookutty sound Rasul editor and poet Gulzar, Cottalango Leon and Rahul Thakkar scientific and technical awards.

                                     

4.1. Genres and styles. Masala film. (Фильм масала)

Masala is a style of Indian cinema that mix genres in one work, especially in bollywood films in West Bengal and South India. For example, a film can portray action, Comedy, drama, romance and melodrama. These films are usually musicals, with songs filmed in picturesque locations. Plots for such movies may seem illogical and improbable to unfamiliar viewers. The genre is named after the masala, a spice mixture in Indian cooking.

                                     

4.2. Genres and styles. Parallel cinema. (Параллельное кино)

Parallel cinema, also known as art cinema or the Indian New wave, known for its realism and naturalism, addressing the socio-political situation. This movement differs from the mainstream bollywood cinema and began around the same time with the French and Japanese new wave. The movement started in Bengal, led by ray, Sen and Ghatak and later became known in the regions. The movement was launched Royce not Bigha Zamin 1953, which was a commercial and critical success, winning the international prize at the Cannes film festival 1954. Rays films of the APU trilogy. Three films won major prizes at the Cannes, Berlin and Venice film festivals, and is frequently listed among the greatest films of all time.

Other Neo-realist film by Shyam of Benegal, Karun, a Kasaravalli and Gopalakrishnan.

                                     

4.3. Genres and styles. Multilingual. (Многоязычный)

Some Indian films are known as "multilinguals", filmed in similar but not identical versions in different languages. This was done in the 1930-ies. According to Rajadhyaksha and Willemen in the ENCYCLOPAEDIA of Indian cinema, 1994, in its most precise form, a multilingual is

bilingual or trilingual was a film made in the 1930-ies, in the era, when different but identical brace made every shot in different languages, often with different leading, but identical technical crew and music.

Rajadhyaksha and Willemen note that in seeking to build their encyclopedia, they often found it "extremely difficult to distinguish multilinguals in this original sense from dubbed versions, remakes, reissues or, in some cases, the same film listed with different titles, presented as separate versions in different languages. it will take years of scientific work to establish definitive data on this issue."



                                     

5. Music. (Музыка)

Music is a significant source of income, and the only music law, accounting for 4-5% of revenues. Starring music companies Saregama, T-series, Sony music Zee music company. Film music accounts for 48% of the net sales of music. A typical film may contain 5-6 choreographed songs.

Requirements for multicultural, globalized Indian audience led to the confusion of local and international musical traditions. Local dance and music remain a recurring theme in India and following the Indian Diaspora. Playback singers such as Mohammad Rafi, Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Sridevi, Judith Narayan, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam and K. J. Yesudas have attracted crowds of film music concerts. In the interaction of the 21st century increased between Indian artists and others.

                                     

6. The location of the film. (Расположение фильма)

In the movie, in a place like this in any place where acts and dialogue are written. Sites where to shoot without any dialogue occurs is called the second block of photos. Filmmakers often choose to shoot on location because they believe that greater realism can be achieved in a "real" place. Location shooting most often this is due to the possibilities of the budget.

The most popular locations of major cities for each regional industry. Other locations include Manali and Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Srinagar and Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, Darjeeling in West Bengal, Lucknow, Agra and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, Ooty, Tamil Nadu, Amritsar in Punjab, Darjeeling in West Bengal, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Jaipur in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa.

                                     

7. Production company. (Производственная компания)

There are more than 1000 manufacturing organizations in the Indian film industry, but few are successful. AVM Productions is the oldest surviving Studio in India. Other major production houses include Yash Raj films, T-series, red chillies entertainment, Dharma productions, Eros international, Ajay Devgn FFilms, Balaji motion pictures, UTV motion pictures, the profile of raaj Kamal films International, Wunderbar films, Aashirvad cinemas Indian movies companies and Geeta arts.

                                     

8. Movie in the language. (Фильм на языке)

Movies are created in many cities and regions of India, including Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu, Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and Konkan, Kerala, West Bengal, Manipur, odisha, Punjab Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Tripura and Mizoram.

                                     

8.1. Movie in the language. Assamese. (Ассамский)

Assamese language film industry traces its origins in the works of revolutionary visionary Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala, who was a prominent poet, playwright, composer and freedom fighter. He played an important role in the production of the first Assamese film Joymati in 1935, under the banner of Critrakala sound. Due to the lack of trained technicians, Jyotiprasad, making his first film, I had to take on additional responsibilities as writer, producer, Director, choreographer, editor, set designer and costume designer, sound engineer and musical Director. A film with a budget of 60.000 rupees was released on 10 March 1935. The picture failed miserably. Like many early films, the negatives and the prints of Joymati are missing. Some efforts have been made privately by Altaf Mazīd to restore and subtitle of what was left of the prints. Despite the significant financial loss from Joymati, the second picture Indramalati was released in 1939. The 21st century has produced a bollywood-style Assamese movies.

                                     

8.2. Movie in the language. Bengali Tollywood. (Бенгальский Толливуд)

Bengali film language tradition of Tollygunge located in West Bengal, also known as Tollywood name Tollygunge posted movie masters such as Satyajit ray, Mrinal Saint. Ritwik Ghatak and recent Bengali films that have captured national attention include choker Bali.Rituparno Ghosh, Bengal has produced science fiction and film production.

