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★ Castle

A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle ages, mainly of the nobility or the Royal family and military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a Lord or noble. This is distinct from a Palace, which is not fortified, from a fortress, which was not always a residence for the Royal family or the nobility, and from a fortified settlement, which was a public defence – though there are many similarities between these types of construction. The use of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill FORTS and country houses. Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built they took on many forms with different features, although some, such as curtain wall, arrowslits, and he listed were common.

European style castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes. These nobles built castles to control the area immediately around them and the castles were both offensive and defensive structures, they serve as the starting point of the raids could be launched as well as protection from enemies. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as centres of administration and symbols of power. Urban locks are used to control the local population and important travel routes, and rural castles are often situated near features that were integral to life in society, such as factories, fertile land, or water source.

Many Northern European castles were built of earth and timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits and relying on a Central keep. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, formed a scientific approach to castle defence. This has led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking fire. Many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time, to maximize the firepower of the fortress. These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, and inspiration from earlier defences such as Roman FORTS. Not all the elements of castle architecture were military, so devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power. Some Grand castles had long winding approaches intended to impress and dominate their landscape.

Although gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the 14th century, it does not significantly affect castle building until the 15th century, when artillery became powerful enough to break through stone walls. And the locks continue to be well-built in the 16th century, a new technology to fight with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live. As a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery FORTS with no role in civil administration, and country houses that were indefensible. Since the beginning of the 18th century was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of mock castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture, but they had no military purpose.


1.1. Definition. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word castle comes from a Latin word that it was a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". Old English castle, the old French castle, or Chastel, French château, Spanish Castillo, Castelo, Portuguese, Italian castle, and the number of words in other languages are also he. The word castle was presented in English shortly before the Norman conquest to denote this type of building, which was then new to England.


1.2. Definition. Characterization. (Характеристика)

In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a private fortified residence". This contrasts with earlier fortifications, such as Anglo-Saxon Burg and walled cities such as Constantinople and Antioch in the middle East, the castles were not communal defences, but was built and belonged to the local feudal lords, either for themselves for their monarch. Feudalism was the link between a Lord and his vassal where, in return for military service and expectation of faithfulness, the Lord would grant the vassal land. In the late 20th century, the tendency to the refinement of the definition of the castle, including the criteria of feudal ownership, thus tying castles to the medieval period, however, is not necessarily an indication of the terminology used in the medieval period. During the first crusade 1096-1099, the Frankish army encountered the walls of the settlements and FORTS that they indiscriminately referred to as castles, but which will not be considered as such under the modern definition.

Castles were used for various purposes, the most important of which were military, administrative, and domestic. As well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which can be used as a base of operations in enemy territory. Castles were created by the Norman invaders of England for both defensive purposes and to pacify the countrys inhabitants. As William the Conqueror through England, he fortified key positions to protect the Land he took. Between 1066 and 1087 he established 36 castles such as Warwick castle, which he used to protect against rebellion in the English Midlands.

By the end of the middle Ages, castles, tend to lose their combat significance with the advent of powerful cannons and permanent artillery fortifications, as a result, castles became more important apartments, and the application of power. The lock can act as a fortress and prison, but also was a place where a knight or Lord could entertain his peers. Over time the aesthetics of the design became more important as appearance and size began to reflect the prestige and power of his master. Comfortable homes are often formed in their walls. Although castles still provided protection from low levels of violence in later periods, eventually they came country houses as high status residences.


1.3. Definition. Terminology. (Терминология)

The castle is sometimes used as a comprehensive term for all kinds of fortifications and, consequently, was wrong in a technical sense. An example of this is the first castle which, despite the name, the iron age hill Fort, which had a very different origin and destination.

Although "castle" has not become a generic term for a manor house Chateau French for castle in Germany, many estates contain "castle" in their name, with few if any architectural features, usually their owners liked to maintain a link with the past and felt the term "castle" was a masculine expression of their power. In scholarship the castle, as defined above, is generally accepted as a coherent concept, originating in Europe and later spread to countries in the Middle East, where they appeared in the European crusaders. It is a consistent group shares a common origin, are treated with a special mode of warfare, and exchanged influences.

