★ Windsor Castle
Windsor castle is a Royal residence at Windsor in the English County of Berkshire. It is famous for its long Association with the English and later British Royal family and for its architecture.
The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror. From the time of Henry I, it was used by the ruling monarch and is the longest-occupied Palace in Europe. Castles generous early 19th-century state apartments were described in the early 20th century, the art historian Hugh Roberts as "a magnificent and unrivalled sequence of rooms widely regarded as the best and most complete expression of later Georgian taste". Inside the castle walls, the 15th century St. Georges chapel, which, according to historian John Martin Robinson to be "one of the Supreme achievements of English perpendicular Gothic" design.
Originally designed to protect Norman dominance around the outskirts of London and to control the strategically important parts of the river Thames, Windsor castle was built as a Motte-and-Bailey, with three wards surrounding a Central hill. Gradually replaced with stone fortifications, the castle withstood a prolonged siege during the First barons war in the early 13th century. Henry III built a luxurious Royal Palace in the castle in the Middle of the century, and Edward III went further, rebuilding the Palace to make a bigger set of buildings in what would become "the most expensive secular building project of the entire middle Ages in England". Edwards basic design continued in the Tudor period, during which Henry VIII and Elizabeth I actively used the castle as a Royal court and Centre for diplomatic entertainment.
Windsor castle survived the tumultuous period of the English Civil war, when it was used as a military headquarters for parliamentary forces and a prison for Charles I. During the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II rebuilt much of Windsor castle with the help of architect Hugh may to create extravagant, Baroque interiors that are still admired. After a period of neglect in the 18th century, George III and George IV renovated and Charles IIS Palace at a huge cost, producing the current design of the apartment is executed in style of Rococo, Gothic and Baroque style. Queen Victoria made a few minor changes to the castle, which became the centre for Royal entertainment for much of his reign. Windsor castle was used as refuge of the Royal family during the campaign the Luftwaffe bombing of the Second World War and survived a fire in 1992. It is a popular tourist attraction, for state visits, and selected weekend home of Queen Elizabeth II.
1. Architecture. (Архитектура)
Windsor castle covers an area of 13 acres 5.3 acres and combines the features of fortress walls, Palace and small city. Today the castle was created in the sequence of phased construction, culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992. It is, in fact, Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure, with Gothic features reinvented in a modern style. Dating from the 14th century, architecture at the castle has attempted to produce a contemporary reinterpretation of old trends and traditions, repeatedly imitating outmoded or even antiquated styles. As a result, architect sir William Whitfield has pointed to Windsor castles architecture as "a certain fictive quality", the picturesque and Gothic design generating "a sense that the play is put on here", despite late 20th century efforts to expose more of the old structure to enhance the feeling of authenticity. Although there was some criticism, architecture, castles and history lends it a "place amongst the greatest European palaces".
1.1. Architecture. The Average Ward. (Средняя Уорд)
In the area of Windsor castle is the middle ward, Bailey formed around the Motte or artificial hill in the centre of the parish. On the mote is 50 ft 15 m and is made of chalk, primarily produced from the surrounding ditch. Keep, called the Round tower, on top of the ILO based on the original building of the 12th century, extended upwards in the early 19th century by the architect Jeffrey Wyatville by 30 ft 9 m for more imposing height and silhouette. The interior of the Round tower was further redesigned in 1991-3 to provide additional space for the Royal archives, an additional room being built in the space left by Wyatvilles originally hollow extension. The round tower is in reality far from cylindrical, due to the shape and structure of the ILO under it. The current height of the tower was criticized as being disproportionate to its width, archaeologist Tim Tatton-brown, for example, described it as a mutilation at an early medieval structure.
The Western entrance to the middle ward is now open, and the gate leads North from the parish on the North terrace. The Eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the Norman gatehouse. This Gatehouse, which, despite its name, dates from the 14th century, is heavily vaulted, decorated with carvings, including surviving medieval lion masks, traditional symbols of Majesty, to form an impressive entrance to the upper house. Wyatville redesigned the exterior gate and the interior was later heavily converted in the 19th century for residential use.
1.2. Architecture. The Upper House. (Верхняя Палата)
In the upper ward of Windsor castle comprises of a number of large buildings bounded the top of the Bailey wall forming a Central quadrangle. The state apartments run along the North of the parish, with several buildings along the East wall, and the private Royal apartments and the king George IV gate to the South, with the Edward III tower in the South-Western corner. On the mote, and round shape tower, on the Western edge of the ward. A bronze statue of Charles II on horseback sits beneath the round tower. Inspired by Hubert Le Sueurs statue of Charles I in London, the statue was cast in his Image in 1679, with the marble plinth with carvings by Grinling Gibbons. In the upper ward adjoins the North terrace, which offers views of the river and East terrace, which overlooks the garden, both of the current terraces were built by Hugh may in the 17th century.
Traditionally the upper house were rated as "for all intents and purposes the creation of the nineteenth century. image of what in the early nineteenth century thought a castle should be", as a result of extensive modernization of the castle by Wyatville under George IV. The walls of the upper chamber are built of Bagshot Heath lined inside of regular bricks, the Gothic details in yellow bath stone. Buildings in the upper ward are characterised by the use of small bits of flint in the mortar for galletting, originally in the castle in the 17th century to give stonework from different periods a similar appearance. The silhouette of the upper house is designed to be dramatic when seen from the distance or looming on the horizon, the image of tall towers and battlements influenced by the picturesque movement of the late 18th century. Archaeological and restoration work after a fire in 1992 showed how the current structure represents a survival of elements from the original 12th-century stone walls and then presented in the context of Wyatvilles final reconstruction.
1.3. Architecture. The Condition Of The Apartment. (Состояние Квартиры)
The condition of the apartment make up a large part of the upper ward and lie along the North side of the quadrangle. Modern building corresponds to the medieval foundations laid by Edward III, with the ground floor comprising service chambers and cellars, and the much grander first floor forming the main part of the Palace. On the first floor, the layout of the Western part of the apartments is primarily the work of architect Hugh may, whereas on the Eastern side is Geoffrey Wyatvilles plans.