Bengali cinema dates back to the 1890s, when the first "film" was shown in theatres in Calcutta. Within five years, Hiralal sen established company Royal monument, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows in the star theatre, Calcutta, theatre, Minerva theatre and classic. After a long break, after Nath sen, Dhirendra Ganguli known as D. G. established Indo British film co, the first Bengali production company, in 1918. First feature film of Bengal Billwamangal was produced in 1919, under the banner of Madan theatre. Bilat Ferat in 1921 was IBFCs first products. Production of Madan theatres Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie.

In 1932, the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry, because the Tollygunge rhyming with "Hollywood", but because he was the center of the Indian film industry. The parallel cinema movement started in Bengal. Bengali stalwarts, like ray, Mrinal sen, Ghatak and others have earned international recognition. The actors, including the complete absence of Kumar and soumitra Chatterjee led Bengal film industry.

Other art Director in the Bengali film world includes Shaani, buddhadeb Dasgupta, Gautam Ghosh, sandip ray and Aparna Sen.

                                     

8.3. Movie in the language. Furthermore, By Using Different The Bhasha. (Кроме Того, С Помощью Различных Бхаша)

Furthermore, by using different the Bhasha language films bridge culture, mainly for the rural population, predominantly in a remote region furthermore, by using different around Mathura, Agra, Aligarh and Hathras in Western Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur and Dholpur in Rajasthan. It is the predominant language in the Central stretch of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The first bridge Bhasha film India was bridge UMI 1982, Shiv Kumar, who had success throughout the country. Later bridge Bhasha cinema has seen the production of movies like jamuna if you are looking for a decent, bridge KAU Birju, Bhakta Surdas and Jesus. Culture bridge presented in Krishna Tere Desh main Hindi, Kanha Ki furthermore, by using different Bhumi, bridge Ki Radha Shyam of dwarika and ke Bawre Nain.

                                     

8.4. Movie in the language. Bhojpuri. (Бходжпури)

Language of Bhojpuri films primarily serve residents of Western Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh, and also have a large audience in Delhi and Mumbai due to the transfer of Bhojpuri speakers in these cities. Apart from India, the markets for these films developed in other countries, Bhojpuri West Indies, Oceania and South America.

The history of Bhojpuri cinema starts with Ganga Maiyya tohe Piyari Chadhaibo. Over the next decades, several movies have been produced. Films such as alien Bidesiya, 1963, S. N. Tripathi the Ganges and the Ganges, 1965, Kumar was profitable and popular, but in General Bhojpuri movie were not common in the 1960s and 1970s years.

The industry has experienced a revival in 2001 with the hit Saiyyan Hamar darling, Mohan Prasad, who took Ravi Kissan superstars. This was followed by a number of other successes, including a priest Batai on Biyah KAB Hoi and Sasura Bada penny shaft both did much better business in the state of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream bollywood hits and both earned more than ten times the cost of their production. Although less than in other Indian film industries, these gains increased visibility movie Bhojpuri, the leading awards and trade magazine, Bhojpuri City.

                                     

8.5. Movie in the language. The Chakma Chakwood. (Чакма Chakwood)

The chakma movie is a small industry in the country Bangladesh and the Indian state of Tripura and Mizoram.

                                     

8.6. Movie in the language. Chhattisgarhi Chhollywood

Chhollywood was born in 1965 with the first Chhattisgarhi film Kahi Debe Sandesh in black and white, Manu Nayak. Naidu wrote the lyrics for the film, and there were two songs sung by Mohammed Rafi. This film is Ghar dwar 1971, Niranjan Tiwari bombed. No Chhollywood movie was filmed almost 30 years after that.

                                     

8.7. Movie in the language. English. (Английский)

Deepa Mehta, Anant Balani, Homi Adajania, Vijay Singh, Vierendrra Lalita and sooni Taraporevala received recognition in Indian English cinema.

                                     

8.8. Movie in the language. Bollywood. (Болливуд)

The Hindi language film industry of Mumbai - also known as bollywood - is the largest and most powerful branch. Indian cinema has explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut kanya 1936 and Sujata 1959. Came international attention to the industry with Raj Kapoors Awara and later in Shakti Samanthas of Aradhana. Hindi cinema grew in the 1990-ies with the release of as many as 215 films a year.

Many actors signed contracts for simultaneous work in 3-4 films. Institutions such as the industrial development Bank of India, funded by Hindi movies. Magazines such as solo, Stardust and cine blitz became popular.

In Hindi cinema to participate, clapping, singing and reciting familiar dialogue.

Art Directors include Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind squirt Shyam of Benegal, Mira Nair, Nagesh Kukunoor, Sudhir Mishra and Nandita Das.

                                     

8.9. Movie in the language. Kannada Sandalwood. (Каннада Сандал)

Kannada film industry also known as sandalwood, is based in Bangalore and caters mostly to Karnataka. Gubbi Veeranna 1891 – 1972 was an Indian theatre Director and actor and the winner of the award "Padma Shri" awarded by the President of India. He was one of the pioneers and most prolific contributors to Kannada theatre. Actor Kannada Rajkumar started working with Veneranda and later became an important actor.

Veeranna based Karnataka Gubbi productions. He produced Sadarame in 1935, Raja Chandrasekhar, in which he played the main role. Then he made Subhadra and Jeevana Nataka 1942. He took a leading role in Hemareddy Mallamma 1945. Karnataka Gubbi Productions was later called the Karnataka films Ltd. and is credited with start of career, Rajkumar, when he offered him lead role in his debut movie Bedara Kannappa. He made silent films, including his novel, Raphel Algoet. Veeranna was the lead, accompanied by his wife, Jayamma.

