★ Cinema of the United States
Cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a big impact on the film industry since the beginning of the 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is a classical Hollywood film, which is being developed from 1913 to 1969 and characterizes the majority of films produced there to this day. While the French Auguste and Louis Lumiere is usually credited with the birth of modern cinema, American cinema will soon become the dominant force in an emerging industry. It produces largest number of films in any one language national cinema, with more than 700 English-language films released on average, every year. While national cinemas of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand also release the films in one language, they are not considered part of the Hollywood system. Hollywood is also transnational cinema. Hollywood produced several language versions of some titles, often in Spanish or French. Modern Hollywood offshore production in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Hollywood is considered the oldest film industry, where early film studios and production companies have emerged, it is also the birthplace of various genres of cinema - among them Comedy, drama, action, musical, romance, horror, science fiction, and war epic - having an example for other national film industries.
In 1878 Edward Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture movement. In 1894, the first commercial film exhibition was Given in new York city, using Thomas Edisons of the peep show. In the United States produced the worlds first sync sound movie "the jazz Singer". in 1927 and was at the forefront of sound film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry was largely based in the 30-mile zone in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. V. D. Director Griffith was the center of the development of film grammar. Health Orson Citizen Kane 1941 is often referred to in polls critics as the greatest film of all time.
The biggest film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful and best selling movies on a ticket to the world. Moreover, many of Hollywoods top grossing films have generated more box office receipts and ticket sales outside the United States than films made elsewhere.
Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making US one of the most prolific producers of films in the world and a leading pioneer in the field of cinema technology.
1.1. History. Origin and Fort Lee. (Происхождение и Форт Ли)
The first recorded instance of photographs, recording and playback of the movement was a series of photographs of a running horse by Edward Muybridge, which he had taken in Palo Alto, California, using a set of still cameras placed in a row. Muybridges the accomplishment Led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices. In the United States of America, Thomas Edison was one of the first to release such a device, the kinetoscope.
History of cinema in the United States can trace their roots on the East coast, where, at the time, Fort Lee, new Jersey has become the cinematographic capital of America. The industry got its start in the late 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison "Black Maria", the first film Studio in West orange, new Jersey. Cities on the Hudson river and Hudson Palisades offered land at a cost significantly less than new York across the river and is of great benefit in the result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century.
The industry began the inflow of capital and innovative workforce, and when the Kalem company began using Fort Lee in 1907 as a place for filming in the area, other Directors, and then quickly. In 1909, the forerunner of universal studios, the champion film company, built the first Studio. Behind him was quickly followed by others, and built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In 1910-ies and 1920-ies, film companies such as independent moving pictures company, peerless studios, the Solax company, éclair studios Goldwyn picture Corporation, American Méliès star films, world Cinema, Companies, biographer studios, Fox Film Corporation, pathé frères, metro pictures Corporation, Victor film company, and then open up the picture of the Corporation was photographed in Fort Lee. Celebrities such as Mary Pickford got her start in the Biograph Studio.
In new York, Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, was built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx brothers and fields. Edison studios were located in the Bronx. Chelsea, Manhattan was also frequently used. Picture city, FL was also a planned site of the film production center of the painting in the 1920-ies, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and picture city returned to its original name of Hobe sound. Other major centers of film production also included Chicago, Texas, California and Cuba.
The film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies in the U.S. many worked with equipment for which they do not own the rights, and thus filming in new York could be dangerous, he was close to the Edison headquarters of the company, and employees of the company intended to seize the cameras. By 1912, most major film companies had established manufacturing facilities in southern California near or in Los Angeles, because in the regions with favorable climate all year round.
