★ Cinema of Argentina
Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry in Argentina. The Argentine cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made in the country Argentina or by Argentine filmmakers abroad.
The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin America movie, along with those produced in Mexico and Brazil. Throughout the 20th century, film production in Argentina, with the support of the state and the work of a long list of Directors and actors, became one of the largest film industries in the Spanish-speaking world.
Argentina went on to win sixteen of Goya awards for best Spanish foreign language film, making it the most awarded country. She is also the first Latin American country that won the Oscar in recognition of the official version 1985 the secret in their eyes 2009.
1.1. History. Beginning. (Начало)
In 1896, French photographer Eugene PY was working for the Belgian Henri Lepage and the Austrian Max Glucksmann, Casa Lepage, in the photographic supplies business in Buenos Aires. The three all saw the debut of the Mama Lumiere in Argentina"with a picture lumière, took place on 18 July 1896" in the theater of the odéon, only a year after its debut in Paris.
Lepage then imported the first French cine in the country and though Eugenio PY who, using a Gaumont camera in 1897, is often credited with the first Argentine film, La Bandera Argentina, which consisted of Argentina flag waving in the wind at the Plaza de Mayo, the credit belongs to German-Brazilian Federico Figner, which is shown in the first three Argentine films on 24 November 1896 shorts depicting sights of Buenos Aires. Earning fame, ru continues to produce films for exhibition at the Casa Lepage for several years, and the journey del doctor Campos Salles in Buenos Aires in 1900, is the countrys first documentary, and La revista de La Escuadra Argentina 1901, by that time, the first projection halls were open, working within a cross-national film production, sale and display system developed by Glucksmann in Argentina, Uruguay and Chile.
1.2. History. Early developments. (Ранних разработок)
Several Argentine artists continued the pilot with a new invention, making news and documentary films. Eugenio A. Cardini filmed Escenas Callejeras 1901 and Mario Gallo made the first Argentine film with a point of view: El fusilamiento de Dorrego "implementation Dorregos," 1908. Other Directors such as Ernesto Gunche directed early documentaries.
Argentine history and literature provided the themes of the first years of filmmaking. One of the first successes of the national cinema was Nobleza Gaucha in 1915, inspired by martín Fierro, the Gaucho poem by josé hernández. Based on the novel by Jose Marmols, Amalia was the first feature film of domestic production, and in 1917 El Apostol, Mikhail Zadornov short of the President hipólito Yrigoyen, became the first animated feature film in world cinema. Another notable debut in 1917, Francisco Defilippis Novoas Flor de Durazno, was Carlos Gardel.
Directors such as josé A. Ferreyra began to work producing films in Argentine cinema, releasing films such as Palomas rubias in 1920, La Gauche 1921 and Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Ensueño in 1922. The films included La Maleva, corazón de criolla, Melenita de Oro, Leyenda Puente del Inca 1923, Odio Serrano, then duerme Buenos Aires, arriero de Yacanto 1924 and El Organito de La Tarde Mi Ultimo tango 1925.
In 1926, Ferreyra released La Vuelta al Bulin, La ke Costurerita dio aquel Mal Paso and Muchachita Chiclana de subsequent Perdon, viejita 1927. Many of these Ferreyra films featured two of the decades most popular stars, Alvaro Escobar and Elena Guido.
By the end of the decade, Directors such as Julio irigoyen began to produce films such as Alma bath foam in 1928. Films such as these began to show dancing the Argentine tango in the movies that rocketed later in the 1930s, years after the advent of sound.
1.3. History. The 1930-ies–1950-ies: the Golden age. (1930-х–1950-х годов: золотой век)List of Argentine films:1930s
In 1930, Adios Argentina was the first Argentine film is the soundtrack. The film starred Actresses such as Libertad Lamarque and Ada Cornaro who made her debut in the movie.
In 1931, josé A. directed seasons in Buenos Muñequitas Ferreira, the first Argentine film to be made with Vitaphone sound synchronisation. In that year, Ferreira made the second sound film, El Cantar de mi Ciudad, encouraging other Directors to make the transition to sound.
The sound came in 1933, and it allowed voice and music to the movies. The first two Argentine cinematographic studios were created: Argentina sono film was founded by angel Mentasti, Lumiton was created through a partnership led by Enrique, Suzini, who played an important role in the introduction of television to Argentina in 1951.