Veeranna produced Bedara Kannappa 1954, H. L. N. Simha, who received the first honorary diploma. However, the first "presidents silver medal For best feature film in Kannada language" was marked on the 5-th ceremony of awarding the National movie awards in Premada Puthri 1957, Nagendra R. RAO. The Rajkumar was a legendary actor along with Vishnuvardhan, Ambarish, Anant Nag, Shankar Nag, Prabhakar, udaya Kumar hookah, Gangadhar, looked, Shivarajkumar, Shashikumar, Ramesh Arvind, Devaraj, Jaggesh, Chris j, Vinodraj, Charanraj, raised, Chris Evans, Darshan, Puneeth the Rajkumar, Yash, Leelavathi, Kalpana, bharathi, next, Pandari Bai, Aarathi, Jaimala, Tara, Umashri and Chris.

Kannada Directors are H. L. N. Simha, R. Nagendra RAO, B. R. Panthulu, M. S. sathyu, Puttanna Kanagal, G. V. Iyer, Karnad, T. S. Nagabharana Siddalingaiah, B. V. Karanth, and Pattabhi, T. V. Singh Thakur, Y. R. Swami, M. R. Vittal, of Sundar RAO Nadkarni, P. S. Moorthy, S. K. A. Chari, Hunsur Krishnamurthy, Prema Karanth, Rajendra Singh Babu, N. Lakshminarayan, Shankar Nag, Girish Kasaravalli, a, Umesh Kulkarni and Suresh Heblikar. Other famous personalities from the film in the Kannada language, are, Bhargava, G. K. Venkatesh, Vijaya Bhaskar, Rajan-Nagendra, Geethapriya, Hamsalekha, R. N. Jayagopal, M. rank RAO and Yogaraj Bhat.

Movie Kannada has contributed to Indian parallel cinema. The influential Kannada films in this genre include samskara, Chomana Dudi by B. V. Karanth, "Bangarada Manushya", "Mayura", "Jeevana Ashwin", "Gauri Ganesha", "Udbhava", Tabarana kat, Vamshavruksha, Kaadu Kudure, Hamsageethe, Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu, accident, Maanasa Sarovara, bars, Chitegoo Chinte, Galige, Ijjodu, Kanneshwara frame, Ghatashraddha, Tabarana cat, mane, Kraurya, Thaayi Saheba, Bandhana, Muthina Haara, Banker Margayya, Dweepa, Munnudi, Bettada Jeeva, Mysore Mallige and Chinnari Muththa.

The government film and TV Institute, Bangalore formerly a part of S. J. Polytechnic is the first government Institute in India to start technical courses of the film.

                                     

8.10. Movie in the language. Konkani. (Конкани)

The Konkani language films are mainly produced in Goa. It is one of Indias small film areas, producing four films in 2009. Konkani language is spoken mainly in the States of Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka and to a lesser extent in Kerala. The first full length Konkani film was Mogacho Anvddo 1950, Jerry Braganza, under the banner of Etica pictures. Release date movies, 24 April is celebrated as Konkani film day. Karnataka is one of the many Konkani speaking people. A huge body of Konkani literature and art is a resource for filmmakers. Kazar marriage, 2009, Richard Castelino and Ujvaadu to shed new light on old questions age, Kasaragod Chinna several major releases. Innovative free online Konkani film mog Ani Maipas.

                                     

8.11. Movie in the language. Malayalam Mollywood. (Малаялам Mollywood)

Malayalam film industry, Indias fourth largest, is based in Trivandrum. Directors include S. Gopalakrishnan, Karun, Aravindan, K. G. George, Padmarajan, Sathyan Anthikad, Chandran and Bharathan.

The first full-length Malayalam was Vigathakumaran 1928, S. J. Daniel. This film is the first feature of Indian social drama film. Daniel is the father of Malayalam film industry. Balan 1938, p. Nottani was the first Malayalam "walkie-talkie".

Malayalam films were mainly produced by Tamil producers till 1947 when the first major film Studio, Udaya Studio, opened in Kerala. 1954 Neelakkuyil captured national interest by winning the presidents silver medal. According to the scenario known Malayalam novelist, Uroob P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat is the first authentic malayali film. Newspaper boy 1955, a group of students, was the first Neo-realistic film offering. 1965 Chemmeen, Ramu Kariat based on a story by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, became the first South Indian film to win National film award for Best feature film.

The first neorealistic film newspaper boy 1955-P. Ramdas, the first version of the film Thacholi Ambu 1978-suggestive Appachan, the first 70 mm film Padayottam 1982-dancing Panos, the first 3D film My dear Kuttichathan 1984-dancing Panos, the first digital movie Moonnamathoral 2006-V. K. Prakash, the first smartphone film Jalachhayam 2010-Sathish Kalathil, the first 8K resolution film villain 2017-B. Unnikrishnan India was made in Malayalam.

The period from the late 1980s-early 1990-ies is considered the Golden age of Malayalam cinema with the emergence of actors Mohanlal, Vijay, Suresh Gopi, and jayaram, Bharat Gopi, Murali, Thilakan and nedumudi venu. The main parties that appeared after the Golden age include Dileep, Wes Bentley, Fahadh Faasil, Nivin Pauly, Prithviraj Sukumaran, Dulquer Salmaan, Biju Menon, Tovino Thomas, Kunchacko Boban, Asif Ali and Manju Warrier.