1.2. History. The Rise Of Hollywood. (Подъем Голливуд)
In early 1910, Director D. V. Griffith was sent to the Biograph company to the West coast with his acting troupe, consisting of actors Blanche sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore and others. They started filming on a vacant lot near Georgia street in downtown Los Angeles. While there, the company decided to explore new territories, traveling several miles North of Hollywood, in the little village that was friendly and enjoyed the movie company filming there. Then, Griffith filmed the first movie ever shot in Hollywood, in old California, at the Biograph melodrama about California in the 19th century, when it belonged to Mexico. Griffith stayed there for several months and made several films before returning to new York. After hearing about the success of Griffith in Hollywood, in 1913 many movie-makers headed West to avoid fees for Thomas Edison, who owned patents on the shooting process. Nestor studios of Bayonne, new Jersey, built the first Studio in Hollywood in 1911. Nestor Studios, owned by David and William HORSLEY, later merged with the "universal studios", and William Horsleys other companies, Laboratories Hollywood film, is currently the oldest existing company in Hollywood, now called the Hollywood digital laboratory. California more hospitable and cost effective climate eventually led to a shift in almost all the movies on the West coast in the 1930-ies. At the time, Thomas Edison owned almost all patents relevant to the production of film and video producers on the East coast, which operate independently from the Edison motion picture patents company were often summoned to court or requires Edison and his agents during the movie, working on the West coast could work independently of Edisons control.
In Los Angeles, the studios and Hollywood grew. Before the First world war, films were made in several U.S. cities, but filmmakers usually tend to southern California as the industry developed. They are attracted to the warm climate and reliable sunlight, which allow you to shoot movies outdoors year-round and variety of scenery that was available. There are several starting points for cinema, particularly American cinema, but it was Griffiths controversial 1915 epic birth of a nation, which for the first time in the world of filming vocabulary that still dominates celluloid to this day.
At the beginning of the 20th century when the medium was New, many Jewish immigrants found work in the film industry of the United States. They were able to make your mark in a new business: presentation of short films in storefront theaters called nickelodeons, after their admission price of a Nickel is five cents. Within a few years, ambitious men like Samuel Goldwyn, William Fox, Carl Lowe, Adolph Zukor, Louis B. Mayer and the Warner brothers moved to the production side of things. Soon they were the heads of a new kind of enterprise: the Studio. We had at least one female Director, producer and Studio head in these early years: the French Director Alice guy-Blache. They also created the conditions for internationalism industry, the industry is often accused of Amero-centric provincialism.
Came other filmmakers from Europe after World War I: Directors like Ernst lubitsch, Alfred Hitchcock, Fritz lang and Jean Renoir, and actors like Rudolph Valentino, Marlene Dietrich, Ronald Colman and Charles Boyer. They joined a homegrown supply of actors - lured West from the new York scene after the emergence of sound film, one of 20 time, a significant growth of the industry. In the films the peak of popularity in the mid-1940-ies, the Studio was to crank out a total of about 400 movies a year, seen an audience of 90 million Americans every week.
Sound also became widely used in Hollywood in the late 1920-ies. After the jazz singer the First film with synchronized voices was successfully released as a Vitaphone walkie-talkie in 1927, Hollywood film companies would respond to Warner Bros. and begin to use Vitaphone sound-which Warner brothers property until 1928 – in future films. By may 1928, electrical research product included erpi, a branch of Western electric company, gained a monopoly over film sound.
Was a side effect of "talkies" that many actors that have made their careers in silent films suddenly found themselves without work, as they often had bad voices or could not remember her lines. Meanwhile, in 1922, us politician will H. Hays left politics and formed the movie Studio boss organization known as the motion picture producers and distributors of America MPPDA. The organization became the Association of America after Hays retired in 1945.
In the early times of talkies, American studios found that their sound productions were rejected in foreign language markets and even among speakers of other dialects of English. The synchronization technology was still too primitive for dubbing. One of the solutions was creating parallel foreign-language versions of Hollywood films. In 1930-e years the American companies opened a Studio in Joinville-Le-Pont, France, where the same sets and wardrobe and even mass scenes were used for different time-sharing crews.
Also, foreign unemployed actors, playwrights and winners of photogenia contests were chosen and brought to Hollywood where they shot parallel versions of films in English. These parallel versions had a lower budget, was shot on the night and was sent to second-line American Directors who dont speak a foreign language. The Spanish language crews included people like Luis buñuel, Enrique Jardiel Poncela, Xavier Cugat and Edgar Neville. The performances were not very successful in the intended markets for the following reasons:
- Many theater actors had no experience in filmmaking.
- The mixture of a foreign accent was strange to the audience.
- Some markets lacked sound equipped cinemas.
- The lower budgets were apparent.
- The original movies were often second-rate themselves from the Studio it is expected that the top productions would sell by themselves.
Despite this, some productions like the Spanish version of Dracula compare to the original. By the mid-1930s, synchronization had advanced enough for dubbing to become usual.