In various parts of the world, analogous structures shared features of fortification and other defining characteristics associated with the concept of the castle, though they originated in different periods and circumstances and experienced different events and influences. For example Shiro in Japan, described as castles by historian Stephen Turnbull, underwent "a completely different history of development, was built in a completely different way and were designed to withstand attacks of a completely different nature." While European castles built in the late 12th and early 13th century were mostly stone, Shiro were predominantly timber buildings into the 16th century.

By the 16th century, when Japanese and European cultures met fortification in Europe crossed the locks and to rely on innovations, such as the Italian trace in the Italian Comedy Star FORTS. FORTS in India present a similar case when they were discovered by the British in the 17th century, castles in Europe all dropped out of the military. Like Shiro, the Indian FORTS, Durga or Durga, in Sanskrit, shared features with castles in Europe such as acting as a domicile for a Lord as well as fortifications. They too developed differently from the structures known as castles that had their origins in Europe.


2.1. General characteristics. Mott

A Motte was an earthen mound with a flat top. He was often artificial, although sometimes it included already existing feature of the landscape. Excavation of earth to make the mound left a ditch around the Motte, called a moat, which can be either wet or dry. "Motte" and "moat", derived from an old French word, indicating that the features were originally associated and depend on each other for their construction. Although the Motte is usually associated with a Bailey form a Motte-and-Bailey castle, this was not always the case and there are instances where there is a Motte in its own way.

"Motte" refers to the mound alone, but it was often surmounted by a fortified structure, such as a keep, and the flat top would be surrounded by a palisade. It often happened that the ILO will be reached over a flying Bridge over the moat from the place de La Contrescarpe ditch on the edge of the top of the mounds, as shown in the Bayeux Tapestrys depiction of château de Dinan. Sometimes a Motte covered an old castle or hall, whose rooms became underground warehouses and prisons beneath a New keep.


2.2. General characteristics. Bailey and fences. (Бэйли и заборы)

A Bailey, also called a ward, was a fortified enclosure. It was a common feature of castles, and most of them, at least, one. To keep on top of the Motte, the residence of the Lord in charge of the castle and a Bastion of last defence, while the Bailey was the home of a family of lords and given them protection. Barracks for the garrison, stables, workshops, and warehouses are often located in Bailey. Water was supplied from a well or pond. Over time the focus of high status accommodation shifted from the keep to the Bailey, this resulted in the creation of another Bailey that separated the high status buildings – such as the lords chamber and Church – from the everyday structures such as the workshops and barracks.

With the end of the 12th century there was a trend for knights to emerge from the small homes that they previously held in Bailey to live in fortified houses in the countryside. Although often associated with the Motte-and-Bailey type of castle, Baileys could also be found as independent defensive structures. These simple fortifications were called ringworks. In pregnant were the castles main defensive wall and the terms "Bailey" and "fences" are connected. The castle could have several Baileys but only one fence. Locks are not holding, which relied on their outer protection, sometimes called fence locks, these were the earliest form of castles, before the tower was entered in the 10th century.


2.3. General characteristics. Keep. (Держать)

Keep was a great tower and usually the most strongly defended point of a castle before the introduction of concentric defence. "Save" was not a term used in the medieval period – the term used since the 16th century – instead "donjon" was used to refer to high-rise towers, or Turris in Latin. In Motte-and-Bailey castles, the keep atop the Motte. "Dungeon" is a corrupted form of "donjon" and means a dark, unwelcoming prison. Although often the strongest part of the castle and the last refuge if the outer defences fell, were not empty in case of attack but was used as the residence of the Lord who owned the castle, or his guests or representatives.

At first this was usual only in England, when after the Norman conquest of 1066 the "conquerors lived for a long time in a state of constant combat readiness," the other lords wife presided over a separate residence Domus, Aula or the mansion in Latin close to the keep, and the donjon was a barracks and headquarters. Gradually, the two functions combined in one building and the highest residential storeys had large Windows, the result for many structures, it is difficult to find the appropriate term. Massive internal spaces seen in many surviving donjons can be misleading, they were divided into several rooms by light partitions, as in a modern office building. Even in some large castles the Great hall was separated only by a partition from the lords "chamber", his bedroom and to what extent his office.


