★ Brough CastleNot to be confused with Brough Castle in Brough, Caithness.
Brough castle is a ruined castle in the village of Brough, Cumbria, England. The castle was built by William Rufus around 1092 to the old Roman Fort Verterae to protect a key route through the Pennine mountains. The initial Motte and Bailey castle was attacked and destroyed by the Scots in 1174 during the Great revolt against Henry II. Rebuilt after the war, the square was built and the rest of the castle converted to stone.
The Clifford family took possession of Bro after the Second War of the barons in 1260-ies they built a tower Cliffords and held a sequence of repairs in the castle, creating a fortification in a typical English style. In 1521, however, Henry Clifford held a Christmas feast in the castle, after which a major fire broke out that destroyed the property. The castle remained abandoned until lady Anne Clifford restored the property between 1659 and 1661, using it as one of their homes in the North country. In 1666 another fire, once again presenting the castle is uninhabited. Brough castle went into sharp decline and was stripped of the first rebar, and then her walls. Masonry castles began to collapse around 1800.
In 1921, Brough castle was given to the state and is now managed by English heritage as a tourist attraction. This historic building and monument.
1. The 11th century. (11-го века)
Brough castle was built on the site of a Roman Fort Verterae, and 3 with an area of 1.2 hectares fortification which was occupied until the 5th century. The site is protected Stainmore pass, which stretched from the river of Eden through the Pennines and the Roman road linking Carlisle and Ermine, a valuable trade route in period.
After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, William the Conqueror subdued the North of the country in the sequence the harsh campaigns, and in the North-Western region became disputed border areas between Normans and Scottish kings. Williams son, William Rufus, invaded the North-West in 1091 and built Brough castle around 1092, placing it in the Northern part of the old Roman Fort in order to use the existing earthworks, by analogy with a number of Brogues and Lancaster. The North side of the site overlooking the river Eden. This lock appears to have been a Motte and Bailey design, hold had a stone Foundation and the main structure is built of wood, while the rest of the former Fort was transformed into a palisaded Bailey. In the village of Church Brough was established near the castle around the same time, in the form of scheduled payments, part of the colonization of the Normans to land in the region.
2. The 12th century. (12 века)
The region around Bro continues to be a subject of dispute between the kings of England and Scotland, in 1173, William the lion of Scotland invaded the Great rebellion against the reign of Henry II. Army Williams hit South, but were unable to take Wark and went on the attack, not Carlisle, when that failed, they successfully took Appleby, before turning their attention to Bro.
Bro, guarded by six knights, offered fierce resistance, but William took the outer defences, and then besieged the keep, threatening the execution of the garrison if the castle was not surrendered. Keep on fire, forcing the surrender of the garrison, including one knight who, according to the chronicler Jordan Fantosme, fought first with spears, then with a wooden stake, until it finally filled up. William then destroyed the remaining defense of the castle with the help of Flemish mercenaries. Forces Henry IIS defeated by William at the battle of Alnwick and the castle of Brough was restored later this year.
Henry II was the square stone keep was built in 1180-ies on the first Theobald de Valoignes and then Hugh de Morvill who rebuilt the remains of the castle. He was placed in the Bailey wall, which allows it to directly support the outer defences. Thomas de Wyrkington further work is being done between 1199 and 1202 for king John, to fully convert the castle to stone.
3. 13-15 centuries. (13-15 веках)
King John bestowed the grace of Westmoreland, including Brough, to Robert De Vieuxpont in 1203. Robert extended the castle in order to prove his power over the region where it competes for control with the other members of his family. In 1206 king John briefly entrusted his captive niece Elinor custody of Robert. Robert died in 1228, leaving significant debts of £2.000 for the crown, and the castle passes to his son, John. His sons custodian, Hubert de Burgh was appointed to Carlisle to run the estate and the castle was left to fall into ruin. John died the support of the rebels during the Second barons War between 1264 and 1267 and its lands were divided between his two daughters, Isabella and Idonea. Isabel de Vieuxpont inherited Brough and East of the Vieuxpont estates, Henry III gave the custody of some of these lands to Roger de Clifford, Roger then married Isabella, acquiring all of its land and the beginning of the long control Clifford castle.
In Cliffords successfully combined the former estate Vieuxpont in 1333, and was controlled as the Eden valley through its castles at Appleby, Brougham, Pendragon and Brough. Robert Clifford-controlled Bro 1.308 and improved protection, the restoration of the East wall and build a new hall, near his apartment, which was located in the new round tower, called the tower Cliffords. These apartments can be similar to those surviving in Appleby castle, also built by Robert.
Robert died in battles with the Scots at the battle of Bannockburn and the area around the castle was attacked in 1314 and 1319, causing significant damage to the neighbouring Church of Bro. At about this time the village market Bro was created along the road with views of the castle, trying Cliffords to maximize the opportunity for profit from trade in the valley. Market Bro acquired a Royal Charter in 1330, and seems to have rapidly overtaken the Church of bro, as the main settlement in the area.