1.3. History. Classical Hollywood cinema and Golden age of Hollywood 1913-1969. (Классического голливудского кино и Золотой век Голливуда 1913-1969)
Classical Hollywood cinema or the Golden age of Hollywood, is determined by both technical and narrative style characteristic of American cinema from 1913 to 1969, during which thousands of movies were issued from the Hollywood studios. Golden age is usually marked as beginning in 1913, but perhaps the first is accelerated in 1917 and accelerated again when the jazz Singer was released in 1927, ending the silent movie era and increasing box office profits for films as sound was introduced in movies.
Most Hollywood movies are closely tied to a formula – Western, slapstick Comedy, musical, animated cartoon, biopic biographical picture – and the same creative teams often worked on films the same Studio. For example, Cedric Gibbons and Herbert Stothart always worked on MGM films, Alfred Newman 20th Century Fox has worked for twenty years, Cecil B. De miles films were almost all made at Paramount, and Director Henry kings films were mostly on the 20th Century Fox.
At the same time, you can usually guess which Studio made which film, largely because of the actors who appeared in it, MGM, for example, claimed that he had contracted "more stars than there are in heaven". Each Studio had its own style and characteristics, which made it possible to know this – a trait that does not exist today.
For example, to have and have not 1944 is famous not only for the first pairing of actors Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall 1924-2014 1899-1957, but for what was written on the two future winners of the Nobel prize for literature Ernest Hemingway 1899-1961, author of the novel on which the script was nominally based, and William Faulkner 1897-1962, who worked on the film adaptation.
After the jazz singer was released in 1927, "Warner brothers" became a major success and were able to acquire their own string of movie theaters, after purchasing Stanley theaters and First national productions in 1928. MGM also owns the LOEWS string of theaters since its formation in 1924, and the Fox film Corporation owned the Fox theatre strings as well. In addition, the SERS of the 1928 merger between Keith-Orpheum theaters and the radio Corporation of America responded to the Western electric / erpi monopoly over sound in films, and developed his own method known as potion to place the sound in the movies.
Paramount, which already acquired Balaban and Katz in 1926, would answer to the success of Warner Bros. and RKO, and buy a number of theaters in the late 1920-ies, and will hold a monopoly on theaters in Detroit, Michigan. To 1930-m to years, almost all first run Metropolitan theaters in the United States belongs to the big five studios of MGM, paramount pictures, RKO, Warner Bros, and 20th Century Fox.
1.4. History. Studio system. (Студия система)
The film was still a business and motion picture companies made money operating under the Studio system. Major studios kept thousands of people on salary - actors, producers, Directors, screenwriters, stunt men, craftsmen and technicians. They owned or leased movie ranches in rural southern California for filming westerns and other large scale movies. And they owned hundreds of theaters in cities and towns across the country in 1920 in theaters that showed their films and that is always in need of fresh material.
In 1930, the MPPDA President will Hays created the production of the Hays Code, which followed censorship guidelines and went into effect after government threats of censorship expanded by 1930. However, the code was not enforced until 1934, after the Catholic Watchdog organization the Legion of decency in horror from some of the provocative films and lurid advertising of the era later enabled to say - threatened to boycott the films if it will not come into force. Those films that have not received the seal of approval from the production Code administration had to pay a $25.000 fine and could not profit in the theaters, as the MPPDA was in charge of every theatre in the country in five studios.
During the 1930-ies, as well as the Golden age, MGM dominated the screen films and top stars in Hollywood and also was enlisted to create the brand of the Hollywood star system. Some MGM stars included "King of Hollywood" Clark gable, Lionel Barrymore, Jean Harlow, Norma Shearer, Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Jeanette MacDonald and husband gene Raymond, Spencer Tracy, Judy garland and gene Kelly. But MGM is not alone. Another great achievement in the cinema with us during this era came through Walt Disneys animation company. In 1937, Disney created the most successful film of its time, Snow white and the seven dwarfs. This distinction was promptly topped in 1939 when the ladder International created what is still, adjusted for inflation, the most successful film of all time, gone with the wind.