2.4. General characteristics. Curtain wall. (Ненесущая стена)

Curtain walls were defensive walls enclosing a Bailey. They should be high enough to make scaling the walls with ladders difficult and thick enough to withstand the firing of guns, which, from the 15th century included gunpowder artillery. A typical wall could be 3 m 10 feet thick and 12 m 39 ft tall, although sizes varied strongly from locks. To protect them from undermining, curtain walls were sometimes a stone skirt around their bases. The walkways along the top of the walls allowed defenders to rain missiles on enemies below, and battlements gave them further protection. Curtain walls were studded with towers to allow trailing fire along the wall. Arrowslits in the walls did not become common in Europe until the 13th century, for fear that they may jeopardize the strength of the walls.


2.5. General characteristics. Watch. (Смотреть)

The entrance was often the weakest link in the chain of defense. To overcome this, the gatehouse was developed, allowing those inside the castle to control the flow of traffic. In Land and forest castles, the gate is usually the first sign to be rebuilt in stone. Before the gateway was a blind spot and to overcome this, projecting towers were added on each side of the gate in style similar to that created by the Romans. The gatehouse contained a series of objections to make a direct assault more difficult than beating down a simple gate. Usually there are one or more he is listed in the list – a wooden grille reinforced with metal to block a passage – and arrowslits to allow defenders to Harry the enemy. The passage through the gate was lengthened to increase the amount of time that the enemy had to spend under fire in a confined space and unable to retaliate.

It is a popular myth that the so-called murder holes – holes in the ceiling of the gateway passage – were used to pour boiling oil or molten lead on attackers, the price of oil and lead and the distance of the gatehouse from fires meant that this was impossible. However, this method is common practice in the MENA region and the Mediterranean, castles and fortresses, where such resources were in abundance. They were most likely used to drop objects on attackers, or to allow water to be poured on fires to extinguish them. Provision is made in the upper floor of the gatehouse for accommodation so the gate was never left undefended, although this mechanism has evolved to become more comfortable at the expense of defense.

During the 13th and 14th centuries the Barbican was developed. It consisted of a shaft of the trench and, possibly, the tower, before a gate that can be used to further protect the entrance. The purpose of a Barbican was not just to provide another line of defence, but also to dictate the only approach to the gate.


2.6. General characteristics. Ditch. (Кювет)

The moat was a defensive ditch with steep sides, and can be either dry or filled with water. Its purpose was twofold, to stop devices such as siege towers from reaching the curtain wall and to prevent the walls from being undermined. Water ditches were found in lowland areas and usually crossed by a drawbridge, although they were often replaced by stone bridges. Fortified Islands could be added to the trench, adding another layer of protection. Protection of water, such as moats or natural lakes, the benefit of dictating the monster approach to the castle. On the site of the 13th-century Caerphilly castle in Wales covers over 30 hectares, 12 hectares and water, objections are created by flooding the valley to the South of the castle, are among the largest in Western Europe.


2.7. General characteristics. Teeth. (Зубы)

Battlements were most often found of overcoming the curtain wall and the top gate, and consisted of several elements: crenellations, hoardings, masculane and battlements. Scalloped parapet is the collective name for alternating teeth and merlons: gaps and solid blocks on top of the wall. The shields were wooden constructs that projected beyond the wall, allowing defenders to shoot or drop objects on attackers at the base of the wall without having to lean dangerously over the high crenellations, thereby exposing themselves to retaliatory fire. Malekula were stone projections on top of the wall with openings that allowed objects on the enemy at the base of the wall similar boards.