The interior was mainly designed by Wyatville in the early 19th century. Wyatville intended each room to illustrate a particular architectural style and to display the matching furnishings and fine arts of this period. With some modifications, for many years, this concept continues to dominate the apartments. Different rooms follow the classical, Gothic and Rococo, together with an element of Jacobethan in places. Many of the rooms in the Eastern part of the castle was restored in 1992 after the fire, using "equivalent restoration" methods – the rooms were restored to look in its original form, but using modern materials and concealing modern structural improvements. These rooms were also partially redesigned at the same time to more closely match modern tastes. Art historian Hugh Roberts has praised the state apartments as "a magnificent and unrivalled sequence of rooms widely regarded as the best and most complete expression of later Georgian taste". Others, such as architect Robin Nicolson and critic Hugh pearman, have described them as "soft" and "distinctly dull".
Wyatvilles most famous work are those rooms designed in Rococo style. These rooms take the fluid, playful aspects of this mid-18th-century artistic movement, including many original works in the style of Louis XV, but to project them on "significantly inflated" scale. Studies after a fire in 1992 showed that many Rococo features of the modern castle, originally thought to have been 18th-century fittings transferred from Carlton house or France, in fact the 19th century, imitation stucco and wood, in harmony with the original features. Large reception hall, is the most famous of these designs in the Rococo style, 100 feet 30 metres in length and 40 feet 12 meters in height and takes the place of Edward the great hall of the data Center. This room, restored after the fire, includes a huge French Rococo ceiling, characterised by Ian constantinides, the lead restorer, as possessing a "coarseness of form and crudeness of hand. completely overshadowed by the purely spectacular effect when you are at a distance." The room is a set of restored Gobelins French tapestries. Although decorated with less gold leaf than in the 1820-ies, the result remains "one of the greatest set-pieces of Regency decoration". White, Green and Crimson drawing rooms include a total of 62 trophies: carved, gilded wooden panels illustrating weapons and the spoils of war, many Masonic meanings. Restored or replaced after the fire, these trophies are famous for their "vitality, precision and three-dimensional quality", and were originally brought from Carlton house in 1826, some of them originally imported from France and others carved by Edward Wyatt. The soft furnishings of these rooms, although luxurious, are more modest than the 1820s originals, both on the basis of modern taste and cost.
Wyatvilles design retains three rooms, built possibly in the 17th century, in collaboration with the painter Antonio Verrio and Carver Grinling Gibbons. The presence of the camera Queens kings room and dining room decorated in a Baroque, Franco-Italian style, characterized by "gilded interiors enriched with florid murals", first was introduced in England between 1648 and 1650 at Wilton house. Verrios paintings are "drenched in Medievalist allusion" and classical images. These rooms were intended to show an innovative English "Baroque fusion" of the hitherto separate arts of architecture, painting and carving.
Several rooms in the modern state apartments reflect either 18th-century or Victorian Gothic. The state dining room, for example, the current design originates from the 1850s years, but which was badly damaged during the 1992 fire, is restored to its appearance in the 1920s, to cancel out some of the gilded features on the pilasters. Anthony Salvins Grand staircase is also of mid-Victorian design in the Gothic style, rising to double-height hall, lit older 18th-century Gothic vaulted lantern tower called the big vestibule, designed by James Wyatt and executed by Francis Bernasconi. The staircase has been criticised by historian John Robinson as distinctly inferior to the earlier staircases built on the same site as Wyatt can.
Some parts of the state apartments were completely destroyed in the 1992 fire and this area was rebuilt in the style called "Downesian Gothic", named after the architect, Giles Downes. The style incorporates "a rather stripped, cool and systematic coherence of modernism sewn into a reinterpretation of the Gothic tradition." Downes argues that the style avoids "florid decoration", emphasising an organic, flowing Gothic structure. Were built or remodelled by Downes at Windsor three new rooms. Downs new hammer-beam roof of St Georges Hall is the largest green-oak structure built since the Middle ages, and coloured shields celebrating the heraldic element of the Order of the Garter, the design tries to create the illusion of additional height through the Gothic woodwork along the ceiling. In the lobby with skylight flowing oak columns forming a vaulted ceiling, imitating the water-Lily. The new chapel is relatively small, only able to fit thirty believers, but combines architectural elements of Saint-Georges-hall roof with the lantern lobby and the stepped arch structure of the Henry VIII vault of the chapel at HAMPTON Court. As a result of "extraordinary, continuous and closely moulded net tracery", complementing the new stained glass Windows in memory of the fire, designed by Joseph Nuttgen. Large kitchen, with its newly exposed 14th-century roof lantern sitting next Wyatvilles fireplaces, chimneys and Gothic tables, is also a product of the reconstruction after the fire.
On the first floor of the state apartments retains various famous medieval features. In the 14th century great undercroft still survives, some 193 feet 59 feet in length and 31 ft 9.4 m in width, divided into 13 compartments. At the time of the 1992 fire, the undercroft had been divided into small rooms, now opened to form a single space in an attempt to repeat the undercrofts at fountains and Rievaulx Abbeys, although the floor remains artificially raised for convenience of use. "A beautiful vaulted" 14th-century Larderie passage runs alongside the kitchen courtyard and is decorated with carved Royal roses, marking its construction by Edward III.
1.4. Architecture. The Lower House. (Нижняя Палата)
The lower ward lies below and to the West of the Round tower, through the gate Norman. Originally largely of medieval design, most of the lower house was renovated or reconstructed in the mid-Victorian era, Anthony Salvin and Edward Blore, to form a "constantly Gothic composition." The lower ward holds St. George Church and most of the buildings associated with the order of the Garter.
On the North side of the lower ward is St Georges chapel. This huge building is the spiritual home of the Knights of the garter and dates from the late 15th and early 16th century, designed in the perpendicular Gothic style. Decorative wooden choir of the 15th century, was restored and extended by Henry Emlyn at the end of the 18th century and is decorated with a unique set of brass plates showing the arms of the knights of the garter over the last six centuries. On the West side, the chapel of Grand Victorian door and staircase, used on ceremonial occasions. Facing East, the stained glass in the Victorian style, window, balcony on the North side it was built for Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon. Storage in front of the altar lie the remains of Henry VIII, Jane Seymour and Charles I, with Edward IV buried nearby. The chapel is historian John Robinson to be "one of the Supreme achievements of English perpendicular Gothic" design.