Famous Directors like I. V. Sasi, Bharathan, Padmarajan, K. G. George, Sathyan Anthikad, Priyadarshan, A. K. Lohithadas, Siddique-Lal, T. K. Rajeev Kumar and sreenivasan. Art Directors include Puttanna Kanagal, Dore Bhagavan, Siddalingaiah in Kannada, a Gopalakrishnan, and Karun, T. V. Chandran.

K. R. Narayanan National Institute of visual science and arts KRNNIVSA is an independent Institute established by government of Kerala Thekkumthala in Kottayam district in Kerala as a teaching-cum-research centre in film / audio-visual technology.

                                     

8.12. Movie in the language. Meitei. (Мейтей)

Movie meitei is a small industry in the state of Manipur. This debut full-length regions were black-and-white film Matamgee manipura 1972. Movie meitei began in 1980-ies. Thadoi Langlen 1984 Meitei cinema first feature-length color film.

Meitei movie gained momentum after the ban on screening of Hindi films in the entertainment houses in Manipur. Screening of Hindi movies have stalled, despite repeated calls subsequent chief Ministers. 80-100 movies are made every year. The cinema was opened in Imphal after the Second world war. The first feature film Meitei was made in 1972, after the boom in 2002.

Aribam syam Ningthem to submit Sharma received the Grand Prix in 1992 at the International festival, Nantes film. A national French TV show to present Ningthem to broaden the audience. After watching Ishanou Aribam syam Sharma, Europeans began exploration on Lai Haraoba and Manipurs rich folklore. Maipak, son of Manipur 1971 was the first documentary film in the Meitei.

Among the notable films are Phijigee Mani Meitei, Leipaklei and Pallepfam.

                                     

8.13. Movie in the language. Marathi. (Маратхи)

Marathi films produced in the Marathi language in Maharashtra. This is one of the oldest efforts in Indian cinema. Dadasaheb Phalke made the first indigenous silent film Raja Harishchandra in 1913 with a crew of Marathi, which is considered IFFI and NIFD to be part of Marathi cinema.

The first Marathi talkie, Ayodhyecha Raja 1932, Prabhat films. 2004 Shwaas and Harishchandrachi Factory 2009, was Indias official Oscar entries. Today the industry is in Mumbai, but he began to Kolhapur and then Pune.

Some of the most notable films Sangte Aika, Ek bar Gaon Bhangadi, Pinjara, Sinhasan, Pathlaag, jait re jait block Saamana, Santh Wahate Krishnamai in Sant Tukaram and Shyamchi AAI.

Marathi movies are the work of the participants, including Durga Khote, V. Shantaram, Lalita Pavard, Nanda, Shiram Lagoo, Ramesh Deo, Seema Deo, Nana Patekar, Smita Patil, Sadashiv of Amrapurkar, Sonali Kulkarni, Sonali Bendre, Urmila Matondkar, Reema Lagoo, Padmini Kolhapure, Ashok Saraf, Sachin Khedekar and is Berd.

                                     

8.14. Movie in the language. Nagpuri

Nagpuri films shot in a language Nagpuri in Jharkhand, India. The first feature film Nagpuri Sona Kar Nagpur 1992, who was the producer and Director Dhananjay Nath Tiwari.

                                     

8.15. Movie in the language. Gorkha. (Горкха)

Gorkha movie consists of Nepali movies Nepali-speaking Indians.

                                     

8.16. Movie in the language. Ollywood Odia. (Ollywood Одиа)

Odia language movies running in Bhubaneswar and Cuttack. The first Odia talkie SITA Bibaha in 1936 from Mohan sunder deb Goswami. Shreeram Panda, Prashanta Nanda, the complete absence of Mohanty and B. J. started in the industry Oriya film, finding an audience and fresh presentation. The first colour film GAPA hele be SATA, but the story, however, was made by Nagen ray and photographed the Institute trained film Pune operator Surendra sahoo. The best year for cinema Odia was 1984, when Maya Miriga Nirad Mohapatra, who does not belong to you and Aloys was shown in Indian Panorama and Maya Miriga was invited to the critics Week in Cannes. The film received the prize For the best Third world film at Mannheim film festival, jury prize at Hawaii and was shown at the London film festival.

                                     

8.17. Movie in the language. Punjabi Pollywood. (Панджаби Pollywood)

K. D. Mehra made the first Punjabi film Sheela also known as pind Di Kudi village girl). Baby Noor Jehan was introduced as an actress and singer in this film. Sheila was made in Calcutta and released in Lahore, it was a strike throughout the province. Following its success, many other manufacturers to make Punjabi films. As of 2009, Punjabi film produced between 900 and 1.000 films. The average number of issues per year in the 1970-ies was nine years old in 1980-e years, eight in the 1990-ies, six. In the 2000s the Punjabi cinema has faced more releases every year with a large budget. Manny Parmar took the first 3D Punjabi film, Pehchaan 3D 2013.

                                     

8.18. Movie in the language. Sindhi. (Синдхи)

The Hindi film industry produces films at regular intervals of time. The first was the Abana 1958 which has been successful across the country. Then Cindy movie produced some bollywood-style films like Hal TA Bhaji Haloon, Parewari, dije, located DIL Varan Khe, Ho Jamalo full profile pyar Kare Dis: feel the power of love and awakening. Numerous Sindhi contributed in bollywood, including G. P. sippy, Ramesh sippy, Nikhil Advani, tarun Mansukhani him, Ritesh Sidhwani and Asrani.

                                     

8.19. Movie in the language. Sherdukpen

Director Songe Dorjee Thongdok introduced the first Sherdukpen film the Bridges 2014. Sherdukpen is native to North-Eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh.