2.8. General characteristics. Arrowslits

Arrowslits, also commonly called loopholes, were narrow vertical openings in the walls which allowed arrows or crossbow bolts to fire at the attackers. A narrow slit, was aimed at protecting the quarterback, providing a very small, but the hole size may also impede the defender, if it was too small. A smaller horizontal opening could be added to give the Archer a better view for aiming. Sometimes were included in the Sally-port, this could allow the garrison to leave the castle and engage besieging forces. It was usual for the latrines to empty down the external walls of the castle and the surrounding ditches.


3.1. History. Background. (Фон)

Historian Charles Coulson argues that the accumulation of wealth and resources, such as food, have led to the need for defensive structures. The earliest fortifications originated in the fertile Crescent, Indus Valley, Egypt, and China where settlements were protected by large walls. Northern Europe was slower than in the East for the development of defensive structures and it was not until the bronze age, hill FORTS were developed, which then spread across Europe in the iron age. These structures differed from their Eastern counterparts in that they used the earthworks, not stone as a building material. Many earthworks survive today, along with evidence of Palisades to accompany the ditches. In Europe, oppida emerged in the 2nd century BC, they were densely inhabited fortified settlements, such as trying to distract the hero, not help in the defense of the castle, and developed from hill FORTS. The Romans encountered fortified settlements such as hill Fort and oppida in expanding its territory in Northern Europe. Though primitive, they are often effective, and was only to overcome the widespread use of siege engines and other siege methods, such as in the battle of Alesia. The Romans own fortifications Castra varied from simple temporary earthworks structures left troops on the move, for the development of permanent stone structures, in particular the milecastles of Hadrians wall. Roman FORTS were generally rectangular with rounded corners is "playing-card shape".

In the Middle ages castles were influenced by earlier forms of elite architecture, contributing to regional differences. Importantly, the castles were military, they contained a recognisable structure of households in their walls, reflecting the multifunctional use of these buildings.


3.2. History. The origins of the 9 and 10 centuries. (Истоки 9 и 10 веков)

The subject of the emergence of castles in Europe is quite difficult, which led to a serious discussion. Discussion is usually associated with the rise of the castle reaction to attacks by Magyars, Muslims and Vikings and for defense. The collapse of the Carolingian Empire led to the privatization of the government and local lords assumed responsibility for economy and justice. However, although the castles proliferated in the 9th and 10th centuries the link between periods of insecurity and building fortifications is not always straightforward. Some high concentrations of castles occur in safe areas and some border areas had relatively few castles.

It is likely that the castle evolved from the practice of fortifying a lordly home. The greatest threat to the lords home or hall was fire as it was usually a wooden structure. To protect against this, and keep other threats at Bay, there are several courses of action: the creation of an environment excavation work in order to keep the enemy at a distance, to build the hall in stone, or you can pick it up on an artificial hill, known as the ILO became an obstacle for the attacker. While the concept of ditches, ramparts and stone walls as defensive measures is ancient, raising a Motte is a medieval innovation.

The Bank and ditch enclosure was a simple form of security, and when found, not connected mote is called a ringwork when the site was in use for an extended period, sometimes replaced by a more complex structure or enhanced by the addition of a stone curtain wall. Building the hall in stone does not necessarily make it immune to fire as it still had Windows and wooden doors. This led to the height of the window on the second floor – to make it harder to throw objects and to move the entrance from the ground level to the second floor. These features can be seen in many surviving castle keeps, which were a more sophisticated version of halls. Castles were not only defensive but also strengthened the control of the lords in their possessions. They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area and also formed the Centre of administration, providing the Lord with a place to hold court.

Building a castle sometimes required the permission of the king or other high authority. In 864 the king of West France, Charles the Bald, prohibited the construction of Castella without his permission and ordered them all destroyed. This is perhaps the earliest reference to castles, though a military historian R. Allen brown noted that the word Castella can be applied to any fortification of that time.

In some countries the monarch had little control over lords, or required the construction of new castles to aid in obtaining the land so do not care about the issue of a permit – as it was in England in the period after the Norman conquest in the Holy Land during the Crusades. Switzerland is an extreme case of lack of state control over who built castles, and the result was 4.000 in the country. There are very few castles dated with certainty from the mid-9th century. Converted into a donjon around 950, the château de doué-La-Fontaine in France is the oldest castle in Europe.