In the Eastern part of St. Georges chapel Lady chapel built by Henry III in the 13th century and converted into the albert memorial Church between 1863 and 1873 by George Gilbert Scott. Built in memory of Prince albert, the ornate chapel features lavish decoration and works in marble, glass mosaic and bronze by Henri de Triqueti, Susan Durant, Alfred Gilbert and Antonio Salviati. The East door of the chapel, covered with ironwork, is the original door from 1246.
In the Western part of the lower house is the monastery of the horseshoe, built in 1480 near the chapel to house its clergy. It houses the vicars-choral, or lay clerks of the chapel. This circle of bricks and scaffolding, as they say, was designed to resemble the shape of a hoof, one of the badges used by Edward IV. George Gilbert Scott heavily restored the building in 1871 and little of the original structure remains. Other ranges originally built for Edward III sit alongside the horseshoe, featuring stone perpendicular tracery. As of 2011, they are used as offices, libraries, and houses for the Dean and canons.
Behind the monastery of the horseshoe curfew tower, one of the oldest surviving parts of the lower ward and Dating from the 13th century. The interior of the tower contains a former dungeon, and the remnants of a Sally port, a secret exit for passengers during the siege. On the top floor of the castle bells placed there in 1478, and the castle clock of 1689 p. the French-style conical roof is a 19th-century attempts by Anthony Salvin for the reconstruction of the tower in the fashion of eugène violle-Le-Duc Carcassonne vacation.
On the opposite side of the chapel a number of buildings, including housing the military knights, and the residence of the Governor of the military knights. These buildings originate from the 16th century and is still used knights, which are of the Order of the Garter each Sunday. On the South side of the parish of king Henry VIIIs gateway, which bears the coat of arms of Catherine of Aragon and forms the secondary entrance to the castle.
1.5. Architecture. And landscape. (И пейзаж)
Position Windsor locks on a steep slope, the land has meant that the castles gardens are limited in scale. The castle gardens stretch East from the upper chamber opposite the 19th-century tanning. Windsor castle is surrounded by a large Park. The immediate area stretching to the East of the castle is a creation of the 19th century, known as the Home Park. The Park includes a Park and two working farms along with many estate cottages mainly occupied by employees and the Frogmore estate. Long walk, a double Avenue of trees, runs for 2.65 miles 4.26 km South from the castle, and is 240 feet wide by 75 meters. The original 17th-century elms were replaced with alternating chestnut and plane trees. The influence of Dutch elm disease led to large-scale replanting after 1945.
Adjoining the Park is the Northern edge of the more extensive Windsor great Park, occupying approximately 5.000 acres 2.020 hectares, including some of the oldest deciduous forests in Europe. In the home Park, to the North of the castle, stands a private school, Saint Georges, which provides choristers to the chapel. Eton College is located about half a mile from the castle, across the river, reflecting the fact that he was a Royal Foundation of Henry VI.
2.1. History. 11th and 12th centuries. (11 и 12 вв)
Windsor castle was built by William the Conqueror in the decade after the Norman conquest of 1066. William established a defensive ring of Motte and Bailey castles in London, one was days in March – about 20 miles 32 km away from the city and from the next castle, allowing for easy reinforcements in a crisis. Windsor castle, one of this ring of fortifications, was strategically important because of its proximity to the river Thames, a key medieval route into London, and Windsor forest, a Royal hunting preserve previously used by the Saxon kings. Nearby settlements Clivore, or Clewer, was an old Saxon residence. The initial wooden castle consisted of a keep on top of the artificial mote or mound, protected by a small Bailey wall, occupying a chalk ledge or bluff, rising 100 feet 30 meter above the river. A second wooden Bailey was constructed to the East of the keep, forming the later upper ward. The end of the century, another Bailey had been constructed to the West, creating the basic shape of the modern castle. In design, Windsor most closely resembled Arundel castle, another powerful early Norman fortification, but the double Bailey design was also found at Rockingham and Alnwick castle.
Windsor was not initially used as a Royal residence. Early Norman kings preferred to use the former Palace of Edward the Confessor in the village of Old Windsor. The first king to use Windsor castle as a residence was Henry I, who celebrated the Holy Trinity in the castle in 1110 during the period of increased vulnerability. Held Henrys marriage to Adela, daughter of Godfrey of Louvain, in the castle in 1121. During this period, to keep suffered a substantial collapse – archaeological evidence shows that the South side of the Motte subsided more than 6 feet 2 m. the timber Piles were driven to support the Motte and the old wooden tower was replaced with a new stone shell, possibly with a gate on the North-East and a new stone well. A chemise, or low protective wall, was subsequently added to save.
Henry II ascended the throne in 1154 and actively build in Windsor between 1165 and 1179. Henry replaced the wooden palisade around the upper ward with a stone wall interspersed with square towers and built the first kings goal. The first stone keep was suffering from subsidence, and cracks begin to appear in the masonry of the South side. Henry replaced the keep with another stone shell and chemise wall, but the wall from the edge of the Motte to relieve the pressure on the Mound, and added massive foundations along the South side to provide additional support. Inside the castle Henry reconstructed Royal apartments. Bagshot Heath stone was used for most work, and stone from Bedfordshire for the internal works.
2.2. History. The 13th century. (13-го века)
King John did some construction work at Windsor, but primarily to housing, not the defense. The fortress played a role during the revolt of the English barons: the castle was besieged in 1214, and John used the castle as his base during the negotiations before the signing of the Magna Carta in the nearby Runnymede in 1215. In 1216 the castle was again besieged by baronial and French troops under the command of the count of Nevers, but Johns constable, Engelard de Trotter, successfully defended it.
The damage done to the castle during the second siege was immediately restored in 1216 and 1221 Trotter on behalf of Johns successor Henry III, who further strengthened the defences. In the lower house was rebuilt in stone, complete with a checkpoint in the place of the future Henry VIII gate, between 1224 and 1230. Were built three new towers, the curfew, garter and Salisbury towers. The middle ward was heavily reinforced with a southern stone wall, protected by the New Edward III and Henry III towers at each end.