Many film historians have noted many great works of cinema that emerged from this period of highly regimented film. One of the reasons it was impossible that so many movies, not everyone had to be a hit. In the Studio can play on medium budget with a good script and relatively unknown actors: Citizen Kane Director Orson Welles 1915-1985 and is often regarded as the greatest film of all time, fits that description. In other cases, strong-willed Directors like Howard hawks 1896-1977, Alfred Hitchcock 1899-1980, and Frank Capra 1897-1991 fought in the Studio in order to achieve their artistic vision.
The apogee of the Studio system may have been in 1939, which saw the release of such classics as "the Wizard of Oz", gone with the wind, stagecoach, Mr. Smith goes to Washington, Wuthering heights, only angels have wings, ninotchka, and Midnight. Among other films of the Golden age period that are now considered classics: "Casablanca", its a wonderful life it happened one night, the original king Kong, mutiny on the bounty, hat, city Lights, Red river, the lady from Shanghai, rear window, on the waterfront, rebel without a cause, Some like it hot and the Manchurian candidate.
1.5. History. The decline of the Studio system in the late 1940-ies. (Упадком студийной системы в конце 1940-х годов)
The Studio system and the Golden age of Hollywood succumbed to two forces that developed in the late 1940-ies:
- The advent of television.
- Federal antitrust action that separated the production of films from their exhibition and.
In 1938 Walt Disney Snow white and the seven dwarfs was released during a run of lackluster films from the major studios, and quickly became the highest grossing film released at the time. Embarrassingly for the studios, it was independently produced animated film that does not have any Studio-employed stars. This stoked already widespread frustration at the practice of block booking, the Studio can sell only entire schedule years of movies while in theaters and use the lock to cover for releases of mediocre quality.
Assistant attorney General Thurman Arnolds famous "trust Buster" of the Roosevelt administration used this opportunity to initiate proceedings against the eight largest Hollywood studios in July 1938 for violations of antitrust the Sherman act. The Federal suit, as a result, five of the eight studios of reaching a compromise with Arnold in October 1940 and signing a consent decree agreeing to, within three years:
- To eliminate the block-booking more than five features in their theaters.
- To establish an administrative Board in each district to enforce these requirements.
- No longer engage in blind buying or buying movies in public areas without seeing films beforehand, and instead have trade-showing, in which all 31 theater districts in US would see films every two weeks before showing movies in theaters.
- To eliminate the block-booking of short film, in the organization known as "one shot" or "full force" block-booking.
"Little Three" who did not own any theaters, refused to participate in the consent decree. A number of independent film producers were also unhappy with the compromise and formed a Union known as the society of independent motion picture producers and sued for a huge monopoly they have for the Detroit theaters - as Paramount was also gaining dominance through actors like Bob hope, Paulette Goddard, Veronica lake, Betty Hutton, crooner Bing Crosby, Alan Ladd, and longtime actor for Studio Gary Cooper too - by 1942. The big five studios do not meet the requirements of the consent decree during WWII, without major consequence, but after the war ended they joined paramount as defendants in the antitrust case Hollywood, as did the little three studios.
The Supreme Court eventually decided that the large property-studios, theatres and distribution is a violation of the antitrust Sherman act. In the end, studios began to release actors and technical staff from their contracts with the studios. It changed the paradigm of film making major Hollywood studios, as each could have an entirely different cast and creative team.
The decision resulted in the gradual loss of the characteristics which made Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, paramount pictures, universal pictures, Columbia pictures, RKO pictures and 20th Century Fox films immediately identifiable. Some filmmakers, like Cecil B. DeMille, either remained contract artists till the end of his career or creative teams on their films so that a DeMille film still look like it was made in 1932 or 1956.
1.6. History. Impact: fewer films, the more requests. (Последствия: меньше фильмов, тем больше запросов)
In addition, the number of movies being produced annually dropped as the average budget soared, marking a significant change in the strategy of development of the industry. Studios now aimed to produce entertainment that cannot be offered by television: beautiful, larger-than-life productions. Studios also began to sell some of his theatrical film library with other companies to sell the TV. By 1949, all major film studios refused ownership of their theatres.
This has been complemented with the 1952 miracle decision in the Joseph Burstyn Inc. Wilson in a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States reversed its earlier position, from 1915s mutual film Corporation V. industrial Commission of Ohio case, and stated that movies were an art form, and are entitled to the protection of the First amendment to the Constitution, the laws of the United States could not censor films. By 1968, with film studios are becoming increasingly defiant to its censorship function, the American motion picture Association MPAA replaced the Hays Code-which was now greatly violated after the government threat of censorship that justified the origin of the code had ended - with the film rating system.
