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★ Cinema of Hong Kong - national cinema ..

Cinema of Hong Kong

★ Cinema of Hong Kong

Cinema Hong Kong is one three major threads in history Chinese language cinema, alongside the cinema of China and Taiwan. As a former British colony, Hong Kong had a greater degree of political and economic freedom than mainland China and Taiwan, and turned into a movie hub for the Chinese-speaking world.

For many decades, Hong Kong is the third largest film industry in the world after Indian cinema and Hollywood and the second largest exporter. Despite an industry crisis starting in the mid 1990-ies and Hong Kongs return to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997, a Hong Kong film has retained its identity and continues to play a prominent role on the world stage of cinema. In the West, Hong Kongs vigorous pop cinema, especially action cinema, Hong Kong has long been a strong cult, which now may be part of the cultural mainstream, widely available and imitated.

Economically, the film industry, along with the added value of cultural and creative industries is 5 percent, the economy of Hong Kong.


1. Industry In Hong Kong. (Промышленности В Гонконге)

Unlike many of the film industry, Hong Kong enjoys little or no direct government support, through subsidies or import quotas. This is a thoroughly commercial cinema: very corporate, concentrating on fashionable genres like Comedy and action, and relying heavily on Formulas, sequels and remakes.

A Hong Kong film derives a number of elements from Hollywood movies, such as certain parameters of the genre, "the intrigue remained until the last minute" philosophy and fast pacing and editing. But the loans are filtered through elements from traditional Chinese drama and art, particularly a penchant for stylisation and a disregard for Western standards of realism. This, combined with a fast and loose approach to the filmmaking process, contributes to the energy and surreal imagination that foreign audiences note in Hong Kong cinema.

In 2010, the box office gross in Hong Kong was HK 1.339 billion, and in 2011 was HK$1.379 billion. There were 56 Hong Kong films and 220 foreign films released in 2011.

In 2017, the box office gross was HK 1.85 billion dollars. compared to 2016 HK $ 1.95 billion. 331 films have been released in 2017, reduced from 348 the year.


1.1. Industry In Hong Kong. Star system. (Звездная система)

According to MacDonald, there was the star system of Hollywood as a talent, coaches and journalists, were involved in finding the artists and make them stars. In a vertically integrated Hollywood film industry of the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s years, these responsibilities have been undertaken by the studios. Studios stars and, due to notoriously restrictive terms imposed on the exclusive contracts for the provision of services, the Studio also belongs to the stars MacDonald, 2000. As is common in commercial cinema, in the centre of the industry is a highly developed star system. In earlier days, beloved performers from the Chinese Opera stage often brought their audiences to the screen. For the past three or four decades, television has been the main springboard to fame movie, through acting courses and widely watched drama, Comedy and variety series offered two major stations. Perhaps even more important is the overlap with the Cantonese pop music industry. Many, if not most, movie stars have recording sidelines, and Vice versa, this was a key marketing strategy in the entertainment industry where American-style, multimedia advertising campaigns until recently were little used, Bordwell, 2000. Selling in the current troubled climate, the casting of young Cantopop idols such as Ekin Cheng and the Twins to attract the all-important youth audience is endemic.

In a small and close-knit industry, actors and other staff, for example, Directors are always busy. During previous boom periods, the number of movies made by a successful figure in a single year could routinely reach double figures.


1.2. Industry In Hong Kong. Budgets. (Бюджеты)

Films are typically inexpensive when compared with American films. Major release with a big star, aimed at "hit" information, will cost about 5 million US dollars Yang et al. 1997. Feature low budget can go much lower than 1 million US dollars. Sometimes blockbuster projects are very big stars Jackie Chan or Stephen Chow, for example, or international co-production of "crossovers" aimed at the global market, can go as high as $ 20 million or more, but these rare exceptions. Hong Kong industries, however, can reach the level of gloss and wealth more than these numbers would recommend, taking into account such factors as the decline in wages and the cost of the Hong Kong dollar.


1.3. Industry In Hong Kong. Language and sound. (Язык и звук)

Movies in Cantonese language have been made in Hong Kong since the beginning. In the 1950-ies, he also became the center of film language Mandarin after coming to power of the Communists in China and the entertainment industry shifted from Shanghai to Hong Kong. From the 1960s until the mid 1970-ies, the Mandarin film productions became dominant, especially those Shaw brothers in Hong Kong. There was also a brief period when at times the movies were made in Hong Kong, as well as films made in the Teochew dialect. Cantonese movies back in the 1970-ies and 1980-ies, films have been made mostly in Cantonese dialect.

For many decades, films were typically shot silent, with dialogue and all other sound dubbed afterwards. In the hectic and low-budget industry, this method was faster and more cost-efficient than recording live sound, particularly when using performers from different dialect regions, it also contributed to the dubbing into other languages for the vital export market, for example, the standard Mandarin of mainland China and Taiwan. There are many stars dont even write their own dialogue, but is voiced by a lesser-known performer. Shooting without sound also contributed to the approach of improvisational movie. Movies often went into production without finished scripts, scenes and dialogue concocted on the set, especially low-budget productions on tight deadlines, possibly even the actors silently mouth or just take the numbers with a real dialogue is created only in the editing process.

A trend towards sync sound filming grew in the late 1990-ies, and this method becomes the norm, partly because of the widespread public Association with higher quality movie.


2.1. History. 1909 to world war II. (1909 г. до мировой войны)

During its early history, Hong Kongs cinema played second fiddle on the mainland, especially in Shanghai, which was then the movie capital of the Chinese-speaking world. Very little of this work has been preserved: one count finds only four films remaining out of over 500 produced in Hong Kong, Fonoroff Second world war, 1997. Therefore, to describe this period, intrinsic limitations and uncertainties.