                                     

8.20. Movie in the language. Tamil Kollywood. (Тамила Kollywood)

Chennai, once served as a base for all South Indian films.

The first South Indian talkie film Kalidas the H. M. Reddy was shot in Tamil and Telugu. Shivaji Ganesan Indias became the first actor to receive international award when he won Best actor at the festival of Afro-Asian cinema in 1960, and the title of Chevalier of the Legion of honor by the French government in 1995.

AVM studios is the oldest surviving Studio in India.

Tamil cinema influenced by Dravidian politics, led by filmmakers such as C N Annadurai, M. G. Ramachandran, M. Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa, who became chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu. K. B. Sundarambal was the first film personality to enter in the state Legislature in India. It was also the first to command a salary of one lakh rupees.

Tamil movies are distributed in various parts of Asia, South Africa, North America, Europe and Oceania. The industry has inspired Tamil films in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and Canada.

Rajnikanth is called "superstar" and holds idol status in South India. Kamal haasan debuted in 1960 Kalathur Kannamma for which he won the presidents gold medal For best child actor. Amitabh Bachchan won the best actor National film award, four awards. With seven submissions, Kamal haasan has starred in the largest number of applications for an Oscar. Today, actors like Vijay and Ajith Kumar are among the most popular names in southern India.The critically acclaimed composers such as Ilaiyaraaja and A. R. Rahman works in Tamil cinema. Art Directors include Santosh Sivan. Sridevi, Vyjayanthimala, Hema Malini made her debut in Tamil cinema and became a female superstar ever in Indian cinema.

                                     

8.21. Movie in the language. Telugu Tollywood. (Телугу Толливуд)

Indias most theatres are located in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana is known for producing feature films in Telugu. Ramoji film city, which holds the Guinness world record for worlds largest production located in Hyderabad. Tollywood is the second largest industry after bollywood interms of the market and the number of films made in India. Prasad IMAX in Hyderabad is the worlds largest 3D IMAX screen and is worlds most viewed screen. Raghupathi venkaiah Naidu is considered the "father of Telugu cinema". Annual award Raghupati Venkaiah was part of Nandi award to recognize contribution to the development of the industry.

Chicora V. Nagaiah was the first multilingual Indian film actor composer, Director, producer, writer and playback singer. Nagaiah made a significant contribution in Telugu cinema, and has starred in nearly two hundred performances. Considered one of the finest Indian method actors, he was Telugus first matinee idol. His Forte was intense characters, often immersing himself in the characters traits and mannerisms. He was the first from South India to be awarded the Padma Shri. He became known as Indias Paul Muni. Rank S. V. RAO was one of the first Indian actors to receive international award at Indonesian film festival, which was held in Jakarta for Narthanasala in 1963. N. T. Rama RAO was one of the most successful Telugu actors of his time.

B. Narsing RAO, PhD. Sastry and Pattabhirama Reddy have garnered international recognition for his pioneering work in parallel cinema. Adurthi sat RAO has won ten national film awards, Telugu cinemas highest individual awards for his directorial work. N. T. Rama RAO was an Indian actor, producer, Director, editor, and politician, who won three national film awards. He held the position of chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms.

Now Ramakrishna was a multilingual Indian film actress, Director, music Director, singer, producer, author and composer. Widely known as the first female superstar of Telugu cinema, she is also known for her work in Tamil cinema. Ghantasala Venkateswara RAO was an Indian film Composer, playback singer, known for his works predominantly in South Indian cinema. S. P. Balasubramanyam holds the Guinness world record by singing the most songs by any playback singer, most of them were in Telugu.

Rank S. V. RAO, N. T. Rama RAO, Kanta RAO, now Ramakrishna, Savitri, Gummadi and Sobhan Babu received the Rashtrapati award for best performance in a leading role. Sharada, Archana, Vijayashanti, Rohini, L. P. and Narayana received the National film award For best performance in acting. Movies chiranjeevi was included in the list of "people who changed the face of Indian cinema" by Ibn-live India. In the history of Telugu cinema has created two parts Fantastic Four 2015 Fantastic four 2: the Conclusion of 2017. Franchise the Fantastic four has achieved the highest-grossing Indian multilingual film franchise of all time worldwide, at the box office of about ₹ 1.900 crore 270 million U.S. dollars. First edition, ant-Man was nominated for a Saturn for best fantasy film, and the second series, Fantastic four 2: conclusion received the award "Saturn" for best international film of the American Academy of science fiction, fantasy and horror films. The second edition received the Australian Telstra award Choice peoples in 2017, the Indian film Festival in Melbourne.

                                     

8.22. Movie in the language. Tula. (Тула)

30 to 40 films annually produced in Tula. K. N. individual and Machchendra Nath Pandeshwar icons of Tula. Usually Tulu movie released in theatres in the Canary Islands region of Karnataka.

Enna Thangadi, was the first, released in 1971. Critics Suddha received the award for best Indian film at the Osian film festival held in new Delhi in 2006. Oriyardori ASAL released in 2011 is the most successful. Koti Chennaya 1973, Vishu Kumar was the first history-based. The first color film was Kariyani Kattandi Kandani 1978, Aroor Bhimarao.

                                     

9. Awards. (Награды)

Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the "father of Indian cinema". Dadasaheb Phalke award, for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honor by the government of India in 1969, and is the countrys most prestigious and coveted award in film.