The first disc-less sound film, tango 1931, directed by Louis rose Barth and a key film of the period film tango dance, which saw the birth of a number of Argentine stars such as Amelia Bence and Tito Lusiardo, and other popular actors from that era included Aida Alberti, Armando Bo, Floren Delbene and Arturo Garcia are available. Two such features which have endured in local culture-honeysuckle, starring Libertad Lamarque and casamiento website EN Buenos Aires, starring Nini Marshall. Two 1939 films in selected topics that have become Argentine musical standards, and the perpetuation of the two leading ladies.
Other films included: El Alma del bandoneón, Mario Soffici, 1935, La muchacha de Bordeaux Manuel Romero, 1936, Ayudame a Vivir in 1936 Ferreira, besos brujos 1937 Ferreira, La Vuelta al Nido Leopoldo Torres ríos, 1938 and ASI es La Vida 1939, directed by Francisco Mugica.
Manuel Romero was a prominent Director in the mid-to-late 1930-ies and worked in Comedy films often rising Argentine star Luis Sandrini in films such as don Quijote del altillo.
The film industry in Argentina reached its climax in the late 1930s and 1940s, the years when on average forty-two films a year were produced. The films usually included tango, but even when a tango theme was omitted in the movie this period still included humble heroes and wealthy villains. In these films, it portrayed hard work and poverty as ennobling and depicted the poor as the main beneficiaries of Juan Perons economic policy. These films, in part supported by perón, were seen as a part of the political agenda of Peronism. To support the film industry that attacked greed and supported the working class, perón was able to influence the mood of their constituency to build public appeal.
The growing popularity of Cinema in the United States, pressure from the Roman Catholic Church and increasing censorship during the perón presidency of the society the growth of Argentine cinema somewhat, not least because harassment led to the exile of several well-known actors, among them Alberto de Mendoza, Arturo garcía has, Nini Marshall and Libertad Lamarque, whose rivalry with his colleague Eva Duarte turned against her when the latter became first lady in 1946. Argentine cinema began to lose audience as foreign titles got a big foothold in the Argentine market. The problem eventually became so bad that Argentina tried to curb the influx with the cinema law of 1957, establishing the "national Institute of cinematography" to provide education and funding.
Among the eras most successful films were: Historia de UNA Noche Luis Saslavsky, 1941, La Dama duende, Luis Saslavsky, 1945, Malambro Lucas desmarais and Hugo Fregonese, 1945, Albeniz Luis Cesar Amadori starring Pedro lópez Lagar 1947, Pelota de trapo 1948 and Sgmap de Oribe 1950, Leopoldo Torres ríos and Las Aguas Bajan turbias, Hugo del Carril, 1952. One of the few Argentine actors who made a successful transition into directing was Mario Soffici, who made his debut behind the camera in 1935 in recognition with El Alma del bandoneón and went on to become an institution in Argentine film of the next generation, among his most memorable works was the film version of Marco Denevis bestseller Mystery, Rosaura La Diez "Rosaura at ten oclock", for whose 1958 screen release Soffici wrote, directed and starred.
In 1958, the film thunder among the leaves directed by Armando Bo were released. The film featured the later sex-symbol Isabel Sarli in her first starring role, and was the beginning of her collaboration with her future husband Armando Bo, who for nearly three decades and has made many sexploitation movie. Now considered a classic, the scene in which she bathes in the lake, was the first to show full frontal nudity in Argentine cinema. The film was highly controversial box-office success, it was described as a "boom" and "scandalous" and shocked in the predominantly Catholic Argentine society. In November 1958, the news and courier reported saucy Latin lass has smashed South American box office records with the most daring dunking with Hedy Lamarr exposed to fame in ecstasy." The movie premieres in Montevideo, Uruguay broke box office records, and Sarlis scene in the bath "rocked some Latin American capitals". However, Sarli was defeated by fellow filmmakers for the Nude scene.
The horror genre, little studied Argentine filmmakers, was investigated by Argentine Director Narciso ibáñez Menta.