2.2. History. Pioneers from the stage. (Пионеры со сцены)

As in most of China, the development of early films was tightly bound to Chinese Opera, for centuries the dominant form of theatrical entertainment. Opera scenes were the source for what is generally called the first films made in Hong Kong, two 1909 short comedies entitled stealing the roasted duck and justice in a clay pot. The Director was stage actor and Director Liang Jun A. The producer was an American, Benjamin Brodsky sometimes transliterated Polaski, one of the Westerners that helped to launch Chinese film through their efforts to crack Chinas huge market potential.

Loan first feature film in Hong Kong is usually given to zhuangzi tests his wife by 1913, which also took its story from the Opera stage, he directed and participate in the involvement of the Brodskys. Director Lai man-Wai Li Ming Wei or Li Minwei in Mandarin was a theatrical colleague of Liang Shaobos, which became known as the "father of Hong Kong cinema". In another borrowing from Opera, Lai played the role of himself wife. His brother played the role of husband and wife a supporting role as a maid, and she became the first Chinese woman to star in a Chinese film, a milestone delayed by longstanding taboos regarding female performers Leyda, 1972. Zhuangzhi was the only film made by Chinese American film, based on Lai and Brodsky as the first movie Studio in Hong Kong, and was never actually shown in the territory of the Stokes and Hoover, 1999.

The following year, the outbreak of the First world war put a large crimp in the development of cinema in Hong Kong, as Germany was the source of the colonys film, Jan, 2003. It was not until 1923 that Lai, his brother and their cousin joined with Liang Jun A. in the form of Hong Kongs first entirely Chinese-owned-and-operated manufacturing company, China Sun film company. In 1924, they moved their operation to the mainland after government red tape blocked their plans to build the Studio. Teo, 1997


2.3. History. The advent of sound. (Появление звука)

With the popularity of talkies in the early 1930-ies, the issue Chinas of various dialects had to be grappled. Hong Kong was a major center for Cantonese, one of the most widespread and political factors on the mainland offers the opportunity. In 1932, the Shaw brothers, who formed the Tianyi film company, has teamed up with Cantonese Opera singer sit GOK-sin to make the first Cantonese walkie-talkie, white gold Dragon in Shanghai. This film has been very successful, and in 1934 they created a branch of Tianyi Studio in Kowloon to make Cantonese films. The government of the Kuomintang or nationalist party wanted to use "Mandarin-only" policy and was hostile to Cantonese filmmaking in China. He also banned the wildly popular genre of martial arts UNL fencing and fantasy, accusing it of promoting superstition and violent anarchy. Cantonese film and UNL film remained popular despite government hostility, and the British colony of Hong Kong became the place where both these trends could be freely served. Tianyi soon moved the entire film production Operation from Shanghai to Hong Kong and reorganized Tianyi into Nanyang 南洋 industries. Name 粵語長片 Pinyin: Yueyǔ Chang piàn, stock charts technical: jyut6 jyu5 coeng4 pin3*2 it soon became the standard name for the black and white Cantonese movies.

Filmed Cantonese operas proved even more successful than UNL and is the leading genre of the 1930-ies. Major studios that have flourished in this period was Grandview, universal, and Nanyang which later became the Shaw brothers that would have a lasting impact on Chinese film. Teo, 1997


2.4. History. Age of war. (Эпоха войны)

Another important factor in the 1930-ies, was the second Sino-Japanese war. "National defense" films Patriotic war stories about Chinese resisting the Japanese invasion - became one of Hong Kongs major genres, notable titles included Kwan man Chings lifeline 1935, Chu Shu Suns melee 1937 and March 1938 place Huimins Partisans. The genre of the film industry were also artists and movie companies, when Shanghai was taken by the Japanese in 1937.

This, of course, came to an end when Hong Kong fell to the Japanese in December 1941. But unlike the mainland, the occupants are unable to collect a collaborationist film industry. They managed to finish yet another propaganda movie, the attack on Hong Kong in 1942.to.and. On the day of the collapse of England to the UK he returned in 1945 teo, 1997. More important step on the part of Japan may have been to melt down many of Hong Kongs pre-war films to extract the silver nitrate for military use Fonoroff, 1997.


2.5. History. 1940s-60-ies. (1940-х-60-х годов)

Postwar Hong Kong cinema, like postwar Hong Kong industries in General, was the catalyst is the continuing influx of capital and talents from mainland China. Hong Kongs population in 1940 was about 1 million and has grown to approximately $ 3.9 million In 1967, the population during this period increased by about 2.9 million. This became a flood with the 1946 resumption of the Civil war in China, which was during the struggle with Japan, and then the 1949 Communist victory. These events definitively shifted the center of Chinese language cinema in Hong Kong. The colony also did big business exporting films to Southeast Asia in particular, but not exclusively because of their large Chinese communities and Chinatowns in Western countries Bordwell, 2000.


2.6. History. Competing languages. (Конкурирующих языков)

The post-war era cemented the division of the industry into two parallel cinemas, one in Mandarin, the dominant dialect of the mainland emigres, and in Cantonese, the dialect most Hong Kong residents. The difference between the two languages sound kei, 1994. During the silent film era, written language was Chinese and was known to all, regardless of the language spoken by the K., 1994. Subtitles allow access to the markets of the movies kei, 1994. Mandarin movies sometimes had much higher budgets and more lavish production. Reasons included their enormous export market, experience and capital of the Shanghai filmmakers. For decades to come, Cantonese films, though sometimes more numerous, were relegated to second tier status Leyda, 1972.

Another language-related event occurred in 1963: the British authorities passed a law requiring captioning on all films in English, supposedly to look at political content. Making a virtue of necessity, studios included Chinese subtitles as well, provides more convenient access to their movies for speakers of other dialects. Later, Jan, subtitles 2003 has led to unintended consequences, contributing to the popularity of movies in the West.