3.3. History. The 11th century. (11-го века)

From 1000 and onwards, references to castles in texts such as charters increased greatly. Historians have interpreted this as evidence of a dramatic increase in the number of castles in Europe around this time is supported by archaeological investigation, from the construction of the castle based on the study of ceramics. The increase in Italy began in the 950S, with numbers of castles increasing by a factor of three to five every 50 years, while in other parts of Europe, such as France and Spain the growth was slower. In 950 Provence was home to 12 castles, by 1000 this figure had risen to 30, and by 1030 it was over 100. Although the increase was slower in Spain, the 1020s saw a particular growth in the number of castles in the region, particularly in contested border areas between Christian and Muslim lands.

Despite the common period in which castles became popular in Europe, their form and design varied from region to region. In the early 11th century Mote and keep – an artificial mound, surmounted by a palisade and tower – was the most common form of castle in Europe, everywhere except Scandinavia. While Britain, France and Italy shared a tradition of timber construction that was continued in castle architecture, Spain more commonly used stone or mud-brick as the primary building material.

The Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century introduced a style of building developed in North Africa associated with the tapial, pebbles in cement, where timber was in short supply. Although the stone construction that would become common elsewhere, from the 11th century it was the primary building material for Christian castles in Spain, and at the same time, wood is still the dominant building material in North-West Europe.

Historians have interpreted the widespread presence of castles across Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries as evidence that warfare was common, and usually between local lords. Castles were introduced into England shortly before the Norman conquest in 1066. Until the 12th century castles were rare in Denmark, as they were in England before the Norman conquest. The introduction of castles to Denmark was a reaction to attacks from Wendish pirates, and they are usually intended as coastal defense. The Motte and Bailey remained the dominant form of castle in England, Wales and Ireland in the 12th century. At the same time, castle architecture in mainland Europe became more sophisticated.

The keep was at the centre of this change in castle architecture in the 12th century. The Central tower, widened, and, as a rule, square in plan, with walls 3 to 4 m thick 9.8 to 13.1 ft. Their jewelry is imitation of Romanesque architecture, and sometimes incorporated double Windows similar to those found in Church bell-towers. Donjons, which was the residence of the Lord of the castle has evolved to become more spacious. Design focus donjons changes reflecting the transition from functional to decorative requirements, imposing symbol of lordly power upon the landscape. This sometimes led to compromising defence for the sake of display.


3.4. History. Innovation and scientific design of the 12th century. (Инновации и научная конструкция 12-го века)

Until the 12th century, stone-built and earth and timber castles were contemporary, but by the end of the 12th century the number of castles being built went into decline. This is partly due to the higher cost of stone fortifications, and also the obsolescence of timber and earthwork sites, which meant that it would be preferable to build more durable stone. Although replaced by their heirs stone, timber and earthwork castles were by no means useless. This is evidenced by the constant maintenance of timber castles over long period, sometimes several centuries, Owen Glyndŵrs 11th-century timber castle at Sycharth was still in use in the early 15th century, its construction that persists over four centuries.

At the same time, changes in the architecture of the castle. Until the late 12th century castles generally had few towers, gates with few defensive features such as arrowslits or grid, a keep or donjon, usually square and without arrowslits, and shape was dictated by the lay of the land the result is often uneven or curved design. The design of castles was not uniform, but it was the features that can be found in a typical castle in the mid 12th century. By the end of the 12th century or early 13th century, the newly built castle, the apparently polygonal shape, with towers at the corners to provide a longitudinal fire on the walls. The tower would not have stuck out from the walls and arrowslits presented at each level to the archers for any stage or curtain wall.

These later castles did not always hold, but this may be because the more complex design of the castle as a whole drove up costs and the keep was sacrificed to save money. Larger towers provide space for housing, to compensate for the loss donjon. Where keeps did exist, they were no longer square, but polygonal or cylindrical. Gateways were more strongly defended, with the entrance to the castle usually between two half-round towers which were connected by a passage above the gateway-although there was great variety in the styles of gateway and entrances, and one or more standpipes.