In 1380-ies of Roger, fifth Baron, has decided to change the castle, partly to improve the protection. Roger spent most of the Clifford castles in the area and on bro, he rebuilt the South wall and reconstruction of residential premises, replacing the existing hall with a more trendy first floor hall and chamber block. Cliffords the tower was converted for use as bedrooms, and some of the old hall was converted to solar energy. in with the exception of the tower Cliffords, repair in Breaux reflects the popular architectural style of castles in the North of England at the time, emphasizing the square lines and towers in preference to the more common round shape in the South. Bailey was knocked together at this time.
The gatehouse was reinforced with buttresses and inner courtyards, built in the Bailey around 1450, perhaps, Thomas Clifford. During the wars of the Roses between the rival houses of Lancaster and Yorkists, in Clifford supported the house of Lancaster. Thomas died in 1455 and was followed by his son John in 1461, Bro was temporarily withdrawn from Cliffords the Yorkists, while son John Henry was restored to his lands in 1485 Henry VII.
4. The 16th and 17th centuries. (16 и 17 веках)
Henry Clifford used the castle until 1521, when the fire broke out after a generous Christmas feast, destroying the residential part of the castle. Henry soon died and the castle remained ruined for many years.
The castle was restored in the 17th century by lady Anne Clifford, a major landowner in the family of Clifford had gone to the North during the years of the Commonwealth after the English Civil war. Although Anna was a royalist, she was protected by powerful friends within the ruling parliamentary faction and is able freely to use its properties. She went through a number of Clifford castles, including Brough, where she conducted restoration work between 1659 and 1661. Anne took on more work at Brough than any in her possession, seeking to restore its pre-1521 condition. Although Anne was familiar with contemporary styles, her restoration was quite the traditional approach, based on the existing architecture of the North of the castle and consciously trying to recreate 12th century fortress. In this work, new Windows on the first floor of the entrance to the castle rooms and new service was installed to allow her to live at the end of the 17th century lifestyle, and the castle had 24 fireplaces 1665.
Renamed Broughs Anne save as "Roman tower", believing that it was built by the Romans. It divided their time between living in the castle cliffords the tower, the apartments, castles and progress of the work, to Save, in 1665, she was able to spend Christmas at the castle for the first time. In 1666 another fire struck the castle, however, making it unsuitable for life. As a result, the remaining buildings in the Bailey was converted for use as a court, and Anne died in 1676 the castle restored.
5. 18th–21st centuries. (18-го–21-го веков)
Annes daughter, Margaret, married John Tufton, Earl of Thanet. Son Jones, Thomas, tore the castle circa 1695 in support of the reconstruction of Appleby castle. The furniture was sold in 1714 and 1763 many cliffords stone from the tower was looted for use in the construction of the mill of Brough, the castle was subsequently completely abandoned. In the southwest corner of the keep partially collapsed around 1800.
In 1920 over the South-Western corner collapsed and the owner of the castles, Lord Hothfield, gave the property in the office working. Work to stabilize the ruins was carried out and the castle-like building-a monument of architecture and ancient monuments, eventually passed into the control of English heritage as a tourist attraction. The first was the archaeological excavations in 1925, and then further work in 1970-71, 1993, 2007 and 2009. Erosion continues to be a threat to the masonry locks, and in 2010 English heritage is the locks reduce condition, with some parts much risk.
6. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- Johnson, Matthew 2002. Behind the castle gate: from the middle Ages to the Renaissance. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. ISBN 9780415258876.
- Emery, Anthony, 1996. Great medieval houses in England and Wales, 1300-1500: Northern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521497237.
- Charlton John, 1986. Castle Brough, Cumbria. London: English Heritage. ISBN 1850742650.
- Goodall, John, 2011. English Castle. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300110586.
- Pettifer, Adrian, 2002. English castles: a guide by counties. Woodbridge, UK: the press lease. ISBN 9780851157825.
- Pounds, Norman John Greville 1994. The medieval castle in England and Wales: a social and political history. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. ISBN 9780521458283.
- Mackenzie, James D. 1896. The castles of England: their story and structure, vol II. New York: Macmillan. OCLC 504892038.
- King, D. J. Cathcart 1991. The castle in England and Wales: on the interpretation of history. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415003504.
- Chew, Elizabeth V. 2003. "I repaired the extremely high costs and fees: Anne Clifford and the use of architecture." In the mountains, Helen ed. Architecture and the Politics of gender in early modern Europe. Aldershot, UK: books press. ISBN 9780754603092.
- Noakes, Helen 2008. Archaeological Field evaluation at the castle of Brough, Church Brough, Cumbria PDF format. Alston, UK: North Pennines archaeology.
- Creighton, Oliver Hamilton 2005. Castles and landscapes: power, community and fortification in Medieval England. London: Equinox. ISBN 9781904768678.
- Gaskill, Nicola, Knox, Helen, Les, Francis 2009. Archaeological watching brief and investigation at the castle of Brough Church, Cumbria PDF format. Alston, UK: North Pennines archaeology.
- Brown, R. Allen 1962. English Castles. London: Predictions. OCLC 1392314.
- Hume, Richard 2008. "Twelfth century great towers – the defense" in PDF format. The Castle Studies Group Journal 21: 209-229.
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