                                     
  • The cinema of South India is used to refer collectively to the five different film industries of South India Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Tulu
  • Sanskrit Cinema is a part of Indian cinema There are only 6 Sanskrit films made so far. There is no separate industry set for Sanskrit films. The first
  • The cinema of Rajasthan refers to films in the Rajasthani language in Rajasthan in north - western India The first Rajasthani movie was, Nijarano, produced
  • Chhollywood refers to the film industry of Chhattisgarh state, central India or to cinema in the Chhattisgarhi language. It was established in In 1965
  • Kannada cinema also known as Sandalwood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Kannada language widely
  • centred around the states of Punjab in India and Pakistan. Mainly based in Lahore, Pakistan and Amritsar, India The cinema of Punjab has its beginnings
  • films of Hong Kong. South Asian cinema is typified by the cinema of India including Bollywood, Telugu cinema South Indian, Bengali and Punjabi cinema
  • Parallel cinema was a film movement in Indian cinema that originated in the state of West Bengal in the 1950s as an alternative to the mainstream commercial
  • Assamese cinema also known as Jollywood cinemas is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India The industry was born in 1935
  • Kashmiri cinema is the Kashmiri language - based film industry in the Kashmir Valley of India The first Kashmiri feature film, Mainz Raat, was released
  • Mammals of India North India East India South India West India Central India Northeast India Extreme points of India Beaches of India Glaciers of India Islands
                                     
  • Tamil cinema is the filmmaking industry of Tamil - language motion pictures. It is based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood
  • cinema refers to Indian films produced in Marathi, the language of the state of Maharashtra, India Based in old Mumbai, it is the oldest and one of the
  • Georgia Cinema of Germany Cinema of Greece Cinema of Haiti Cinema of Hong Kong Hong Kong action cinema Cinema of Hungary Cinema of Iceland Cinema of India Kollywood
  • Telugu cinema is based in Film Nagar, a neighborhood of Hyderabad, India Telugu Cinema is the biggest industry in India after Bollywood interms of Box - office
  • Jharkhand International Film Festival Awards Cinema of India Nagpuri cinema Khortha cinema Santali cinema Pioneer, The. JIFFA concludes with supplementary
  • The cinema of Manipur refers to the film industry of the Manipur, India The first Manipuri film, Matamgi Manipur, was released on 9th April 1972. Paokhum
  • Asian countries like India where films are made in English but they are part of world cinema due to their marginal status in terms of access or viewership
  • Priya Cinema is a uniplex cinema hall situated in Rashbehari Avenue, near Deshapriya Park, Kolkata, West Bengal, India The management is run by Priya
  • The Cinema Travellers is a 2016 documentary film about the travelling cinemas of India directed by Shirley Abraham and Amit Madheshiya. The film is produced
                                     
  • Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam language
  • Haryanvi cinema is the Haryanvi language film industry in the state of Haryana in India The first Haryanvi film was Beera Shera, released in 1973 in
  • completed 470 days at PVR Cinemas in Mangalore. On 27 February 2016, Times Of India carried a special report regarding Tulu cinema industry where it was observed
  • because Tollygunge was the center of the cinema of India as a whole at the time much like Hollywood was in the cinema of the United States. In that same
  • Cinema has been one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the city of Kolkata, India and movie theatres since the 20th century. And movie theatres
  • several states in India SPI is often lauded for its premium quality and inexpensive pricing. Its theatres, primarily Sathyam Cinemas are often used by
  • Organized labour portal Association of Motion Pictures TV Programme Producer of India Bollywood Cinema of India IFTDA seagate award news release Official
  • Corporation of India NFDC based in Mumbai is the central agency established in 1975, to encourage high quality Indian cinema It functions in areas of film
  • Cinema has always been one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the city of Delhi, India Therefore, movie theatres are major entertainment venues
                                     
  • Chaplin Cinema was the oldest single screen movie theatre in Kolkata, West Bengal, India It was located in 5 1 Chowringhee Place. In 1907 Jamshedji Framji

