★ Hohenzollern Castle
Hohenzollern castle is the ancestral residence of the Imperial house of Hohenzollern. The third of the three castles built on top of a hill on the site, it is located on top of mount Hohenzollern, above and to the South of Hechingen at the edge of the Central Swabian Jura in Baden-württemberg, Germany.
The first castle was built on the mountain in the early 11th century. Over the years, the house of Hohenzollern split several times, but the castle remained in the Swabian branch of the dynasty seniors of the Franconian-Brandenburgian cadet branch which later acquired its own Imperial throne. This castle was completely destroyed in 1423 after a ten-month siege of the free Imperial cities of Swabia.
The second castle, a large and sturdy structure, was built from 1454 to 1461, which served as a refuge for the Catholic Swabian Hohenzollerns, including during the Thirty years war. By the late 18th century it was thought lost its strategic importance and gradually fell into disrepair leading to the demolition of several dilapidated buildings.
The third and current castle was built between 1846 and 1867 as a family memorial to the Hohenzollern offspring of king Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. Architect Stuler Friedrich August founded his design on English Gothic Revival architecture and the châteaux of the Loire valley. None of the family members of the Hohenzollern family was in permanent or regular residence when it was completed, none of the three German emperors in the late 19th and early 20th century, the German Empire has not occupied the castle in 1945, it briefly became the home of the former crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany, son of the last Hohenzollern monarch, Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Among the historical artifacts of Prussian history contained in the castle are the crown of Wilhelm II, some of the personal belongings of king Frederick the Great, as well as a letter of US President George Washington thanking Baron von Steuben, a descendant of the Hohenzollern, for his service during the American revolutionary war.
1. Geography. (География)
Hohenzollern castle is located on top of a hill castle located on Berg Hohenzollern, an isolated promontory of the Swabian Jura 855 meters 2.805 NHN feet above sea level, 234 meters or 768 feet above and to the South of Hechingen, Germany, about 50 kilometers 31 mi South of Stuttgart, capital of Baden-württemberg. This mountain gives its name to the local geographic region, der Zollernalbkreis, and is known among locals as mount Zoller Zollerberg, or simply Zoller.
2.1. History. The first and second locks. (Первый и второй замки)
There are only written records of the original castle built in the Middle ages, built by the counts of Zollern. Although the house of Hohenzollern itself finds its first mention in the year 1061, the castle was first mentioned as "Castro Zolre" in 1267, without any mention of the castle in her name, although modern sources praise him as "the crown of the castle in Swabia." In 1423 the castle was completely destroyed after a siege of a year of Swabian cities Alliance.
The construction of the second, stronger castle began in 1454. He was captured Wurttemberger troops in 1634 Midway in the Thirty years war of 1618-1648, and then came under the control of Habsburg for nearly a century. During the war of the Austrian succession 1740-1748 he was busy in winter 1744 / 45 French soldiers. Returned under the control of the Habsburgs after the war, it was seldom occupied and began collapsed after the last Austrian owner left the castle in 1798. By the beginning of the 19th century, only the chapel of St. Michael continue to be used.
2.2. History. The third castle. (Третий замок)
The current castle was built by the Hohenzollern Scion crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. Traveling through southern Germany EN route to Italy in 1819, he wished to know about his family roots, so climbed to the top of mount Hohenzollern. He wrote in 1844 as King:
Memory of the Year of youth, to see the Hohenzollern Castle habitable again.
He did Friedrich August Stuler, who was appointed architect of the king for the restoration of Stolzenfels castle in 1842 while still the student and heir of Karl Friedrich Schinkel to design a new lock. Stuler began work on the elaborate design under the influence of English Gothic Revival architecture and the châteaux of the Loire valley in 1846. An impressive entrance in the work of the engineer-officer Moritz Karl Ernst von Prittwitz, is considered the leading fortifications engineer in Prussia. The sculptures around and inside the castle presents the work of Gustav Willgohs. Like Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria, Hohenzollern Castle is a monument of German romanticism, which included an idealized vision of the medieval castle of the knights. Lacks some of the fantastic items are simple, Neuschwanstein, the castle served to enhance the reputation of the Prussian Royal family.