2.7. History. Movies in Cantonese. (Фильмы на кантонском)

During this period, Cantonese Opera on film dominated. Top-stars-female Duo of Yam Kim FAI and Pak Suet sin, Yam–Pak for short. Yam specialized in male roles scientist pax female leads. They made more than fifty films together, the purple Hairpin 1959 one of the most consistently popular teo, 1997.

Low-budget films about martial arts were also popular. A series of approximately 100 films kung fu starring Kwan so Hing as historical folk hero Wong FEI hung were made, starting with the true story of Wong FEI hung 1949 and ending with Wong FEI hung bravely crushing the fire formation 1970 Logan, 1995. Fantasy UNL fencing serials with special effects drawn on the film manually, for example, the six-fingered Lord of the lute 1965 starring idol Connie Chan po-Chu in the lead male role, were also popular chute and lim, 2003, 3, as a contemporary melodramas of home and family life, including a re-enactment of brother rivalry to brotherly Hedi 1957 starring Julie Ye Feng.


2.8. History. Movies Mandarin and Shaws / Cathay rivalry. (Фильмы мандарин и ШОС / Катай соперничество)

In the production of Mandarin brothers shows and movies, and the total investments of the company MP&GI, later renamed Kate was in the top studios in the 1960s, and bitter rivals. The show was won in 1964 after the death in a plane crash MP&founder and head of the GU Lok WAN tho. The renamed Cathay faltered, ceasing film production in the 1970s-young, 2003.

A musical genre called Huangmeidiào 黃梅調 was derived from Chinese Opera, the record shows the hit everlasting Love 1963 remains a classic of the genre. Costume often intersects with Huangmeidiào, for example, in the Kingdom and the beauty 1959. Both of the above examples were directed woods star Director Li Han Hsiang. Romantic melodrama such as the red flower in the snow in 1956, Love without end 1961, Blue and Black 1964 and adaptations of Chiung Yaos novels were popular. So it was Hollywood-style musicals, which were the specialty of MP&GI / Cathay in entries such as Mambo girl 1957 wild rose 1960.

In the 1960s, the motion picture and General investments of the society produced a special set of romantic movies, which were called South and North. The first is the greatest civil walls on Earth 1961, the second-greatest Wedding on Earth 1962 and the greatest love on Earth 1964. This set of films was partly spoken in Cantonese and partially in Mandarin said. In this set of films, they showed some differences between the North and the South, with the exception of languages, the films also showed some of the culture, such as weddings culture and food culture. The main idea of this set of films were a kind of cultural integration between the North and the South.

In the second half of 1960-ies, the SCO has inaugurated a new generation of more intense, less fantastical UNL films with glossy production values, acrobatic moves and stronger violence. The trend was inspired by the popularity of imported samurai movies from Japan chute and lim, 2003, 8 as well as the loss of audience to television. This event marked a decisive turnaround in the industry from a female-oriented system genre action orientation see Also the article of Hong Kong cinema. Key trendsetters included Xu Zenghongs the temple of the red Lotus 1965, King HUS come drink with me 1966 and 1967 Dragon INN, made in Taiwan.to.and. Dragons gate INN, and Chang Chehs brindle boy 1966, 1967 one-armed swordsman and Golden Swallow 1968.


2.9. History. Years 1970-ies the transformation. (Годы 1970-е годы трансформация)

Mandarin-dialect film in General and the Shaw brothers in particular began in the 1970-ies in the apparent position of inviolability. Cantonese cinema virtually vanished in the face of Mandarin studios and Cantonese television, which became available to the General population in 1967; in 1972 no films in the local dialect were made Bordwell, 2000. SCO saw their longtime rival Cathay cessation of film production, leaving themselves the only megastudio. A subgenre of martial arts kung fu movie exploded into popularity internationally, with the SCOs driving and dominating the wave. But changes were beginning that would significantly change the industry by the end of the decade.


2.10. History. The Cantonese comeback. (Кантонский камбэк)

Paradoxically, the television will only contribute to the revival of all in the movement to a more down to earth movies about modern Hong Kong Life and average people.

The first spark was the ensemble Comedy the House of 72 tenants, the only Cantonese film made in 1973, but a resounding hit. It is based on the famous play and produced to SCO as a model for artists from the first television station TVB Jan, 2003.

The return of Cantonese really took off with the comedies of former TVB stars the Hui brothers-actor-Director-screenwriter Michael Hui, actor-singer Sam Hui and actor Ricky Hui. The rationale for the transition to Cantonese was clear in the trailer, brothers game play 1974: "films dealing with young men with you in mind." This backwards step for the local audience for Hong Kong cinema paid off immediately. Game play initially made us $ 1.4 million in rental Hong Kong, becoming the highest grossing film at the time. The Hui movies also broke ground on satirising the modern reality of the rising middle class, whose long work hours and dreams of material success turn a colony into a modern industrial and corporate giant teo, 1997. Cantonese Comedy flourished and Cantonese production soared, the Mandarin hung in the early 1980-ies, but were relatively rare on the screen.


2.11. History. Golden Harvest and the growth of independents. (Золотой Урожай и рост индивидуалки)

In 1970, former Shaw brothers executives Raymond Chow and Leonard Ho left to form their own Studio, Golden Harvest. Upstarts more flexible and less tight-fisted approach to business got out of SCOs old Studio style. Chow and Ho landed contracts with rising young performers who had fresh ideas for the industry, like Bruce Lee and the Hui brothers, and allowed them more creative freedom than the traditional one. California-born, Bruce Lee only found minor roles in American films and television, first as foreign actors are often criticized and not widely recognized spectators during the 1970-ies in North America. Bruce expressed that true Asians are not shown, especially in Hollywood, and most of the audience still thinks Asian people stereotype, for example, with flat eyes, pigtails. In addition, supervisors typically to force him to do something just to be exotic. To The Golden Harvest Of The Big Boss.to.and. Fists of fury 1971, came into theaters. This jump-started Lis career in glory and made martial arts and kung fu a global trend.