Television in the United States, began to put pressure on the movie market in the 1950-ies, on the air since the launch of channel 7 Public television 1951, Argentine television programming is the oldest in Latin America.
1.4. History. First "New Cinema". (Первое "Новое Кино")
Since the late 1950-ies adopted a new generation of filmmakers Argentine films to international film festivals. The first wave of such Directors was Leopoldo Torre Nilsson, who "explored aristocratic decadence", Fernando Ayala, David Jose Kohon, Simon Feldman and Fernando "Pino" Solanas, who began La Ora de Los Hornos "hour of the furnaces", 1966-68 first documentaries on the political unrest in the late 1960-ies of Argentina with great risk to themselves.
Directors such as Tulio Demicheli and Carlos Schlieper began to emerge who often wrote and directed them. A second generation that achieved a cinematographic style were josé martínez suárez, Manuel Antin, and Leonardo Favio.
1.5. History. The 1960s and 1970s. (В 1960-х и 1970-х)
Kurt Land directed El Asalto in 1960 starring Alberto de Mendoza, a crime drama Shot in black and white. Lautaro Murua, a Chilean actor working in Argentine cinema directed alias Gardelito in 1961. The film showed strong political and social background and on the difficulties of living an honest life in extreme poverty. The title of this story taken from the name of the great Argentine singer Carlos Gardel, the idol of the antihero Toribio depicts Alberto Argibay. Toribios goal in life is to imitate the famous singer and making his own way in the music business. But at the same time, he does not stop his illegal way to make ends meet, theft and petty theft. Films such as a Hierro case with Alberto de Mendoza and Olga Zubarry and Numero 703 in 1962, was often a joint production with Spain and often for the Argentine and Spanish born actors.
In 1963, the Comedy was in the Argentine cinema, and films such as alias Flequillo in 1963 directed by Julio Saraceni starred comedians such as josé Marron. Las Aventuras del Capitán Piluso EN El Castillo del terror starred comedians such as Alberto Olmedo who appeared in the genre during the 1960s and 1970s years, appearing in 1967s El Andador and other slap-stick comedies. Argentine film and TV was largely limited to light subjects in the perilous late 1970s years.
The tendency to believe the cinema is so evident in France in the early 1970-ies found an Argentine exponent in stage Director Sergio Renan. His 1974 crime drama La tregua, "the truce", his first foray into film, was nominated for "Oscar". In the same year, Osvaldo Bayer cooperated with the province of Santa Cruz, to make La Patagonia Rebelde, which, as a tribute to the brutally suppressed 1922 sheephands a shot.
Nostalgia was captured by Leopoldo Torre Nilsson, the processing of which the Argentine literary classics like the hand in the trap 1961, Martin Fierro 1968, seven lunatics 1973 and 1974 painted lips brought him a cult name itself. Similar in atmosphere, Jose Martinez Suarezs Moody Los Muchachos de antes no usaban arsenico "older men dont need arsenic", 1975 take your place for a murder worthy of Alfred Hitchcock. It was memorable as Mario last role Sofficis.
By the mid-late 1960-ies Directors such as Armando Bo produced sex comedies which shocked the audience as they were soft porn and displayed nudity and sex not seen in the industry before. This preference continued into the 1970s, with Jorge Porcels suggestive comedies.
"In the early 1970s, Argentina fell apart. Government repression was met by riots and terrorism. Solanas and Getino contributed to the shooting of two documentary interviews with the disgraced Peron. They also founded a magazine, cine y release. Getino directed El familiar in 1972, the allegorical function of fiction about the fate of Latin America. Other filmmakers continued to make movies Peronist, and ultra-left groups, such as arose cine de base". "In 1976, this period of militant documentary and cinematic innovation was violently interrupted by the murder / disappearance of three documentary filmmakers by the Argentine military: gleyzer, Pablo Szir and Enrique Juarez."
Heavily censored from 1975 until 1980, Argentine film-makers generally limited to light-hearted subjects. Among the productions during that era was Hector Olivares adaptation Roberto Cossas play, La Nona, the grandmother, 1979. The dark Comedy has become to the foreign debt interest payments that later saddled the Argentine economy. One Director who, even as a supporter of the military regime, delved into middle-class neuroses with frankness was Fernando Siro, an inventive film Director, seemingly insensitive to Many of his colleagues tribulations, many of whom were forced to leave during the dictatorship. Though his attitudes distanced him from his peers and public, his 1981 tragedy Venido a menos in the "old" continues to be influential.