1.7. History. New Hollywood and post-classical 1960s–1980s movie. (Новый Голливуд и постклассической 1960-х–1980-х годов фильм)
Post-classical cinema is the changing methods of storytelling in the New Hollywood. It was argued that new approaches to drama and characterization played on audience expectations acquired in the classical period: chronology may be scrambled, storylines may "twist endings", and lines between the antagonist and protagonist may be blurred. The roots of post-classical storytelling can be seen in the film Noir, in rebel without a cause 1955, and in a stunning plot Hitchcocks psycho.
New Hollywood is the emergence of a new generation of film school-trained Directors who had absorbed the techniques developed in Europe in the 1960-ies, in the 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde marked the beginning of American cinema rebounding as well, as the new generation movies later succeed at the box office as well. Directors like Francis Ford Coppola, Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, Brian De Palma, Stanley Kubrick, Martin Scorsese, Roman Polanski, and William Friedkin came to produce fare that paid homage to the history of film, and developed upon existing genres and techniques. Opened in 1969, came out of Andy Warhols blue movie, the phenomenon of adult erotic films who have publicly discussed celebrities like johnny Carson and Bob hope, and serious critics like Roger Ebert of development referred to, Ralph Blumenthal new York times as "porno chic", and later known as the Golden age of porn began, for the first time in modern American culture. According the award-winning author Toni Bentley, Radley Metzgers 1976 film the opening of misty Beethoven, based on the play "Pygmalion" by George Bernard Shaw and its derivatives, "My fair lady", and achieve the basic level of the plot and scenery, is considered the "pearl" of the Golden age.
In the 1970-ies, the films of the new Hollywood Directors often like the critically acclaimed and commercially successful. While the early new Hollywood films like "Bonnie and Clyde" and "easy rider" was a relatively small-budget Affairs with amoral heroes and increased sexuality and violence, the enormous success enjoyed by Friedkin with the exorcist, Spielberg with jaws, Coppolas the Godfather and Apocalypse now, Scorsese with taxi driver, Kubricks 2001: a Space Odyssey, with Polanskis Chinatown, and Lucas with American graffiti and Star wars, respectively helped to rise to the modern "blockbuster", and induced studios focus even more on trying to produce enormous hits.
The increasing indulgence of these young Directors didnt help., Often they go overload, and over-budget not less than, thus bankrupting themselves or the Studio. Three of the most famous examples of this are the Coppolas Apocalypse now and one from the heart, and in particular Michael Ciminos heavens gate, which single-handedly bankrupted "United Artists". However, Apocalypse now, eventually made its money back and gained widespread recognition as a masterpiece, winning the Palme dor at Cannes Dor.
1.8. History. The market growth of home video the 1980s-1990-ies. (Рост рынка домашнего видео в 1980-х-1990-х годов)
In the 1980s and 1990s was marked by another important event. Full recognition the home video studios opened a vast new business to exploit. Movies, which can be performed poorly in their Theatrical run are now able to succeed in the video market. He also saw the first generation of filmmakers with access to video to appear. Directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Paul Thomas Anderson had the opportunity to view thousands of movies the movies with the huge number of references and connections to previous works. Tarantino has collaborated with Director Robert Rodriguez. Rodriguez directed the 1992 film El Mariachi, which had a commercial success after grossing $2 million compared to a budget of $7.000.
This, along with the explosion of independent film and ever-to reduce the cost of production of films that changed the landscape of American cinema again and Led the revival of cinema Hollywoods among the lower and middle classes - those without access to Studio financial resources. With the advent of DVD in the 21st century, DVDs quickly become even more profitable for studios and led to an explosion of packaging extra scenes, extended versions, and commentary tracks with the films.
1.9. History. Modern cinema. (Современное кино)
Beautiful epics which took advantage of new widescreen processes increasingly popular since the 1950-ies.
The filmmakers in the 1990-ies had access to technological, political and economic innovations, which were not available in previous decades. Dick Tracy 1990 became the first 35 mm feature film with a digital soundtrack. 1992 Batman returns was the first film to use Dolby digital six-channel stereo sound, which has since become the industry standard. Computer graphics or CG advanced to the point where Jurassic Park 1993 was to be able to use technology to create realistic animals. In the Phantom Menance 1999 was the first film that was fully shot on digital.