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation
                                     
Cinema of India A Brief History of Indian Cinema Golden Globes. & movie theaters like INOX, PVR, Big, AGS, Fun & Q Cinemas and other Cinema Listing Chains for Hindi, English,. .. Cinema of India India national anthem no longer compulsory in cinemas BBC News. May 16, 2012 Birth Cinema 100 Years Of Bollywood Indian film industry is largest in the world with more than 1200 movies releasing annually.. .. Cinema of India History Indian Cinema The Journey of Bollywood Industry My. Online Movie booking for cinemas in Delhi NCR. Check Showtimes, synopsis, Tickets Rates, cost, Prices, trailers, release dates. Book and Buy PVR. .. Cinema of India Samsung Brings Worlds Largest Onyx Cinema LED Screen to India. Aug 18, 2017 Indian cinema is far older than independent. Nearly 2000 films made in around 20 languages every year make India the worlds largest. .. Cinema & Movie Theater Chains India BookMyShow. Apr 9, 2015 Know the history Indian Cinema or, Bollywood, beginning talkies, birth of new era and more about. .. RED Digital Cinema 8K & 5K Professional Cameras. Bringing best of Bollywood Indian cinema to big screen! sessions below and buy your tickets now. Check out the upcoming film titles. .. Cinema of India West India Quay Cinema Listings For London. Jul 10, 2013 Although Indian cinema is one oldest world cinemas, and largest terms of output, its evolution in parallel to the West with little. .. Cinema of India Why a disabled person was assaulted in an Indian cinema BBC. Apr 25, 2019 Samsung along with group company HARMAN today launched the Worlds Largest Onyx Cinema LED Screen in Indias tech capital Bengaluru. .. Cinema of India Film Industry in India Statistics & Facts Statista. Jan 22, 2020 As one largest cinema hubs in world, Indian film industry is renowned for its glitz, vibrancy and drama. The city of Mumbai,. .. Cinema of India 100 Years Bollywood Birth Of Indian Cinema YouTube. RED is the leading manufacturer of professional digital cinema cameras. Explore REDs modular camera system and groundbreaking image quality.. Cinema of India Cinemas of India. Feb 7, 2018 Nandita Raman spent three years photographing the decline of Indias single screen movie houses for her series Cinema Play House.. .. Cinema of India PVR Cinemas. Oct 23, 2015 India has largest democracy in the world. A huge and fast growing middle class. It makes more movies than any other country, 1500 to 2000. .. Cinema of India Indias Film Industry - $10 Business Trapped In A $2 Billion. Beautiful Day In The Neighborhood. Unaccompanied children of any age may watch. A PG film should not disturb. 109 mins. 2D. 11:45 14:20 17:00 19:40.. .. Cinema of India 10 Things You Should Know About Indian Cinema IndieWire. Jan 9, 2018 Indias Supreme Court has reversed its previous order that the national anthem must be played in every cinema before a film is screened.. .. Cinema of India NFDC: Cinemas of india. National Film Development Corporation India is central agency established to encourage good cinema movement in country. The primary goal of. .. Cinema of India Indian Cinema. Jan 2, 2014 One most flourishing cinema industries found today is India. But pioneers of industry were actually foreigners. In 1896, the. .. Cinema of India Cinema India Event Cinemas. Watch Award Winning Films Online only on Cine brought to you by NFDC. site offers the best of Indian Independent cinema across. .. Cinema of India An Elegy to Indias Vanishing Cinemas The New York Times. Oct 25, 2016 disability activist who uses wheelchair was assaulted India for not standing up to the national anthem being played in a cinema.. .. Cinema of India 70 iconic films of Indian cinema. Enjoy an ever changing selection of films from the country that produces more movies than any other!.

Bollywood as National ist Cinema Violence, Patriotism and the.

2 Nov 2016 The Indian film industry stands above most other national cinemas due to its local focus yet enormous size. Although gaining more and more. Reconnecting to the NRI through Popular Hindi Cinema. 4 Oct 2011 Abstract Indian cinema studies, since the late 1990s, have witnessed Bollywood cinema which is commonly understood as being a national. The International Project of National ist Film: Franz Osten in India. 31 Dec 2016 20 best actors of Indian Cinema. He was the winner of several accolades including 3 National Film Awards and 11 Filmfare Awards in India. Media Industries in India An Emerging Regional Framework. Variety of things scattered throughout our everyday environments. National pasts and futures: Indian cinema. RAVI S. VASUDEVAN. Looking back at Screen.


Indias Supreme Court orders cinemas to play national anthem.

Nasreen Munni Kabir, Bollywood: The Indian Cinema Story Channel 4 Books Addressing the Spectator of a Third World National Cinema The Bombay. Call for Chapters: Social and Cultural Dynamics in Indian Cinema. 23 Oct 2019 Popular Hindi cinema enjoys mass appeal in a multilingual and multicultural country such as India. It also happens to be one of the few. Pictures of Satyajit Rays chair and Indias lost cinema history Quartz. Celebrating cinema. Inaugurating National Museum of Indian Cinema in Mumbai.


Indian Cinemas Ordered to Play National Anthem HuffPost.

Bollywood, a popular nomenclature for Indias national film industry in the Hindi Yet much of Indian cinema continues to amuse and confuse audiences and. Untitled incomplete without surface noise. Of Hindi cinema, was hospitalized and had to undergo surgery. Not only did. Ramgopal Varma that Rahman made his mark as a national music director. 525 Stephen P. Hughes, Pride of place. Popular Indian cinema theorized as a national cinema has recently undergone a transnational turn within global cinema studies. Judging by the slew of books.


Theorising National Cinema Valentina Vitali: British Film Institute.

Kuan Hsing Chen From National Cinema to Cinema and the National: and the Question of National Cinema in India - Valentina Vitali On the National in. International Film Festival of India, Goa FICCI at Cannes. An influential organizing principle in film studies, locating films and cinemas within their national contexts and or treating a countrys cinematic. Reconceptualizing national cinema s film 6220: methods and. Rajadhyaksha and Willeman, Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, entry on Raj Kapoor CR 2. Sumita Chakravarty, Culture Nation in National Identity in Popular. 66 NATIONAL FILM AWARDS 2018. 16 Feb 2018 Aparna Sen is an Indian actor, filmmaker and screenwriter who is popularly known for her work in Bengali cinema. This twice National Award.


Bollywood films sweep 66th Indian National Film Awards South.

Film Industry Migrant Community Indian Cinema South Asian Community Film production often prevent the entrance of diasporic films into national cinemas. Average cinema. Review of National Cinema, Abu Dhabi, United. 8 Nov 2018 A forgotten world behind the scenes of Indian cinema barring the National Film Archive of India and the work of passionate private collectors,. History of Bollywood Film Awards. Indian cinema began its journey with Raja Harishchandra. Released at the At the Lahore session of the Indian National Congress 1929 the demand was. Indian movies. Indias national cinema industry goes by a much more popular name: Bollywood. The name is obviously a play on the word Hollywood. The B comes from the. Influence for cinema of India. 9 Feb 2019 National Museum of Indian Cinema NMIC, the countrys first museum showcasing the history of its film industry, in Mumbai. AFP Photo.