Windsor castle was one of the Henrys three favourite residences and he invested heavily in the Royal accommodation, spending more money at Windsor than in any other of its properties. After his marriage to Eleanor of Provence, Henry built a luxurious Palace in 1240-63 based on the court along the North side of the upper chamber. It was intended primarily for the Queen and children Henry. In the lower house, the king ordered to build a number of buildings for their own use along the South wall, including a 70 feet 21 m long chapel, later called the Lady chapel. It was the grandest of the numerous chapels built for his own use, and comparable to the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris in size and quality. Henry repaired the Great hall that lay along the North side of the lower house, and expanded it with a new kitchen and built a covered walkway between the hall and kitchen. Henrys work was characterised by the religious overtones of the rich decorations, which formed "one of the high-water marks of English medieval art". The conversion cost more than £10.000. The result has created a division in the castle between a more private upper chamber and lower chamber, on the public face of the monarchy. Little further building was carried out in the castle during the 13th century, the Great hall in the lower house was destroyed by fire in 1296, but was rebuilt.
2.3. History. The 14th century. (14-го века)
Edward III born at Windsor castle and used it extensively throughout his reign. In 1344 the king announced the Foundation of a new order "round table" in the castle. Edward started to build a new building in the castle to host this order, but it was never finished. Chroniclers described it as a round building, 200 feet 61 meters in diameter, and it was probably in the center of the upper chamber. Shortly afterwards, Edward abandoned the new order for reasons that remain unclear, and instead established the Order of the Garter, again with Windsor castle as its headquarters, complete with the attendant poor knights of Windsor. As part of this process Edward decided that the newly rebuilt Windsor castle, in particular Henry Palace data centers, in an attempt to build a castle, a symbol of Royal power and chivalry. Edward was influence as the military successes of his grandfather, Edward I, and the decline of Royal power under the leadership of his father, Edward II, and aimed at creating innovative, "consciously aesthetic, muscled, martial architecture".
Edward placed William Wickham in General on the reconstruction and design of new castle and whilst work was ongoing Edward stayed in temporary accommodation in the Round tower. Between 1350 and 1377 Edward spent £51.000 for the repair of Windsor castle, it was the biggest amount spent by an English medieval monarch on a single building operation, and in half Edwards a typical annual income of £30.000. Some of the costs of the castle was paid for redemption after Edwards victory in the battles of crécy, Calais and Poitiers. Windsor castle was already a substantial building before Edward began expanding it, to make investments all the more impressive, and the amount of the costs that have been poured out on the rich furnishings. The castle was "the most expensive secular building project of the entire middle Ages in England".
Edwards new Palace consisted of three courts along the North side of the upper chamber, called the small monastery, the abode of kings and the kitchen court. In front of the Palace lay the St Georges hall range, which combined a new hall and a new chapel. This range had two symmetrical gate Spicerie gatehouse and the kitchen hut. Spicerie gatehouse was the main entrance to the Palace, whilst the kitchen gatehouse simply led into the Kitchen courtyard. In the Great hall had many large Windows facing the parish. The range had an unusual, unified roof-line and roof are higher than in the rest of the Palace, could be very peculiar. Tower of roses intended for the private use of kings, went to the Western corner of the range. The result was "a large and apparently single architectural Palace. uniform in all sorts of ways to roof line, window heights, cornice line, floor and ceiling heights". With the exception of the hall, chapel and Great chamber, the new interiors are similar height and width. The defensive features, however, were primarily for show, possibly to provide a backdrop for the fights between the two halves of the Garter.
Edward because of further luxurious, self-sufficient hotels to the court around the East and South region in the upper house, creating a modern form of quadrilateral. Norman gate was built to protect the Western entrance to the ward. In the lower house, the chapel was enlarged and remodelled with Grand buildings for the canons built alongside. Kettlebell the earliest mechanical clock in England was installed by Edward III in the Round tower in 1354. William Wickham continued to build new College, Oxford and Winchester College, where the influence of Windsor castle can easily be seen.
The new castle was used to hold French prisoners taken in the battle of Poitiers in 1357, including king John II, who was held for a considerable ransom. Later in the century, the castle also performs with Richard II. Richard carried out restoration work at St Georges chapel, the works of Geoffrey Chaucer, who served as a diplomat and clerk of the kings works.
2.4. History. 15th century. (15-го века)
Windsor castle still prefer monarchs in the 15th century, despite England beginning to slip into increasing political violence. Henry IV seized the castle during the coup in 1399, although not able to catch Richard II, who fled to London. Under Henry V, the castle was taken by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1417, a massive diplomatic event that stretched the accommodation of the castle to its limits.
By the mid-15th century England was increasingly divided between the rival Royal factions of the lancastrians and the Yorkists. Castles such as Windsor did not play a decisive role in the war of the Roses 1455-85, which were conducted mostly in the form of fierce battles between warring factions. Henry VI was born at Windsor castle and known as Henry of Windsor, became king at the age of nine months. His long minority, combined with tensions rising between supporters of the Lancastrian Henry and the Yorkists, distracted attention from Windsor. Holidays of the garter and other celebrations in the castle became more rare and less present.
Edward IV seized power in 1461. When Edward captured Henrys wife, Margaret of Anjou, she was brought back to the castle. Edward began to revive the Order of the Garter, and held a particularly lavish feast in 1472. Edward began the construction of the present St. Georges chapel in 1475, resulting in the removal of a few old buildings in the lower house. To buy a house in the big chapel of Edward tries to show that his new dynasty were the permanent rulers of England, and may also have been attempts to deliberately rival the similar chapel that Henry VI had ordered to be constructed at nearby Eton College. Richard III made only a brief use of Windsor castle before his defeat in the battle of Bosworth field in 1485, but the body of Henry VI moved from Chertsey Abbey in Surrey to the castle to allow it to be more easily visited by pilgrims.