Even of the Blair witch project 1999, a low-budget indie horror film by Eduardo Sanchez and Daniel Myrick, was a huge financial success. Filmed on a budget of just 35.000$, no big stars, no special effects, the film has collected in world hire of $ 248 million using modern marketing methods and online promotion. Though not on the scale of George Lucass prequel $1 billion in the trilogy "Star wars", "Witches from Blair" deserved to become the most profitable film of all time, in terms of percentage of gross.
The success of the Blair Witch, as an indie project, remains nevertheless among the few exceptions, and control of the Big five film production Studio was reduced to the 1990-ies. Big six companies are going through a period of expansion in 1990-ies. Each of them have developed different ways to adapt to higher costs in the industry, especially the growth in the salary of movie stars, driven by powerful agents. The biggest stars, like Sylvester Stallone, Russell Crowe, Tom cruise, Nicole Kidman, Sandra Bullock, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Mel Gibson and Julia Roberts got $15-$20 million for the film, and in some cases even gets part of the profits of the films.
The writers on the other hand, tend to receive less than TOP actors or Directors, usually under $ 1 million for the film. However, the largest factor in the growth of the cost of special effects. By 1999, the average cost of a blockbuster film made $ 60 million to marketing and promotion, which cost another $80 million.
Since then, American films have become increasingly divided into two categories: blockbusters and independent movies.
Studios Supplement these movies with independent production, created with small budgets and often independently of the Studio Corporation. Films made in this manner typically emphasize high professional quality in terms of acting, directing, screenwriting, and other elements associated with production, as well as creativity and innovation. These movies usually rely upon critical praise or niche marketing to gather an audience. For independent low budget films, a successful independent film can have a high profit based on these costs, a failure will incur minimal losses, allowing for studios to sponsor dozens of such productions in addition to their high-stakes releases.
American independent cinema was revitalized in the late 1980s and early 1990s when another new generation of moviemakers, including spike Lee, Steven Soderbergh, Kevin Smith and Quentin Tarantino made movies like, respectively: do the right thing Sex, lies and videotape, clerks and reservoir dogs. From the point of view of direction, screenwriting, editing and other elements these movies were innovative and often irreverent, playing with them and contradicting the conventions of Hollywood movies. Furthermore, their considerable financial successes and crossover into popular culture restored the commercial viability of independent film. Since then, the independent film industry has become clearer and more influential in American cinema. Many of the major studios kapitaliserede on developing subsidiaries to produce similar films such as Fox searchlight pictures.
To a lesser extent in the early 21st century, film types that were previously considered only a minor presence on the main movie market began to arise as more potent American box office draws. They include foreign-language films such as crouching tiger, hidden dragon and hero and documentary films such as super size me, March of the penguins and Michael Moores Bowling for Columbine and Fahrenheit 9 / 11.
2. Hollywood and politics. (Голливуд и политика)
In the 1930-ies, the Democrats and the Republicans saw money in Hollywood. President Franklin Roosevelt saw a huge partnership with Hollywood. He used the first real potential of Hollywoods stars in a national campaign. Melvyn Douglas toured Washington in 1939 and met the new dealers.
2.1. Hollywood and politics. Political approval. (Политическое одобрение)
Was signed endorsements letters from leading actors, radio and print advertising was made. Movie stars were used to attract a large audience in the political objectives of the party. In 1960, John F. Kennedy was a new, young face for Washington, and his strong friendship with Frank Sinatra as an example of this new era of glamour. The last moguls of Hollywood was not young, new artists and producers began to push more liberal ideas.
Celebrities and money attracted politicians into the high class, glittering Hollywood life-style. As Ronald Brownstein wrote in his book "the Power and the glitter", television in the 1970s and 1980s years was enormously important new media in politics and Hollywood helped the media with the participation of actors acting on their political beliefs, like Jane Fonda against the Vietnam war. Despite the many celebrities and producers left and seeking the support of the Democratic party, this era has produced many national actors and producers. Former actor Ronald Reagan became Governor of California and later became the 40th President of the United States. He continued with Arnold Schwarzenegger as Governor of California in 2003.