1.6. History. The early 1980-ies. (В начале 1980-х годов)
After the easing of restrictions in 1980, muck-raking cinema began is evident on the Argentine screen. Plunging the head in such subjects as corruption and impunity are not directly accusing the powers that be, Adolfo Aristarains of Tiempo de revancha "time for revenge", 1981, Fernando Ayalas Plata Dulce "sweet money," 1982 and Eduardo Calcagnos profile Los enemigos "enemies" in 1983, hard looks at violations of labour rights, corporate corruption and the days the climate of fear, in a time when it was often dangerous. Petty corruption was also brought up in Fernando Ayalas El Arreglo "deal", 1983.
1.7. History. The post Junta cinema. (Пост Хунты кино)
A new era in Argentine cinema started after the arrival of democracy in 1983, except for a few memorable exceptions like Alejandro Dorias family Comedy Esperando offers in La carroza "waiting for the hearse", 1985, era has been a perceptible decline in the popularity of the eccentric comedies to films with more serious undertones and subject.
The first group deals frankly with the repression, torture and disappearances during the dirty war in the 1970s and early 1980s years. They include: Hector Olivares funny dirty little war 1983 and the true story night of the pencils 1986, Luis Puenzos the winner of the award "Oscar" the official story 1985, "Pino" Solanas 1985 and tango sur "South", 1987, Alejandro Dorias harrowing, Sofia 1987, among others.
Among the films dealing with past abuse, one German-Argentine production, also deserves mention is Jeanine Meerapfels friend 1988, where the Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann left beside locals Federico Luppi, CIPE in Lincovski, Victor Laplace and LITO Cruz.
The second group of films includes portraits of exile and homesickness, as Alberto Fischermanns Los Dias de Yunio "days in June", 1985, Juan Jose Jusids Made in Argentina 1986, as well as areas rich in implication, Miguel Pereiras Veronico 1988-Cruz, Gustavo Mosqueras Lo que vendra "near future," 1988 cult favorite, Martin Donovans English apartment zero 1988. Its a metaphor, lifes unpredictability and hints at wider socio-political issues in order to reconcile the public with the latest developments.
This can also be said about the treatment of controversial literature and painful 19th century history like Maria Luisa Bembergs Camila 1984, Carlos Sorins King and his movie 1985 Eliseo Subielas man in the South-East in 1986.
1.8. History. 1990-ies. (1990-х годов)
The 1990s brought another new Argentine cinema wave, marked by classical cinema and a twist from independent Argentine production.
In 1991, Marco Bechis Alambrado "chicken wire" has been released. In the same year, the activist Director Fernando "Pino" Solanas released his third major film, the Journey, 1992, a surreal overview of prevailing social conditions in Latin America. Existential anxiety continued to dominate in the Argentine agenda of the film, however, with Eliseo Subielas El Lado Oscuro del Corazon "Dark side of the heart", 1992, Adolfo Aristarains place in the world 1992 – notable for the fact that he was nominated for an Oscar.
Later in the 1990s years, the emphasis began to shift to the Argentina side of the escalation of social problems, such as rising homelessness and crime. Alejandro agrestis Buenos Aires Vice versa 1996 rescued the beauty of feelings in the shadows of poverty in Buenos Aires and Bruno Stagnaros pizza, beer and cigarettes 1997 looked into the human duality of even the most incorrigible and violent individuals.
Having intensive past and a rich cultural heritage to attract, filmmakers continued to turn with Moody period pieces like Eduardo Mignognas flop 1990, Maria Luisa Bembergs de ESO no se Habla, Santiago oats execution of Rodolfo Walshs Agatha Christie-esque tale of a Antonio distance learning "killing at a distance" in 1998, as well as bio-pics like Leonardo Favios raging bull -La Gathic, El mono 1993 and Javier Torres Lola Mora 1996.