In 1976, the brothers show committed real crimes film series criminal 1, took 838067 $box office performance, ranking at 33 in the 1976 Hong Kong movie. The Shaw brothers made the next episode of criminal 2 immediately after a decent run of previous films. Criminal 1 included three true stories: of human torsos, stuntmen and valleys hung, each story is directed. As the Valley hung describes a triple murder in Hong Kong, about the story of an unfaithful wife and having the shame of her husbands theater-style show brothers in the 1970-ies have loved adding a few Nude scenes in movies and Criminal of 1 will draw the audience in strange true stories show, sex and bloody scenes. But in addition, there are a lot of scenes showed a considerable life of Hong Kong people like playing Mahjong, gossiping loudly over the noise in the Mahjong and gambling.

By the end of 1970-ies, Golden harvest was the top Studio, signing up Jackie Chan, the kung fu Comedy actor-filmmaker who wanted to spend the next 20 years as the biggest Asian box office draw. Raymond Chow built on the success of the lees with the big boss.to.and. Fists of fury, 1971, Fist of fury.to.and. The Chinese connection, 1972 way of the Dragon.to.and. The return of the dragon 1972, each of which broke Hong Kong record window. Bruce Lee appeared with minor Hollywood actors in a larger budget, "enter the dragon" 1973, coproduction with Warner Bros lees death under mysterious circumstances made him a cult hero. Lee played a key role in opening foreign markets to Hong Kong films. Lees films enjoyed throughout the third world, often seen as a symbol of rebellious pride of insurgent Asia.

Meanwhile, the explosions of Cantonese and kung fu and the example of Golden harvest had created more space for independent producers and production companies. The era of the Studio giants of the past. In SCO, however, continued film production until 1985 before turning entirely to television teo, 1997.


2.12. History. Other transformative trends. (Другие преобразовательные тенденции)

The rapidly growing permissiveness in film content that was General in much of the world, but also affected the Hong Kong movie. A genre of softcore known as fengyue became a local staple, the name is an abbreviation of a Chinese phrase implying seductive decadence. Such material did not suffer as much stigma in Hong Kong as in most Western countries, it was more or less entered the mainstream, sometimes featuring contributions from major Directors such as Chor Yuen Lee Han Hsiang and often crossbreeding with other popular genres such as martial arts, the costume film and especially Comedy. The violence has also become more intense and graphic, particularly at the instigation of martial arts filmmakers.

Director lung Kong blended these trends into the social-issue dramas which he had already made his specialty with late 1960s Cantonese classics years as the story of a discharged prisoner 1967 and Teddy girls 1969. In the 1970s he began directing in Mandarin and brought exploitation elements to serious films about subjects like prostitution, call girls and Lina, atomic bomb Hiroshima 28 and the fragility of civilized society yesterday, today and tomorrow, 1970, which portrayed a plague-decimated, near-future Hong Kong) teo, 1997.

Short take-off Shuen Tang Shu, territorys first noted woman Director, produced two films, the arch 1968 and China in 1974, which were pioneers on a local, socially critical Art cinema. They are also considered harbingers of the last major milestone of the decade, the so-called Hong Kong New wave that come from outside the traditional Studio hierarchy and point to new opportunities for industry Bordwell, 2000.


2.13. History. 1980s – early 1990-ies: the boom years. (1980 – х-начале 1990-х годов: бум года)

In the 1980s and early 1990-ies, saw seeds planted in the 1970-ies has come to full flower: the triumph of Cantonese, the birth of a new and modern cinema, superpower status in the East Asian market, and turning the Wests attention to Hong Kong film.

Cinema great technical Polish and a more sophisticated visual style, including the first forays into actual special technology effects, jumped up quickly. To this surface dazzle the new cinema added an eclectic mix and match of genres and a penchant for pushing the boundaries of content sensationalism. Slapstick Comedy Sex the supernatural and above all action, like martial arts and cops-and-criminals varieties ruled, occasionally all in the same film.

One cult film during this period was the killer 1989 John Woo, who is the archetypal heroic bloodshed genre.


2.14. History. International market. (Международный рынок)

During this period, the industry of Hong Kong was one of the few in the world that thrives in the face of growing global dominance of Hollywood. Indeed, she had comparable dominance in their region of the world. The regional audience has always been vital, but now more than ever Hong Kong product filled theaters and video shelves in places like Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and South Korea. Taiwan has become an equally important market for the film in Hong Kong as local, in the early 1990-ies the once-robust Taiwanese film industry came close to extinction under the onslaught of imports to Hong Kong Bordwell, 2000. They even found a lesser foothold in Japan, with its highly developed and better-funded cinema and strong taste for American movies, Jackie Chan in particular became popular there.

Almost accidentally, Hong Kong and to get further West, based on the attention gained during the 1970s years, the kung fu craze. The presence in the Chinatown theatres and video shops allowed to be discovered by Western film cultists got their "exotic" properties and excesses. The widespread mass culture, and then gradually over the next years.


2.15. History. The leaders of the boom. (Лидеры бум)

The trailblazer was production company cinema city, founded in 1980 by comedians Karl Maka, Raymond Wong and Dean shek. He specializiruetsya in contemporary Comedy and action, smoothly produced by a specially established commercial formulas. Lavish, effects-filled spy spoof aces go 1982 and its many sequels embodies many imitated the style of "cinema city" Jan, 2003.