2.2. Hollywood and politics. Political contributions. (Политические взносы)
Today, donations from Hollywood to help Finance the Federal policy. On 20 February 2007, for example, the Democratic then-presidential candidate Barack Obama received $2.300-a-plate Hollywood gala, hosted by DreamWorks founders David Geffen, Jeffrey Katzenberg, Steven Spielberg at the Beverly Hilton.
2.3. Hollywood and politics. Censorship. (Цензура)
Hollywood producers generally seek to comply with Chinese government censorship in an attempt to open in the country is limited and profitable market, a cinema, with the second largest cash in the world in 2016. This includes streamlining the sympathetic image of Chinese characters, in films such as changing the villains in Red dawn from China to North Korea. Because of the many forbidden topics in China, such as the Dalai Lama and Winnie the Pooh are involved in South parks episode "band China", South Park was completely banned in China after the episode aired. Movie 2018 the Pooh, new Winnie the Pooh movie, was denied a Chinese version.
Although Tibet was previously prompted in Hollywood, featuring in films, including Kundun, seven years in Tibet in the 21st century it is not so. In 2016, marvel entertainment has attracted criticism for his decision to cast Tilda Swinton as "Ancient" in the film adaptation of doctor strange using a white woman to play in a traditional Tibetan character. Actor and big supporter of Tibet, Richard Gere said that he can no longer participate in regular Hollywood movies after criticizing the Chinese government and calling for a boycott of the summer Olympic games 2008 in Beijing.
3. Spread to world markets. (Распространение на мировые рынки)
In 1912, American film companies were largely immersed in the competition in the domestic market. It was difficult to meet the huge demand for films created by the Nickelodeon boom. The motion picture patents company representatives, such as Edison studios, also sought to limit competition from French, Italian and other imported films. The export of films, and then became profitable for these companies. Studios Vitagraph became the first American company to open its own distribution offices in Europe, to create a branch in London in 1906, and a second branch in Paris shortly after.
Other American companies enter foreign markets, and American distribution abroad continued to expand until the mid 1920-ies. Initially, the majority of companies sold their films indirectly. However, since they were inexperienced in overseas trading they simply sold the rights to their films to foreign distribution firms or export agents. Gradually, London became the center of international circulation of U.S. films.
Many British companies made a profit by acting as agents for this business, and so they weakened British production, turning over a large share of the UK market to American films. By 1911, approximately 60 to 70 percent of films imported into great Britain were American. The United States also do in Germany, Australia and New Zealand.
More recently, as globalization began to intensify, and the government of the United States is actively promoting free trade programs and trade on cultural products, Hollywood became the worlds cultural source. Success in Hollywood export markets can be known not only from the boom of American multinational media corporations across the globe, but also a unique ability to make big-budget movies that are much like the popular tastes in many different cultures.
In the context of globalization of film production was assembled in Hollywood for several reasons: the United States has the largest domestic market in dollar terms, spectacular and highly visible Hollywood movies have global appeal, and the role of English as a universal language helps compensate for the higher fixed costs of production.
Meanwhile, Hollywood has moved deeper into Chinese markets, although influenced by Chinas censorship. Films made in China are censored strictly avoiding themes like "ghosts, violence, murder, horror and demons." Such story elements of risk to be cut. Hollywood had to make "approved" films, the official Chinese standards but aesthetic standards brought in box office profits. Even Chinese audiences found it boring to wait for the great American movies dubbed in their native language.
4. The role of women. (Роль женщин)
Women are statistically represented in creative positions in the center of the U.S. film industry, Hollywood. This under-representation has been called "the celluloid ceiling", a variant on employment discrimination, the term "glass ceiling". In 2013."the highest paid actors.did 2½ times more money as the highest paid Actresses in". "the most money on average per film at age 34 years and male stars earn the most at 51."
In 2013, the Celluloid ceiling report, conducted by the Center for the study of women in film and television in San Diego have compiled a list of statistics collected from "2.813 persons working on the top 250 domestic grossing films of 2012."
- "2% of all cinematographers".
- "38% of films employed 0 or 1 woman in the roles considered, 23% employed 2 women, 28% employed 3 to 5 women and 10% employed 6 to 9 women.".
- "20% of all editors".
- "9% of all Directors".
- "18% of all Directors, Executive producers writers, cinematographers and editors. This reflected no change from 2011 and only a 1% increase since 1998".