Henry VII made more use of Windsor. In 1488, shortly after succeeding to the throne, he held a massive feast for the Order of the Garter at the castle. He completed the roof of St Georges chapel, and proceeded to translate the old Eastern Lady chapel into a proposed Shrine in honor of Henry VI, whose canonisation was then considered imminent. In the event, Henry VI was not canonised and the project was abandoned, although the Church still attracts pilgrims. Henry VII seems to have been converted kings chamber in the Palace, on the roof of the great kitchen rebuilt in 1489. He also built a three-storey tower at the Western end of the Palace, which he used for his personal apartments. Windsor began to be used for international diplomatic events, including the Grand visit of Philip I of Castile in 1506. William de La Paul, one of the surviving Yorkist claimants to the throne, was imprisoned at Windsor castle during the reign of Henry, before his execution in 1513.
2.5. History. 16th century. (16 века)
Henry VIII enjoyed Windsor castle, as a young man "exercise daily in shooting, singing, dancing, wrestling, casting the bar, playing on recording the flute, begins, in the creation of songs and ballads." Traditions of the holidays of the garter was maintained and became more extravagant, the size of the Royal retinue areas of the city had to limit because of the increasing numbers. During the pilgrimage of grace, a huge uprising in the North of England against the rule of Henry in 1536, the king used Windsor as a secure base in the South from the control of its military response. During the Tudor period, Windsor was also used as a safe retreat in case of disaster occurring in London.
Henry rebuilt the principal castle gateway in about 1510 and constructed a tennis court at the base of the Motte in the upper ward. He also built a long terrace, called the North Wharf, along the outer wall of the upper chamber, built of wood, it was designed to provide a perfect view of the river Thames below. The design included an outside staircase into the apartments of the kings, which made the monarchs a more comfortable life at the expense of a significant weakening of the protection of locks. In the beginning of his reign, Henry had given the Eastern Lady chapel to cardinal Wolsey for the future of the Wolseys of the mausoleum. Benedetto Grazzini converted much of this in the Italian Renaissance style, before Wolseys from power marked the end of the project, with contemporaries estimating that around £60.000 £295 million In 2008 time was spent on the job. Henry continued the project, but it remained unfinished when he himself was buried in the chapel, in the development of the funeral in 1547.
In contrast, the young Edward VI disliked Windsor castle. Edwards Protestant beliefs led him to simplify the garter ceremonies, to discontinue the annual feast of the Garter at Windsor and to remove any signs of Catholic practices with the order. During the rebellions and political strife of 1549, Windsor was again used as a refuge for the king and the Duke of Somerset. Edward famously commented to stay at Windsor castle during this period that "Methink I am in prison, here are no galleries nor gardens to walk." Under both Edward and his sister, Mary, that some construction work continued at the castle, in many cases using resources recovered from the English abbeys. Water enters the upper chamber to create a fountain. Mary also expanded the buildings used by the knights of Windsor in the lower ward, using stone from reading Abbey.
Elizabeth I spent most of my time at Windsor castle and used it a safe haven during crises, "knowing it could stand a siege if need be". Ten new brass cannons were purchased for the defense of castles. He became one of her favorite places and she spent more money on real estate than on any of her other palaces. She conducted some modest building works at Windsor, including a wide range of repairs to existing structures. She moved North Wharf into a permanent, huge stone terrace with statues, carvings and an octagonal, furniture for Banquet, raising the Western end of the terrace to provide more privacy. The chapel was converted into tents, gallery and a new ceiling. A bridge was built over the moat to the South of the castle to enable easier access to the Park. Elizabeth reason, a number of gallery buildings on the West end in the upper house, next to Henry Viis tower. Elizabeth increasingly used the castle for diplomatic contacts, but space continued to prove a challenge as the hotel was just not as big as the more modern Royal palaces. This flow of foreign tourists were seized in Queens entertainment in William Shakespeares play, Windsor scoffer.
2.6. History. The 17th century. (17 века)
James I used Windsor castle primarily as a base for hunting, one of his favorite activities, and to communicate with their friends. Many of these cases there was extensive drinking sessions, including one with Christian IV of Denmark in 1606 that became infamous across Europe as a result of drunken behaviour of the two kings. The lack of space in Windsor remains problematic, with James English and Scottish retinues often quarrelling over rooms.
Charles I was a connoisseur of art, and pay more attention to the aesthetic aspects of Windsor castle than his predecessors. Charles castle completely surveyed with the participation of Inigo Jones in 1629, but little of the recommended work was undertaken. Nonetheless, Charles employed Nicholas stone to improve the chapel gallery in the Mannerist style and to construct a gateway in the North terrace. Christian van Vianen, a famous Dutch goldsmith, was employed to produce a Baroque gold for St Georges chapel altar. In the last years of peace, Charles demolished the fountain in the upper ward, intending to replace it with a classical statue.
In 1642 broke the English Civil war, dividing the country into the royalist supporters of Charles, and the parliamentarians. After the battle of Edgehill in October, Parliament became concerned that Charles might advance on London. John Venn took control of Windsor castle with twelve companies of infantry, to protect the route along the Thames river, becoming the Governor of the castle for the duration of the war. The Contents Of SV. Georges chapel was valuable and, according to many parliamentary forces, inappropriately high Church in style. Looting began immediately: Edward IVS, decorated with precious stones, chain mail was stolen bodies chapels, Windows and books destroyed Lady chapel was emptied of valuables, including the component parts of Henry VIIIs unfinished grave. By the end of the war, some 3580 OZ 101 kg of gold and silver plate had been looted.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the famous General of the royalist attempted to relieve Windsor castle that November. A small detachment of ruperts cavalry managed to take the city of Windsor, but was never able to overcome the walls at Windsor castle – at the time, Rupert was forced to retreat. During the winter of 1642-3, Windsor castle was converted into the headquarters for the Earl of Essex, a senior parliamentary General. The horseshoe cloister was taken as a prison for captured royalists, and the resident canons were expelled from the castle. The lady chapel was converted into a magazine. Muggings on the underpaid garrison continued to be a problem, 500 Royal deer were killed across the Windsor Great Park in the winter, and fences were burned as firewood.