Directors and producers Tsui Hark and Wong Jing can be singled out as definitive figures of this era. Tsui was a notorious Hong Kong New wave Tyro, which means that the absorption of movements into the mainstream, which has become a major trendsetter in the industry and technical experimenter Yang et al. 1997, p. 75. Even more prolific Wong, in the opinion of the majority, one of the most commercially successful and critically reviled Hong Kong and the Director of the last two decades with his relentless output of aggressively crowd-pleasing and well-marketed pulp films.

Other hallmarks of this era included the gangster or "triad" video trend launched by Director John Woo, producer and long-time actor Alan Tang and dominated by actor Chow Yun-Fat, romantic melodramas and martial arts fantasies starring Brigitte Lin, comedies of stars like Cherie Chung and Stephen Chow, traditional kung fu movies dominated by jet Li, and contemporary, stunt-driven kung fu action embodied by the work of Jackie Chan.


2.16. History. Category III Films. (Категория III Фильмы)

The governments introduction of the rating system is the film in 1988 was certainly unintended effect on subsequent trends. In "category III" adult only clients has become an umbrella for the rapid growth of pornographic films and, as a rule, are extravagant, however, while the schedule is considered by Chinese standards, these films would be more on par with movies rated "R" or "NC-17" in the United States, not "XXX". In the midst of a boom in the early 1990-ies, about half of the theatre produced signs of category III-rated softcore descended from fengyue films of the 1970-ies. Jan, 2003 final example of a major category III was Michael Max sex and Zen 1991 a period Comedy inspired by the carnal prayer Mat, the seventeenth century classic of comic-erotic literature Li Yu Dannen and long, 1997. Naked killer 1992 has also become a international cult.

The rating also covered the trend of dark, taboo, adjustment, operation, and horror films, often supposedly based on real crime stories, the people behind the Sun 1988, Dr. lamb 1992, 1993 the Untold story and Ebola syndrome 1996. Films depicting triad rituals would also get a category III rating, an example of this would be crime story 1993 starring Jackie Chan.

Since the mid 1990-ies, the trend has withered with the decline in the total market of Hong Kong and the wider availability of pornography in home video formats Bordwell, 2000. But in the 2000s, three category III Movies: election, its sequel, election 2 and.to.and. Triad election and mad detective, all directed by Johnnie to, still use the amazing box office success in Hong Kong.


2.17. History. Alternative movie. (Альтернативное кино)

In this landscape of pulp, wood pulp, there remain some grounds for alternative cinema or art cinema, at least in part, the influence of the new wave. Some new wave filmmakers such as Ann Hui and Yim Ho continued to earn the recognition of the personal and political films made at the edges of the mainstream.

The second half of the 1980s years also saw the emergence of the so-called "second wave". These young Directors included names like Stanley Kwan, Clara law and her partner Eddie Fong, Mabel Cheung, Lawrence Ah mon, and Wong Kar-Wai. Like new Wavery, they, as a rule, were graduates of overseas film schools and local television apprenticeships, and to be interested in going beyond the usual issues, commercial subjects and styles.

These artists began to earn Hong Kong unprecedented attention and respect in international critical circles and the global film festival circuit. In particular, Wong Kar-TS works starring: Leslie Cheung, Tony Leung Chiu-Wai, Maggie Chung in the 1990s have made it world famous and award-winning Director.


2.18. History. Industry in crisis. (Отрасль в условиях кризиса)

In 1990-e years, the Hong Kong film industry underwent a drastic decline from which it has never recovered. Domestic ticket sales had already started to fall in the late 1980s, but the regional audience kept the industry booming into the early years of the next decade Theo, 1997. But by the mid 1990s, she went into freefall. The income was cut in half. At the end of the decade, the number of films produced per year has decreased since the early 1990-ies high of over 200 to somewhere around 100, most of that reduction was in the "category III" softcore pornography area. American blockbuster imports began to regularly top the box office for the first time in decades. Ironically, it was the same period during which Hong Kong cinema came into something like mainstream visibility in the United States and began exporting popular figures to Hollywood.

Numerous, converging factors is the reason for the decline:

  • Expensive the beginning of the boom of the 1990-ies in the building of modern multiplexes and the attendant rise in ticket prices teo, 1997.
  • All the more cosmopolitan, mobile Hong Kong middle class that often looks for local films as cheap and tawdry.
  • The Asian financial crisis, which dried up traditional sources of film Finance as well as regional audiences for tourists to spend money.
  • Rampant video piracy throughout East Asia.
  • A new aggressive push by Hollywood studios into the Asian market.
  • Overproduction, participation in quality control and an exhaustion of overused formulas, Jan, 2003.

Greater access to the mainland that came with the July 1997 transfer to China, was not so much a boon as hoped, and presented its own challenges, especially from the point of view of censorship.

The industry was one of the darkest years in 2003. In addition to the ongoing recession, the SARS virus outbreak kept many theaters virtually empty for a while and close the film production for four months, only fifty-four movies were made by Li, 2004. The senseless loss of two Kongs famous Hong Kong singer / actors, Leslie Cheung, 46, and Anita MUI, 40, rounded out the bad news.

The Hong Kong government in April 2003 introduced a guarantee Fund the film as an incentive to local banks to participate in the film industry. Guarantee works to provide a percentage of the money loaned by banks for the production of the movie. The Fund has received a mixed reception from industry participants, and less than enthusiastic reception from financial institutions who perceive investment in local films as high risk ventures with little collateral. Film guarantee legal documents commissioned by the government of Hong Kong in late April 2003 are based on canadian documents, which have limited relevance to local industry.