National cinema and regional cinemas India actor, film, children.

Hindi cinema has been in the centrestage and is projected as the national cinema. The cinema scholars have been debating over Hindi cinema as Indian. 63rd National Film Awards LIVE YouTube. The Cinema of India examines in detail twenty four landmark films from one of the worlds largest national cinemas. Gathering writings by renowned scholars o. History of Bollywood Cinema from 1913 to the Present LiveAbout. Discussion as this one does of the role of fantasy in Hindi cinema. Of course, I in approaching Indian cinema as a national popular matrix in which one can. Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern. 5 Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema Revised Second Edition by Ashish the focus was on European films, Hollywood, and national cinema in Australia. People. UAE Cinema Listing, Cinemas in UAE, Cinema Khaleej Times. Throughout the twentieth and early twenty first centuries, cinema has been adopted as a popular cultural institution in Bangladesh. At the same time, this has.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON REGIONAL CINEMA OF INDIA.

The project Indian Cinema in Context ICIC proposes to build a set of tools to study the history and evolution of Indian cinema, the worlds largest film industry. RAVI S. VASUDEVAN Recent discussions of cinema and national. Cinema at the End of Empire illuminates this intertwined history of British and Indian cinema in the late colonial period. Challenging the rubric of national. Indian Cinema Cultural India. 21 Nov 2017 National Cinema, India. Titles available on DVD and streaming video as of December 2015. Most streaming videos listed are available. Nothing called anti national cinema, all are Indian films Goa News. 28 Apr 2016 Is Bollywood all there is to Indian cinema? This course is an introduction to Indian cinema, or more appropriately, the many cinemas of India.


Reconfiguring India Narrating the Nation through Great IAFOR.

26 Oct 2014 Free Essay: National cinema is concept discussed and often debated. Requirements for Indian cinema has been one of the most dominant. The Myth of the Global Brown Messiah in Kollywood Cinema. 30 Nov 2016 Indian cinemas must play the national anthem before screening a film and the audience must stand and listen, the countrys Supreme Court. An analysis of Hindi women centric films in India. ThinkIR. 22 Jan 2019 PM Modi on Saturday, 19th January, inaugurated National Museum of Indian Cinema in Mumbai. The event was aimed at exhibiting the. A syllabus for an introductory University course on Popular Hindi. 6 Apr 2017 In 2015, developing countries, accounted for 59% of global movie production see the figure. Booming cinema industries in India and Nigeria,.


Explore South Asian Cinema Indiana University Libraries.

1 Aug 2012 Source: Journal of African Cinemas, Volume 4, Number 1, 1 August 2012, pp. today, just behind Indias Bollywood in the sheer quantity of films released. discourses of modernization and the national discourses in Nigeria,. Crofts 7 Types of National Cinema 1 Differ from Hollywood but do. 8 Jul 2015 Pather Panchali. Kristin here: The second half of my week at the Cinema Ritrovato festival in Bologna was centered around two Asian events: a. Globalisation replaces era of distinct national cinemas Irish Times. 6 Mar 2019 A visitor takes a picture of a display with images of former Indian movie actors at the National Museum of Indian Cinema. Photos: AFP. Arts. National Cinema Engoogle - wiki.info. 9 Jan 2018 The Supreme Court today made the playing of national anthem in cinema halls before screening of movies optional, modifying its earlier order.


Theorising national cinema in SearchWorks catalog.

31 Jul 2015 Films showcased at the London Indian Film Festival indicate that independent language director Jahnu Barua to have a national audience. A Cinema Like No Other: 100 Years of Bollywood Culture Trip. 5 Feb 2019 The National Museum of Indian Cinema, Indias first national film museum, is now open in South Mumbai. Cinema of India pedia. Jon Dudley explores the notion of national cinema … were at the helm of this film set in India, about Indian people, and raising Indian issues – yet the film is. Observations on film art National cinemas India David Bordwell. See who you know at Kuwait National Cinema Company KNCC, leverage your English, and Indian movies in the Middle East region making it the leading.


Nollywood and the idea of the Nigerian cinema Ingenta Connect.

Why do we think of clusters of films as national cinema? of national identity and cinema in Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, India, Africa and Europe. The Cinema of India Columbia University Press. Chinese and Indian national cinemas, and reposition themselves as new cultural forces in the pantheon of world cinema. Seeing Hong Kong and. Bollywood as. C LIT 315 A: National Cinemas Comparative Literature, Cinema. 15 Jan 2014 Belatedly celebrating Indian movie centenary, the National Museum of Indian Cinema will open its doors in Mumbai next month. Cinema by language. This write up explores the evolution of Indian cinema and Indian film industry.


Vijay Devadas – Senses of Cinema.

Teaching Devdas and Mirch Masala: Indian Cinemas in the Global Cinema Classroom. With a better understanding of the national and transnational forces. Bollywood FAQ: All Thats Left to Know About the Greatest Film Story. 21 Mar 2013 Indian commercial cinema, often referred to as Bollywood, may be considered more than a national cinema because its transnational appeal. National cinema pedia. 23 Jul 2019 Keywords: film, cinema, India, Iran, collaboration, interaction, influence, culture. The National Films of the Country of India NFAI, the. Influence of cinema of India. 3 Mar 2005 Globalisation replaces era of distinct national cinemas Italy, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, India, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and elsewhere.

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