In 1647 Charles, then a prisoner of Parliament, was brought to the castle for a period under arrest, before being moved to HAMPTON Court. In 1648 was a royalist plan, never was enacted, to seize Windsor castle. The parliamentary army Council moved in November in Windsor and decided to try Charles for treason. Charles was again held at Windsor over the last three weeks of his reign, after his execution in January 1649, his body was taken back to Windsor that night through a snowstorm to be buried without ceremony in the dungeon, Saint Georges Church.
The restoration of the monarchy in 1660 saw the first period of significant change to Windsor castle for many years. Civil war and the years of the interregnum had caused extensive damage to the Royal palaces in England. At the same time the shifting "functional requirements, patterns of movement, modes of transport, aesthetic taste and level of comfort" amongst Royal circles was changing the qualities of the professional in a successful Palace. Windsor was the only Royal Palace to be successfully fully modernised Charles II in the restoration years.
In the interregnum, however, squatters had occupied Windsor castle. As a result, "the Royal house was a wreck, the fanatic, the pilferer, and someone, having been at work. The poor had squatted in many of the towers and cabinets". Shortly after returning to England, Charles appointed Prince Rupert, one of his few surviving close relatives, to be constable of Windsor castle in 1668. Rupert immediately began to reorder the defense of the locks, repairing the Round tower and reconstructing the real tennis court. Charles attempted to restock Windsor great Park with deer brought from Germany, but the herds never recovered their pre-war sizes. Rupert created apartments for himself in the Round tower, decorated with a "huge" quantity of arms and armour, with his inner chambers "hung with carpets, curious and effeminate pictures".
Charles was heavily influenced by the style of Louis XIV and imitated the French design at his Palace at Winchester and the Royal hospital Chelsea. At Windsor, Charles created "the most extravagant interior in the Baroque style ever executed in England". Most of the construction work was paid for out of increased Royal revenues from Ireland in 1670-ies. French court etiquette at the time required a substantial number of enfiladed rooms to satisfy court Protocol, the demand for space forced the architect Hugh may to deploy on the North terrace, rebuilding and expanding it in the process. This new building was called the Star building, because Charles II placed a huge gilt garter star on his side. Can demolished and rebuilt the walls of the hall data Center Edward and chapel, including the large Windows but retaining the height and dimensions of the medieval building. Although Windsor castle was now big enough to hold the entire court, it was not built with chambers, the Council of kings, as if to Whitehall. Instead Charles took advantage of good road links emerging around Windsor to hold his Council meetings at HAMPTON Court when he was in the castle. The result was a "model" for Royal buildings for the next twenty-five years. As a result of Maces work showed a Medievalist leaning, although sometimes criticised for its "dullness", of Mays reconstruction was both sympathetic to the existing castle and a deliberate attempt to create a slightly austere 17th-century version of "Neo-Norman" castle.
William III commissioned Nicholas Stellenbosch and sir Christopher Wren to conduct a large, final classical correction of the upper house, but the kings of early death caused the plan to be cancelled. Queen Anne loved the castle, and tried to solve the absence of formal garden, instructing Henry wise to begin work on the Maestricht garden beneath the North terrace, which was never completed. Anne also created the Racecourse at Ascot and began the tradition of the annual Royal Ascot procession from the castle.
2.7. History. 18th century. (18 века)
George I took little interest in Windsor castle, preferring his other palaces at St Jamess, HAMPTON Court and Kensington. George II rarely used Windsor either, preferring HAMPTON Court. Many of the apartments in the upper ward were given out as "grace and favor" the right to use the known widows or other friends of the crown. The Duke of Cumberland made the most use the property in its role as a Ranger at Windsor great Park. In 1740-ies, Windsor castle became one of the first tourist centers of the wealthy visitors who could afford to pay the castle Keeper could enter, see curiosities such as the castle narwhal horn, and in the 1750s buy the first guidebooks to Windsor, produced by George Bickham in 1753 and Joseph pote in 1755, the year. The state apartments continued to deteriorate, even the General public had the opportunity to regularly visit the site.
George III reversed this trend when he came to the throne in 1760. George disliked HAMPTON Court, and was attracted by the Park at Windsor castle. George wanted to move into the house of the Rangers of the castle, but his brother, Henry was already living in it and refuses to move out. Instead, George was forced to move into the upper Lodge, later called the Queens house, and began the long process of renovating the castle and surrounding parks. Initially the atmosphere at the castle remained very informal, with local children playing games inside the upper and lower chambers, and the Royal family frequently seen as they walked around the neighborhood. Over time, however, access for visitors became more limited.
Georges architectural taste shifted over the years. As a young man, he favoured Classical, in particular Palladian styles, but the king came to favour a more Gothic style, and as a consequence of the Palladian style becoming overloaded and poorly implemented, but because the Gothic forms came to be seen as more honest, national style of English design in the light of the French revolution. Working with the architect James Wyatt, George attempted to "transform the exterior of the building in the upper ward in a Gothic Palace, while retaining the character of the Hugh may state rooms". The outside of the building was restyled with Gothic features, including new battlements and turrets. Inside, conservation work was carried out, and several new rooms constructed, including a new Gothic staircase to replace Mays 17th-century version, complete with the Grand vestibule ceiling above it. New paintings were purchased for the castle, and collections from other Royal palaces moved there king. The cost of the work amounted to more than £150.000 £100 million in 2008 terms. King did a great job in a large Park, the locks, and, laying out the new Norfolk and Flemish farms, creating two dairies and restoring the Virginia lake water, and her grotto and follies.
At the end of this period Windsor castle became a place of Royal birth. In 1788 the king first became ill during a dinner at Windsor castle, diagnosed as suffering from madness, he was removed for a period in the White house, Kew, where he temporarily recovered. After relapses in 1801 and 1804, his condition became enduring from 1810 and he was in the state apartments at Windsor castle, with building work on the Castle ceasing the following year.
2.8. History. 19th century. (19 века)
George IV came to the throne in 1820 intending to create a complex of Royal palaces that reflected his wealth and influence as the ruler of an increasingly powerful Britain. Georges previous houses, Carlton house and Brighton pavilion were too small for the great judgment, even after expensive extensions. George expanded the Royal cottage in the castle Park whilst he was Prince Regent, and then began the implementation of the programme of work on modernization of the castle as soon as he became king.