2.19. History. The latest trends. (Последние тенденции)

Efforts by local filmmakers to Polish their product have had mixed results overall. They include technically glossy visuals, including a lot of digital images, greater use of Hollywood-style mass marketing techniques and a strong dependence on the form of obtaining friendly Cantopop music star. Successful genre cycles in the late 1990s and early 2000-ies included: American style, high-tech imagery, such as downtown torpedoes 1997, gen-x cops and purple storm in 1999, "Triad kids" subgenre started young and dangerous 1996, yuppie-centric romantic comedies like the truth about Jane and Sam 1999, needing you. 2000, love on a diet 2001 and supernatural chillers like hotline horror: big-head monster 2001 and 2002 eyes, often modeled on the Japanese horror films then making an international splash.

In the 2000s, there were some bright spots. Image of the milky way, founded by filmmakers Johnnie to and Wai Ka-FAI in the mid-1990s, were critical and commercial success, especially unusual and the characters in crime films like the Mission 1999 and running on karma 2003. An even better example of the genre of the blockbuster infernal Affairs trilogy 2002-03 police thrillers one of the Directors Andrew Lau and Alan Mak Oscar-winning movie the Departed was based on this film. Comedian Stephen Chow, the most consistently popular movie of the 1990-ies, directed and starred in Shaolin soccer 2001 and kung fu hustle 2004 they used digital effects to push his distinctive humor into surreal new worlds and became the territorys two highest grossing films to date, having received many awards at local and international levels. Johnny GS two category III Movies: election and election 2 also enjoy Hong Kong and cash advances. Election 2 was released in the US film under the new title triad Election, this film received very positive reviews in the United States, with more than 90% "fresh" rating on rotten tomatoes. New LGBT films such as City without baseball 2008, permanent residence, amphetamine and 2009 followed the success of the previous 1990-ies of films such as Bugis street 1995 Hong Kong–Singapore joint production, and to hold you tight 1998.

However, some observers believe that, given the depressed state of the industry and the rapid strengthening of the economic and political ties between Hong Kong, mainland China and Taiwan, the distinctive entity of Hong Kong cinema that emerged after World War II, may have a limited lifespan. The lines between the mainland and Hong Kong industries become increasingly blurred, especially now that China is producing a growing number of slick, mass-appeal popular films. Predictions are notoriously difficult in this rapidly changing part of the world, but the trend may be towards a more pan-Chinese cinema as there was in the first half of the twentieth century.

  • Hong Kong action cinema is the principal source of the Hong Kong film industry s global fame. It combines elements from the action film, as codified by
  • The Hong Kong New Wave was a movement in Chinese - language cinema that emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The Hong Kong New Wave started in 1979
  • films of the 1980s Hong Kong films of the 1990s Hong Kong films of the 2000s Hong Kong films of the 2010s Cinema of Hong Kong List of films set in Hong Kong
  • list of current and former cinemas in Hong Kong Aside from operating its own brand as well as PALACE, Premiere Elements, MOViE MOViE and MY CINEMA brands
  • Brief History of Hong Kong Cinema PDF Chinese University of Hong Kong Ye, Tan Zhu, Yun 2012 Historical Dictionary of Chinese Cinema Rowman Littlefield
  • any movie that will be shown in Hong Kong cinemas At the beginning of the film industry in Hong Kong when the viewing of movies had no age restrictions
  • Book Universe in Italian Cinema Midnight Marquee Press. ISBN 978 - 1 - 936168 - 60 - 6. IMDB list of Hong Kong films Hong Kong films of 1974 at HKcinemamagic.com
  • artists. Cinema of Hong Kong Hong Kong Lesbian Gay Film Festival Literature of Hong Kong Music of Hong Kong Television in Hong Kong Sports in Hong Kong Football
  • The Hong Kong Film Awards HKFA Chinese: 香港電影金像獎 founded in 1982, is an annual film awards ceremony in Hong Kong The ceremonies are typically in April
  • Entertainment Expo Hong Kong is an event held by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council. The following are part of the Entertainment Expo HK: Hong Kong International
  • Hong Kong Arts Centre HKAC Chinese: 香港藝術中心 is a non - profit arts organization established in 1977. It promotes contemporary performing arts, visual
  • The culture of Hong Kong or Hongkongers culture, can best be described as a foundation that began with Lingnan s Cantonese culture which is distinct
  • Chinese: 專業精神獎 is a special Hong Kong Film Award presented to recipients who have contributed greatly to the Hong Kong cinema both behind or on camera.
  • The region of Hong Kong has been inhabited since the Old Stone Age, later becoming part of the Chinese empire with its loose incorporation into the Qin
  • of films produced in Hong Kong in the 1970s. List of Hong Kong films of 1970 List of Hong Kong films of 1971 List of Hong Kong films of 1972 List of Hong
  • of films produced in Hong Kong in the 1980s. List of Hong Kong films of 1980 List of Hong Kong films of 1981 List of Hong Kong films of 1982 List of Hong
  • A list of films produced in Hong Kong in 1963: . IMDB list of Hong Kong films Hong Kong films of 1963 at HKcinemamagic.com Hong Kong Filmography 1913 - 2006
  • of sovereignty over Hong Kong commonly known as the handover of Hong Kong or simply the Handover, also the Return in mainland China and Hong Kong
  • Sports in Hong Kong are a significant part of its culture. Due to British influence going as far back as the late 19th century, Hong Kong had an earlier
  • Palace Theatre Chinese: 碧麗宮 it was later remodeled to be Hong Kong s most luxurious cinema of the same name. The food and beverage corporation Maxim s
  • Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People s Republic of China is the representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
  • estate project in Hong Kong on the West Kowloon reclamation. Covering 13.54 hectares 33.5 acres the site has a gross floor area of 1, 090, 026 square
  • occupation of Hong Kong 香港日據時期 began when the Governor of Hong Kong Sir Mark Young, surrendered the British Crown colony of Hong Kong to the Empire of Japan
  • Hollywood Hong Kong 香港有個荷里活, Heung gong yau gok hor lei wood is a 2001 Hong Kong film directed by Fruit Chan, with screenplay written by Kei To Lam.
  • The Star of the Century Award was a special award presented at the 24th Hong Kong Film Awards in celebration of 100 years of Chinese cinema The award
  • Southeast Asian cuisines, due to Hong Kong s past as a British colony and a long history of being an international port of commerce. From the roadside stalls
  • Cheung in recognition of their contributions to Hong Kong cinema List of Awardees of The 23rd Hong Kong Film Awards Hong Kong Film Awards. Retrieved
  • the demographic features of the population of Hong Kong including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, religious affiliations
  • 1980s in Hong Kong marks a period when the territory was known for its wealth and trademark lifestyle. Hong Kong would be recognised internationally for
  • The Hong Kong International Film Festival HKIFF, Chinese: 香港國際電影節 is one of Asia s oldest international film festival. Founded in 1976, the festival