- "15% of writers.". ("15% писателей")
- "25% of all producers.".
In the article the new York times stated that only 15% of the best films in 2013, women in leading role. The studys author noted that "the proportion of women in the role not greatly increased since the 1940s, when they hovered around 25 percent to 28 percent." "Since 1998, womens representation behind the scenes role directing grew by only 1 percent." Women."led the same percent of the 250 highest-grossing movies in 2012 by 9 percent, as they did in 1998."
5. Ethnic stereotypes. (Этнические стереотипы)
American cinema often reflected stereotypes among Americans against foreign nationals and ethnic minorties in stereotypical categories. For example, Hispanics are mostly depicted as sexualized figures such as macho Latino or latina vixen, gang members, illegal immigrants, or entertainers. Russians and Russian-Americans are usually portrayed as violent mobsters, ruthless agents and villains. Italians and Americans of Italian origin, usually associated with organized crime and the mafia. According to the Korean-American actor Daniel Dae Kim, Asian and Asian American men "was portrayed as inscrutable villains and asexualized kind of eunuchs." Before 9/11, Arabs and Arab Americans are often portrayed as terrorists.
- America Cinema of Europe Cinema of Oceania Cinema of Afghanistan Cinema of Albania Cinema of Algeria Cinema of Argentina Cinema of Armenia Cinema of Australia
- industries of Mexico and Cuba are normally considered part of Latin American cinema Cinema of the United States Film in Florida Cinema of Canada Cinema of Quebec
- in the United States and a number of other theaters across the United Kingdom, Brazil, and Argentina. In Brazil, Showcase is known as UCI Cinemas In
- all - time high in 1936, the golden age of British cinema is usually thought to have occurred in the 1940s, during which the directors David Lean, Michael Powell
- This article delineates the history of cinema in the United States In 1893, Eadweard Muybridge gave lectures and projected hand - painted animated images
- at United States box office. When Miramax planned to release the English - dubbed versions of Shaolin Soccer and Hero in the United States cinemas their
- The Cinema of the United Arab Emirates began with a number of feature films that were broadcast on national television since the late 1980s. In 2002, Emirates
- The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United States of America: Pronunciation: jʊˌnaɪ.tɪd ˈsteɪts listen Abbreviations:
- The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United States Virgin Islands: The Territory of the United States Virgin Islands
- in the United States Another element supporting this fact is that Paris has the highest density of cinemas in the world, measured by the number of movie
- second - largest theater circuit in the United States with over 7, 307 screens in 564 theaters as of June 2016. The three main theatre brands operated
- Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Since the inception of cinema in Europe and the United States many people assumed that cinema in the Middle East
- Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry based in Argentina. The Argentine cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the
- The Western United States also called the American West, the Far West, and the West is the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States
- United States territory is any extent of region under the sovereign jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States including all waters
- is a list of films featuring the United States Marine Corps. Beginning with The Star Spangled Banner 1918 the Marines discovered the use of motion pictures
- both in Brazil and the United States Influenced by Italian neorealism and French New Wave, films produced under the ideology of Cinema Novo opposed traditional
- needs of the film industry that creates them - mainly in the United States This spectator cinema continues a lack of awareness within the masses of a difference
- is a cinema brand name operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway, which along with UCI Cinemas and Nordic Cinema Group is part of the Odeon
- Cinema arrived in Cuba at the beginning of the 20th century. Before the Cuban Revolution of 1959, about 80 full - length films were produced in Cuba. Most
- and Michel Brault. The cinema of English - speaking Canada is heavily intertwined with the cinema of the neighbouring United States though there is a distinctly
- Telugu cinema is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, widely spoken in the states of Andhra
- divisions of the United States are the various recognized governing entities that together form the United States states the District of Columbia
- Swedish cinema is known for including many acclaimed films during the 20th century the industry was the most prominent of Scandinavia. This is largely
- The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented
- around the states of Punjab in India and Pakistan. Mainly based in Lahore, Pakistan and Amritsar, India. The cinema of Punjab has its beginnings with the 1928
- The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all UN member states and UN observer states other than i UN member
- The term United States when used in the geographical sense, is the contiguous United States the state of Alaska, the island state of Hawaii, the five
- The cinema of Mainland China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese - language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema
- The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states a federal district Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States
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