George persuaded Parliament to vote him £300.000 for restoration £245 million In 2008 terms. Under the leadership of Georges Advisor, Charles long, the architect Jeffrey Wyatville was selected, and work commenced in 1824. Wyatvilles own preference ran to Gothic architecture, but George, which led to the restoration of the French Rococo style to England at Carlton house, preferred a blend of periods and styles, and applied this taste to Windsor. The terraces were closed to visitors for greater privacy and the exterior surface of the upper ward was entirely rebuilt in its present form. The round tower was raised in height to create a more dramatic look, many of the rooms in the state apartments were rebuilt or renovated, there were many new towers, much higher than in older versions. The South range of the ward was rebuilt to provide private home for the king, away from the state rooms. Statue of Charles II was moved from the center of the upper chamber to the base of the Motte. Sir Walter Scott captured contemporary views when he noted that the work showed "a great taste and a sense of Gothic," many modern commentators, including Prince Charles, criticized Wyatvilles work as an act of vandalism Mays earlier models. The work was completed at the time of George IVS death in 1830, but was on the whole completed Wyatvilles death in 1840. The total expenditure on the castle rose to the colossal sum of over one million pounds £817 million In 2008 terms at the end of the project.
Queen Victoria and Prince albert made Windsor castle their principal Royal residence, despite Victoria complaining early in her reign that the castle was "dull and tiresome" and "prison", and preferring Osborne and Balmoral as a summer house. The growth of the British Empire and Victorias close dynastic ties to Europe made Windsor the hub for many diplomatic and state visits, assisted by the new Railways and steamships of the period. Indeed, it has been argued that Windsor reached its social peak during the Victorian era, seeing the introduction of invitations to numerous prominent figures to "dine and sleep" at the castle. Victoria took a keen interest in the details of how Windsor castle was run, including the minutiae of social events. A few visitors found these occasions comfortable, both due to the design of the castle and the excessive Royal formality. Prince albert died in the Blue room at Windsor castle in 1861 and was buried in the Royal Mausoleum built at nearby Frogmore, in home Park. The princes room was preserved exactly as they were at the time of his death and Victoria kept the castle in mourning for many years, becoming known as the "widow of Windsor", a phrase performed in the famous poem by Rudyard Kipling. The Queen shunned the use of Buckingham Palace after the death of Alberts and instead used Windsor castle as a residence when conducting official business near London. By the end of her reign plays, operas and other entertainments slowly began again held at the castle, accommodating both the Queens desire for entertainment and her reluctance to be in public.
A few minor changes were made to the upper house of Victoria. Anthony Salvin rebuilt Wyatvilles the Grand staircase, with Edward Blore construction of a new private chapel within the state apartments. Salvin also rebuilt the state dining room following a serious fire in 1853. Ludwig Gruner assisted in registration of Queens private room in the South range. Blore and Salvin also did extensive work in the lower house, under the leadership of Prince albert, including the hundred steps leading down into Windsor town, rebuilding the garter, curfew and Salisbury towers, the houses of the Military knights and creating a new guardhouse. George Gilbert Scott rebuilt the Horseshoe monastery in 1870. Norman gatehouse was turned into a private dwelling for sir Henry Ponsonby. Windsor castle is not used by many minor improvements of the era, however, as Victoria disliked the light, preferring candles; electric light appeared only in limited parts of the castle at the end of her reign. Indeed, the castle was famously cold and draughty in Victorias reign, but it was connected to a nearby reservoir, with water reliably piped into the cabin for the first time.
Many of the changes under Victoria were to the surrounding parklands and buildings. The Royal dairy at Frogmore was rebuilt in a Tudorbethan style in 1853 George DPCs dairy rebuilt in a Renaissance style in 1859, the Georgian Flemish farm rebuilt, and the Norfolk farm renovated. The long road planted with fresh trees to replace the diseased stock. In Windsor castle and town approaches act, passed by Parliament in 1848, permitted the closing and re-orientation of the old roads which previously ran through the Park from Windsor to Datchet and old Windsor. These changes allowed the Royal family to undertake the enclosure of a large area of parkland to form the private "home Park" with no public roads passing through it. The Queen granted additional rights for public access for the remainder of the Park under this agreement.
2.9. History. 20th century. (20-го века)
Edward VII came to the throne in 1901 and immediately began modernising Windsor castle with "enthusiasm and interest". Many of the rooms in the upper ward lay de-cluttered and updated for the first time in many years, with Edward peering into cabinets, sweeping the boxes, clearing rooms formerly used by the Prince consort and not touched since the day of his death, giving a case-relics and ornaments to a special room in the Round tower. destroying statues and busts of John brown. throwing hundreds sucks old color photos. rearranging pictures". Electric lighting was added to more rooms, as well as Central heating, telephone lines were installed, along with garages for the newly invented automobiles. The marathon was run from Windsor castle to the Olympic games in 1908 and in 1911 the Pioneering Aviator Thomas sopvich the plane landed in the castle for the first time.
George V continued a process of gradual modernisation, assisted by his wife, Mary of Teck, who is interested in furniture and decoration. Mary sought out and re-acquired items of furniture that have been lost or sold from the castle, including many dispersed by Edward VII, and also acquired many new works of art for decoration of reception rooms. Queen Mary was also a lover of all things miniature, and a famous dolls house was created for her at Windsor castle, designed by architect Edwin Licensor and furnished by leading craftsmen and designers of the 1930-ies. George V was committed to maintaining a high standard of court life at Windsor castle, adopting the motto that everything was to be "the best". Was a large staff is still kept in the castle, around 660 servants working in the property during the period. Meanwhile, during the First world war anti-German sentiment of the members of the Royal family to change their dynastic name from the German house of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, George decided to take a new name from the castle and the Royal family became the house of Windsor in 1917.