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Encyclopedic dictionary


Start reading Arresting Cinema Karen Fang.

28 Mar 2015 KEYWORDS: transnationalism, national cinema, regionalization, Japan. of the industries of Taiwan, Korea, Manchuria, China, Hong Kong. A Companion to Hong Kong Cinema CNCZ Best books online. - Chinese National Cinema, written for students by a leading scholar that covers the three Chinas: mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. The Between Transnational And The National Cinema Essay. Read an excerpt from Arresting Cinema Surveillance in Hong Kong Film has long explored the distinct linguistic and cultural attributes of national cinema,. Transregional Imagination in Hong Kong Cinema CiteSeerX. Only through a recognition of Hong Kong cinema s different example, of all national cinemas whose top ten films were surveyed in Variety, only in Hong Kong.

Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary Eric.

China on screen: Cinema and nation. C Berry Hong Kong University Press, 2010. 107, 2010. Postsocialist cinema in post Mao China: the cultural revolution after the Cultural Revolution Rethinking national cinema and national agency. The Chinese Cinema Book: Song Hwee Lim: British Film Institute. 3 Mar 2016 passes the films produced not only in mainland China, Hong Kong and ema, namely the Chinese national cinema model, the transnational. The Cinema of Small Nations Indiana University Press. Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the New Global Cinema. Spring 2016: of national and transnational inform and shape these two distinct yet interrelated films, we will. Journal of Chinese Cinemas Taylor & Francis Online. This introduction to Chinese national cinema covers three Chinas: mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Historical and comparative perspectives bring out.

Introduction jstor.

From National Cinemas to Cinema and the National: Rethinking the National in Between Shanghai and Hong Kong The Politics of Chinese Cinemas. Crofts 7 Types of National Cinema 1 Differ from Hollywood but do. Visit the National Museum of Cinema and ride the amazing panoramic elevator with National Cinema Museum & Mole Antonelliana 24 Hour City Sightseeing Hop on Hop off Bus Tour Lines A and B National. Hong Kong Dollar HKD. Asian Cinema Cumulative Index. It transcends the limitations of national borders to do justice to the diverse ways in which the cinema shapes Asia geographically and imaginatively. Chinese National Cinema by Yingjin Zhang PDF, EPUB, FB2, DjVu. 24 Jan 2011 study of the national cinema that has become an obsession of his. Hong Kong cinema, which has gone through many crucial industrial and. Chinese National Cinema on Apple Books. Google - wiki.info: A Companion to Hong Kong Cinema Wiley Blackwell Companions to National Cinemas 9781119066033 and a great selection of similar.

Chinese National Cinema.

Susan Haywards National Cinema analysis applied to Hong Kong filmmaker Wong Kar Wai. Skip The Line National Museum of Cinema, Panoramic Elevator. Discussion covers the concept of national cinema in the context of Hong Kongs status as a quasi nation with strong links to both the motherland China and. Dadi Cinema Acquires Orange Sky Golden Harvest to Improve its. 19 Mar 1992 In this country there is probably no important national cinema more Hong Kong cinema belongs to a young audience, and its creativity tends. 46 Hong Kong films have come to be global texts in a complex. Continuing value of a study of national cinema in a world marked by the were funded by foreign capital, primarily from Hong Kong and Taiwan p. 9. Hong Kong Cinema Coloniser, Motherland and Self by Yingchi Chu. Start studying Crofts 7 Types of National Cinema. Learn vocabulary, terms Found primarily in India, Hong Kong and other Asian countries. Cinemas which.

Chinese National Cinema by Yingjin Zhang Goodreads.

28 Nov 2018 The 42nd Hong Kong International Film Festival, Hong Kong, 19 March–5 April 2018 The End of National Cinema Filipino Film at the Turn of. HONG KONG NEW WAVE WUXIA PIAN FILMS Semantic Scholar. Is there a difference between national cinemas vs. transnational cinemas? Other in Hong Kong Post colonial Cinema Hong Kong has always remained a very. Chris Berry Google Scholar Citations. 3 Mar 2005 Globalisation replaces era of distinct national cinemas Italy, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, India, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and elsewhere.

Decolonial Moments in Hong Kong Cinema – Social Text.