Construction began in 1850 and fully funded by Brandenburg-Prussia and of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen line of Hohenzollern. The building was completed on 3 October 1867 under Friedrich Wilhelm IVS brother of king William I.
After the castle was rebuilt, it was not busy, and is mainly used as an exhibit. None of the Hohenzollern Kaisers of the German Empire lived there, only the last Prussian crown Prince Wilhelm spent several months after his escape from Potsdam in anticipation of the Soviet Army in the last months of world war II. He and his wife, crown Princess Cecilia are buried there, as the family estates in Brandenburg had been occupied by the Soviet Union at the time of their death.
Since 1952 Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia began to add valuable works of art and memorabilia from the collections of the Prussian Hohenzollern and the former Ludwig Museum in the castle monbijou. Two major figures of the Crown of Wilhelm II, the jacket belonging to king Frederick the Great. From 1952 until 1991, the caskets of Frederick Wilhelm I and his son Frederick the Great was in the chapel, but returned to Potsdam after German reunification in 1991.
The castle was damaged by an earthquake on 3 September 1978 and was under repair until the mid 1990-ies.
2.3. History. Today. (Сегодня)
With more than 350.000 visitors annually Hohenzollern Castle-one of the most visited castles in Germany. The castle is a private property of the house of Hohenzollern, with two-thirds belonging to the Brandenburg-Prussian branch, and the balance on the Swabian branch. In 1952, Princess Kira of Prussia Foundation used the castle for the annual summer camp for children. Whenever Prince George and his family live in the castle, the Prussian flag flies above the castle.
In 2015, the Thriller-horror Film 2016 the Cure for good health were filmed at the castle, closing it from 13-24 July 2015. Hohenzollern castle and Peckforton castle in England was also used in the filming of the 2017 TV adaptation of the worst witch.
3. Architecture. (Архитектура)
Hohenzollern castle covering nearly the entire top of the mountain, the Hohenzollerns, is a structure consisting of four main parts: military architecture, palaces, churches and gardens.
3.1. Architecture. Military architecture. (Военная архитектура)
Eagle gate Germany: Adlertor and connected to the drawbridge form the entrance of the castle. Locks winding Zwinger turns out four times and ends in the bastions. From here, the Palace buildings can be accessed through the square top gate and the other bastions.
3.2. Architecture. The Palace buildings. (Дворцовые здания)
The Palace itself is sitting on the plan of the second castle, is the Museum under the open sky, situated in a U-shape that ends with the Protestant and Catholic chapels. Sitting on top of the old casemates of the three-story neo-Gothic building of the Friedrich August Stulers design, decorated with towers and spires. The four towers of the Palace are consistent with the bastions, with the emperors tower Fuchsloch Bastion, the bishops of the tower to the Bastion Spitz, Margrave of the tower to the Bastion Scharfeck, and Michaels tower to the Bastion garden. Attached to the main residential building, the counts room, is the final tower, watchtower German: Wartturm, which functions as a ladder in the library and how the flag pole when the Hohenzollern living in the castle.
3.3. Architecture. Interiors. (Интерьеры)
The porch leads to the hall of ancestors, where one is included in the column hall of the German: Grafensaal, which covers all of the South wing. The rib vaults of the counts hall, decorated with grisailles by Stuler, telling the story of the house of Hohenzollern and pointed out the window-arches, supported by eight free standing columns of red marble. Below the counts hall the old kitchen of the castle, now in the Treasury. Next to the counts hall of the emperors and bishops of the niche, after the library is decorated with frescoes from the history of the Hohenzollern Wilhelm Peters. The margraves tower contains the living room of the kings, also known as the number of the electors, contrary Stulers terminology.
4. Burial. (Захоронения)
- Duchess Cecilia Of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
- Prince Hubertus of Prussia, in the cemetery.
- William, German Crown Prince.
- Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia, in the cemetery.
- Princess Alexandrina of Prussia 1915-1980 cemetery.
- Princess Kira of Prussia, in the cemetery.
- Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, at the cemetery.