Edward VIII spend most of his reign at Windsor castle. He continued to spend most of his time at Fort Belvedere in the great Park, where he had lived whilst Prince of Wales. Edward created the castle on the lawn Kuznetsov, currently used as a Golf course, small airfield. Edwards reign was short and he was saying about his abdication of the British Empire from the castle in December 1936, adopting the title of Duke of Windsor. His successor, George VI also preferred his own original home, the Royal Lodge in the great Park, but moved into Windsor castle with his wife Elizabeth. As king, George revived the annual garter service at Windsor, drawing on the accounts of the 17th-century ceremonies recorded by Elias Ashmole, but moving to Ascot week in June.
On the outbreak of the Second world war in 1939 the castle was prepared for the military environment. Many of the staff from Buckingham Palace were moved to Windsor for safety, tightened security, and the Windows were darkened. There was significant concern that the castle might be damaged or destroyed during the war, more important works of art were removed from the castle for safekeeping, the valuable chandeliers were lowered to the floor in case of bomb damage and a sequence of paintings by John Piper were commissioned 1942-4 to record the castles appearance. The king and Queen and their children princesses Elizabeth and Margaret lived for safety in the castle, with the roof above their rooms specially strengthened in case of attack. The king and Queen rode day in London, returning to Windsor to sleep, although at the time it was a well kept secret, as for propaganda and morale purposes it was reported that the king still lives in Buckingham Palace. The castle was also used as storage, for example, only purified heavy water at that time was rescued from France before the face of imminent French defeat in 1940, and most of it was sent to the castle to store in the basement along with the Royal regalia. After the war the king revived the "dine and sleep" events at Windsor, following comments that the castle had become "almost like a vast, empty Museum", however, it took many years to restore Windsor castle to its pre-war condition.
In February 1952, Elizabeth II ascended the throne and decided to make Windsor her principal weekend retreat. Private apartments which had not been properly occupied since the times of Queen Mary were renovated and further modernized, and the Queen, Prince Philip and their two children settled. By the early 1990s, however, there was a marked deterioration in the quality of the upper chamber, in particular the condition of the apartment. Generation repair and replacement has led to a "decrease in wealth, with which they were initially ready, the gradual depletion of the primordial vibration effect, as each change repeated a more faded version of the last." The program of repair works on replacement of heating system and wiring in the upper ward began in 1988. Work is also being done in support of the Motte of the Round tower after fresh subsidence was detected in 1988, threatening the collapse of the towers.
2.10. History. Fire 1992. (Огонь 1992)
On 20 November 1992, a major fire occurred at Windsor castle, lasting for 15 hours and causing widespread damage to the upper house. The chapel in the northeast corner of the state apartments being renovated under a long-term programme of work in the castle, and it is believed that one of the spotlights being used in the work set fire to the curtain on the altar during the morning. The fire spread quickly and destroyed nine of the principal state rooms, and severely damaged over 100 people. Fire-fighters applied water to contain the blaze, whilst castle staff attempted to rescue the precious artworks from the castle. Many of the rooms closest to the fire were devastated, as part of the renovations and this contributed to the successful evacuation of most of the collection.
The fire spread through the roof voids and continued through the night to contain the flames, at great risk to the 200 fire involved. It was not until the end of the day that the fire started under control, although the fire continued during the night before being officially declared over the next morning. Together with fire and smoke damage, one of the unintended consequences of the fires was significant water damage to the castle, more than 1.5 million gallons of water was used to extinguish it, which in many ways caused more complex restoration problems than the fire.
There were two major issues for Windsor castle after the fire. The first was a political debate in the UK about who should pay for the repairs. Traditionally, as the property of the crown, Windsor castle was maintained, and if necessary repaired, to by the British government in exchange for the income from the property of the crown. In addition, like other occupied Royal palaces, she was not insured on the basis of the economy. During a fire, however, the British press has spoken out strongly in favor of the Queen are obliged to pay for the repairs from her private income. A solution was found in which the restoration work will be paid for by opening Buckingham Palace to the public at certain times of the year, and by introducing new charges for public access to the parkland surrounding Windsor. The second main question is about how to fix the lock. Some have even suggested that the damaged rooms should be restored in their original form, while others felt that the repair of the castle so to include modern designs. This decision was taken largely follow before the fire architecture with some changes to reflect modern tastes and cost, but there are new questions over whether the restoration should be held as "authentic" or "equivalent" restoration standards. Modern methods were used at Windsor to reproduce the equivalent pre-fire appearance, partially due to the cost. The recovery program was completed in 1997 for a total amount of £ 37 million £67 million in 2015 terms.
2.11. History. 21st century. (21-го века)
Windsor castle, part of the occupied Royal palaces estate is the property of Queen Elizabeth II in right of the crown, and the day-to-day management of the Royal family. From the point of view of population, Windsor castle is the largest inhabited castle in the world and the longest occupied Palace in Europe, but it also remains a functioning Royal home. As of 2006, about 500 people lived and worked in the castle. The Queen has increasingly used the castle as a Royal Palace as well as weekend home and it is now as often used for state banquets and official entertaining as Buckingham Palace. In recent years, Windsor castle was visited by President Mbeki of South Africa, king Abdullah II of Jordan and presidents Obama and trump the USA. The castle remains an important ceremonial location. The Waterloo ceremony is carried out in the presence of the Queen each year, and the annual ceremony of the Garter held in St Georges chapel. While the Queen is in residence, the ceremony of mounting the guard occurs daily. The Royal Ascot procession leaves the castle each year during the annual meeting.
Queens of ownership much has been done, not only to restore and maintain the structure of the building, but also to turn it into a major British tourist attraction, containing a significant part of the Royal collection of works of art, which is managed from Windsor. Archaeological work continued at the castle, based on the Societys research in the 1970-ies, the work on the round tower from 1988 to 1992 and research after a fire in 1992. In 2007 993.000 tourists visited the castle. This was to be achieved in coordination with the security issues and the role of castles as a working Royal Palace. In late 2011, two large water turbines were installed at the entrance to the castle on the river Thames to provide hydroelectric power to the castle and the surrounding area. In April 2016, it was announced that the Royal collection trust to Fund the project 27 million pounds, which will allow you to restore the original entrance hall of the castle for visitors and a new café which will be located in the 14th century crypt. The project is scheduled for completion in late 2018 and will include a visitor center and specialized training center.
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