10 Feb 2017 The course explores globalization through Hong Kong cinema featuring impact in transforming other national cinemas, including China and. Cold War Politics and Hong Kong Mandarin Cinema Oxford. This course comparatively examines the histories of cinemas in East Asia in the. Kwai cheung Lo, Transnationalization of the Local in Hong Kong Cinema of. Hong Kong airport cinema Hong Kong Forum TripAdvisor. This introduction to Chinese national cinema covers three Chinas: mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Historical and comparative perspectives bring out. History of the motion picture European cinema google - wiki.info. 21 Jan 2008 of Small Nations is the first major analysis of small national cinemas, Tunisia, Burkina Faso, Cuba, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and. FYSP 086 Contemporary East Asian Cinema Acalog ACMS™. 8 May 2011 At the turn of the century Taiwanese cinema had a moment, albeit a quiet national cinema, which has operated in the shadow of Hong Kong,. National cinema Free Essays google - wiki.info. 26 Feb 2019 Arthouse Cinemas in Hong Kong and international films as well as previews and live broadcasts of plays from the National Theatre, such as.

Hong Kong Cinema in a Border less world Jump Cut.

Chinese and Indian national cinemas, and reposition themselves as new cultural forces in the pantheon of world cinema. Seeing Hong Kong and. Bollywood as. National Cinema google - wiki.info. Through the refractive prism of Hollywood, Shanghai, and Hong Kong, Yiman Wang revolutionizes our understanding of Chinese cinema as national cinema. Cinema, Cold War, and Hong Kong Films Perspectives on History. 10 Oct 2019 Hong Kong is in some ways a national cinema without a nation, a transnational cinema that has functioned historically as an export industry. The Shanghai Factor in Hong Kong Cinema A Tale of Two Cities i. In this spirit, it analyzes how southern Chinese cinema huanandianying morphed into Hong Kong cinema through trans regional and trans national. Hong Kongs 6 Best Arthouse Cinemas Hive Life Magazine. Of nationhood. The idea of national cinema is at the heart of The category of national cinemas. that the films representation of Hong Kong is reconfigured.

Chinese cinema and transnational film studies film 6220: methods.

5 Sep 2017 By using Hong Kong cinema as an analytical lens, this paper seeks to throw light on the cinematic landscape of post 1997 Hong Kong and,. Now Playing! Hong Kong Cinema Brings Edgy Mainstream Fare to. The broader definition of Hong Kong cinema is recognized by only a select few. provided some of the most glorious roles for women of any national cinema,. Chinese National Cinema by Yingjin Zhang, 2004 Online Research. It is a rare case of a small national cinema where local productions outsell imports at the box office. Helping the financial situation is the fact that the Hong Kong.

Hong Kong Cinema Yingchi Chu 9780415546331.

Esther Yaus timely anthology of writings on recent Hong Kong cinema, At Full the spectrum of the field, Yaus text is a model for books on national cinema. Crofts 7 Types of National Cinema Flashcards Quizlet. SFFILMs annual survey of Asias erstwhile filmmaking capital provides a fascinating snapshot of a national cinema in flux. The Hong Kong industry. 15 Nov 2003 China syndrome in Hong Kong cinema but is also crucial to industry. gained the flexibility of crossing national and regional borders and the. Cinema Tickets Hong Kong Statista Market Forecast. Cultural context frames an understanding of US cinema as both national and transnational. Within the United States, Hollywood produces a national cinema. The Hong Kong Second Wave and their Fascination with the 1960s. New Hong Kong Cinema Transitions to Becoming Chinese in 21st Century East China has aggressively developed its national film industry and assumed the.

Transnational Chinese Cinemas University of Chicago Press.

Is the label national cinema still a useful one? In 1994, when the film released, Hong Kong is still the colony of Britain in Hong Kong you can people with. Action filled Hong Kong cinema has long history Emory University. Cinemas which ignore Hollywood Usually accomplished through strict import laws that limit Hollywood exposure. Found primarily in India, Hong Kong and. Table of Contents: The Chinese cinema book. National Cinema as Translocal Practice: Reflections on Chinese Film The Hong Kong Cantonese Cinema Emergence, Development and Decline S.Teo. The Translocalized McDull Series: National Identity and the Politics. 14 Aug 2009 Discussion covers the concept of national cinema in the context of Hong Kongs status as a quasi nation with strong links to both the. Enter the Conglomerates: Hong Kong Cinema Does the MR Online. They argue for the abandonment of national cinema as an analytic tool and With this approach, they show how movies from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and.

National transnational cinemas united states, india, hong kong.

Mid twentieth century Hong Kong entertainment business has attracted increasing attention from scholars in recent years because of its importance in the. Remaking Chinese Cinema Through the Prism of Shanghai, Hong. 1 Apr 2012 Cinema, Cold War, and Hong Kong Films the national language in 1912 is closest to the standard writing system that all educated people. New HKU MOOC: Hong Kong Cinema Through a Global Lens. Review of Chinese National Cinema by Yingjin Zhang in mainland National Cinema series, Yingjin Zhang is faced China, Hong Kong and Taiwan 11.

Remapping Contemporary Chinese Cinema Studies jstor.

Tions include Cinema and the National China on Screen with Mary Farquhar. Taiwan cinema, and Hong Kong cinema, as well as the Singaporean and. Bordwell Returns to Hong Kong The Current The Criterion. The cinema of Mainland China is one of three distinct historical threads of socialist core values, approved by the National Peoples Congress Standing Committee. Starting from 1951, pre 1949 Chinese films, Hollywood and Hong Kong. East Asian Cinemas Symposium UT College of Liberal Arts. 23 Oct 2019 Film Studies: National Cinemas Chinese cinema Hong Kong cinema from Oxford Bibliographies Online by Gina Marchetti, Derek Lam. Local and Global Identity: Whither Hong Kong Cinema? Senses of. The tensions existing between transnational and national cinema can be unders. The Construction of the Western Other in Hong Kong Post colonial Cinema. MODERN CHINESE CINEMA Duke Asian & Middle Eastern Studies. 17 Mar 2016 The section on Hong Kong and Cantonese cinema includes Li Minwei. 2003 Projecting a Nation: Chinese National Cinema Before 1949.

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