Political history was re-examined with films like Eduardo Calcagnos controversial take on the 1970-ies-era Argentine film Censor Paulino Tato plays of the Argentines most prolific character actor, Ulises Dumont in El Censor 1995, Juan J. Jusids indictment of the old compulsory military training system, Bajo Bandera "at half mast," 1997 Marco Bechiss garage Olimpo, 1999, which claimed the audience in one of the most brutal dictatorships in torture dungeons and Juan Carlos Desanzos answer to Madonnas Evita, his 1996 Eva perón is much more complicated portrait of the first lady than Andrew Lloyd Webber took.
Popular culture was its turn on the Argentine screen. Alejandro Dorias CIEN veces no Debo "I dont owe you forever" in 1990 an irreverent look at a typical middle-class home in Argentina, Jose Santisos de mi Barrio con Amor "from my neighborhood, with love," 1996-this is for those who are planning to visit Buenos Aires Czech Southside and Rodolfo Paglieres El Dia que Maradona conocio is Gardel "the next day Maradona met with Gardeley," 1996, an inventive ode to the two standards of Argentine culture.
1.9. History. 2000s
Films such as Fabian Bielinskys Twister nine Queens 2000, his Gothic El aura 2005 and Juan josé Campanellas teary son of the bride 2001 received praise and awards around the world. Juan Carlos Desanzo cast Miguel angel Sola, best known for his role in tango, like the Immortal by Jorge Luis Borges in El Amor y El Espanto "love and feeling", 2001, take a look at writers struggling with the Peron-era intimidation, as well as with his own insecurities.
Always politically active, the Argentine film continues to treat hard subjects, such as Spanish Director Manane Rodriguezs to see the abducted children, 2001, and "Pino" Solanas, perhaps the final film on the 2001 economic crisis, Memorias del saqueo "memories of revolt", 2004. Tristan Bauer took audiences back to soldiers of the inhuman experience of the Falklands war blessed by fire 2005 and adrián Caetano follows four football players on their 1977 escape from certain death in the chronicle of an escape 2006.
Lucrecia Martels 2001 debut feature film La ciénaga "swamp", about the condescending bourgeois family to spend the summer in a decrepit house to stay in Salta, at the international level was highly appreciated after you leave and presented a new and vital voice in Argentine cinema. Film scholar David Oubiña, he is "one of the highest achievements of the" new Argentine cinema, by the way dedicated the Argentine political and economic crisis, which "is a rare expression of an extremely troubled moment in the countries recent history. Its a masterpiece in a single maturity." Martels subsequent films will receive further international recognition, such as the teen drama the Holy girl 2004 psychological Thriller the headless Woman 2008, and the period of adaptation drama Zama 2017.
Answering his sentimental audience, the Argentine film again returns to the theme of the heart. David Lipszycs grainy portrait of the great depression, Argentina, El astillero, "shipyard", in 2000, was a hit with critics, Paula Hernandezs touching ode to immigrants, the legacy of 2001, became something of a sleeper, Adolfo Aristarains common places 2002 follows an elderly Professor Emeritus, Cleopatra 2003, Eduardo Mignonas the story of a friendship between two dissimilar people, received numerous awards, as did Carlos Sorins touching El Perro "dog", 2004. Emotional negativity, a staple for filmmakers anywhere, was explored in Mario Sabatos India Pravile 2003, Francisco DIntinos La Esperanza 2005 and Ariel rotten El otro "the other" 2007 anyone considering a mid-life crisis in very different ways. Pronounced sentiment of the average Argentine was also the subject of Robert Duvalls 2002 assassination tango, a deceptively simple crime drama, which shows that still waters do run deep.
Battered by years of economic malaise and encroachment of the domestic film market by foreign, mainly us titles, the Argentine film industry was supported in 1987 established the national Institute of cinema and Audioviual arts INCAA, a publicly subsidized film underwriter that, since 1987, has produced 130 full-length art house titles.
The decade ended on a high with the 2009 film the Secret in their eyes received praise from critics, winning an Oscar for Best foreign language film in the 82nd Oscar, three weeks after he received the Goya award for best Spanish foreign language film of 2009.
1.10. History. 2010 years. (2010 года)
In 2014, the anthology film Wild tales Relatos Salvajes in Spanish Director: Damian Szifron was nominated for "best foreign film" at the 87th awards "Oscar" and received the Goya award for best Ibero-American film.
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