- and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061. The Hohenzollern family split into two branches
- divided between Friedrich XII and his brother Eitel Friedrich I. Hohenzollern Castle the town of Hechingen and the mill were still owned jointly. The
- Hohenzollern is a mountain, 855 m, of Baden - Wurttemberg, Germany. It is located in Zollernalbkreis. On its top the famous Hohenzollern Castle is located
- fled with an entourage of 21 people to Hohenzollern Castle The Swedish army soon occupied Hohenzollern Castle Count Karl was granted a free retreat
- Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern born 20 April 1952 is the eldest son of the late Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Hohenzollern and Princess Margarita
- of Hohenzollern Castle Johann Christoph died in 1620. Since he had not children, he was succeeded by his younger brother Karl, Count of Hohenzollern - Haigerloch
- Germany, with a seat at Sigmaringen Castle Unlike the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg and Prussia, the Hohenzollerns of Sigmaringen remained Roman Catholic
- Hohenzollern, Swabian castle and ancestral seat of the Hohenzollern dynasty Province of Hohenzollern 1850 - 1952 Prussian province Hohenzollern yachts of the
- Johann Georg of Hohenzollern - Hechingen born 1577 in Hechingen died 28 September 1623 in Hechingen was the first Prince of Hohenzollern - Hechingen. Johann
- June 1496 at Hohenzollern Castle was a German noblewoman. She was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage a Duchess of Hohenzollern Magdalena
- Ludwig of Hohenzollern - Hechingen 1 September 1688 in Strasbourg 4 June 1750 at Lindich Castle in Hechingen was prince of Hohenzollern - Hechingen.
- Sigmaringen Castle German: Schloss Sigmaringen was the princely castle and seat of government for the Princes of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen. Situated
- the war it was returned to the Hohenzollern family and is now kept at the family residence of the Hohenzollern Castle Regaling about Regalia European
- Hohenzollern - Hechingen was a small principality in southwestern Germany. Its rulers belonged to the Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty. The County
- Haigerloch. He rebuilt the ancestral seat, Hohenzollern Castle It would serve as the residence of the Counts of Hohenzollern until the late 18th century. The county
- Prince Johann of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen 17 August 1578 in Sigmaringen 22 March 1638 in Munich was the ruling Count of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen from
- of Hohenzollern and his wife Princess Margarita of Leiningen. Prince Ferdinand Maria Fidelis Leopold Meinrad Valentin was born at Sigmaringen Castle on
- Count Christoph of Hohenzollern - Haigerloch 20 March 1552 in Haigerloch 21 April 1592, Haigerloch was the first Count of Hohenzollern - Haigerloch. Christoph
- Karl I of Hohenzollern 1516 in Brussels 18 March 1576 at Sigmaringen Castle was Count of County of Hohenzollern from 1525 to 1575. He was Imperial
- Victoria of Hohenzollern German: Auguste Viktoria Wilhelmine Antonie Mathilde Ludovika Josephine Maria Elisabeth Prinzessin von Hohenzollern 19 August
- Meinrad of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen 24 May 1702 in Sigmaringen 8 December 1769 at Haag Castle Haigerloch was the fifth Prince of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen
- Count of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen German: Karl II, Graf von Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen 1547 8 April 1606 became Count of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen
- Hohenzollern - Haigerloch was a small county in southwestern Germany. Its rulers belonged to the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern It became part
- Count of Hohenzollern - Haigerloch 2 December 1657 at Sigmaringen Castle 14 October 1702 in Friedlingen was a reigning Count of Hohenzollern - Haigerloch
- Swiss border. The town lies at the foot of the Swabian Alps below Hohenzollern Castle The city of Hechingen is subdivided into nine neighborhoods, and
- Friedrich IV of Hohenzollern 7 September 1545 in Sigmaringen 16 January 1605 in Hechingen was the founder and first Count of the line Hohenzollern - Hechingen
- Paul - Philippe Hohenzollern born 13 August 1948 also known as Prince Paul of Romania and Paul Lambrino, is the son of Carol Lambrino and Helene Henriette
- 1724 20 December 1785 was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Prince of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen, Lord of Haigerloch and Wehrstein from 1769
- Friedrich V of Zollern died 24 May 1289 at Hohenzollern Castle nicknamed, the Illustrious was a Count of Zollern. Friedrich was a son of the Count Friedrich
- Karl, Prince of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen 20 February 1785 11 March 1853 was the reigning Prince of Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen from 1831 to 1848. In