Feature of Muslim castles in the Iberian Peninsula became a use of detached towers, called Albarrana towers, on the perimeter, as seen in the fortress of Badajoz. Probably created in the 12th century, the towers provided flanking fire. They were connected to the castle removable wooden bridges, so if the towers were captured the rest of the castle was not available.

When seeking to explain these changes in the complexity and style of castles, antique dealers have found their answer in the Crusades. It seemed that the crusaders already have learned much about fortification from their conflicts with the Saracens and exposure to Byzantine architecture. Legends such as Lalys – an architect from Palestine, which, according to General opinion, went to Wales after the Crusades and greatly expanded castles in the South of the country – and it was assumed that great architects such as James of St. George originated in the East. In the mid-20th century, this view was questioned. The legend has been discredited, and in the case of James of Saint George it was proven that he came from Saint-Georges-dEsperanche, France. If the innovations in fortification had derived from the East, you would expect because of their impact should be considered from the year 1100, immediately after the Christians were victorious in the first Crusade 1096-1099, but not nearly 100 years later. The remains of Roman structures in Western Europe are still standing in many places, some of which had flanking round-towers and entrances between two flanking towers.

The castle builders of Western Europe were known and influenced by Roman design, the late Roman coastal fortress on the English "Saxon shore" were reused and in Spain the wall around the city of ávila imitated Roman architecture when it was built in 1091. Historian Smail in crusading war argued that in the case of the influence of Eastern fortification on the West has been overstated, and that crusaders of the 12th century, in fact, very little is learned about scientific design from Byzantine and Saracen defences. Well located in the castle, which used natural defences and had strong ditches and walls not needed for a scientific approach. An example of this approach is Kerak. Although no scientific elements in its design, it was virtually impregnable, and in 1187 Saladin decided to besiege the castle and starve its garrison and not the risk of attack.

In the late 11th and 12th centuries in the South Central part of Turkey, the Hospitallers, the Teutonic knights and the Templars established themselves in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, where they found an extensive complex network of fortifications, which had a profound influence on the architecture of the castles of the crusaders. Most of the Armenian military installations in Cilicia characteristic: multiple Bailey wall, lined with irregular plans to follow the sinuosities of the outcrops, rounded and especially the horseshoe-shaped tower, thinly sliced often rusticated ashlar facing stones with intricate, poured cores, a hidden gate is the gate and difficult curved entrance with the nest masculane, embrasured loopholes for archers, barrel, pointed or cross vaults over undercrofts, the gate and the chapel, and bodies of water and intricate the acute effluent. Civil settlements often occur in the immediate vicinity of the fortifications. After the first crusade, crusaders who did not return to their homes in Europe helped found the Crusader States, Principality of Antioch, County of Edessa, Kingdom of Jerusalem, County of Tripoli. The castles they founded to secure its acquisitions were mainly of Syrian craftsmen, masons. Their design was very similar to a Roman Fort or Byzantine tetrapyrgia which were square in plan and square towers at each corner, which is not greatly project outside of the outer wall. Keep these Crusader castles would have had a square plan and generally without finishing.

Although castles were used to hold the territory and control over the movement of troops in the Holy Land some key strategic positions were left unfortified. The architecture of the castle in the East became more complex in the late 12th and early 13th centuries after the stalemate of the Third crusade 1189-1192. Both Christians and Muslims created fortifications, and the character of each of them was different. Saphadin, in the 13th-century ruler of the Saracens, created structures with large rectangular towers that influenced Muslim architecture and were copied again and again, but they had little influence on Crusader castles.


3.5. History. 13 to 15 centuries. (13 по 15 вв)

In the early 13th century, Crusader castles were mostly built on military orders, including the Hospitallers, Templars and Teutons. Orders was responsible for the Foundation of sites such as Krak de Chevaliers, Margat, and Belvoir. The design differs not only between orders, but between individual castles, though it was common for those founded in this period to have concentric defences.

The concept, which originated in castles such as Krak des Chevaliers, was to remove reliance on a Central strongpoint and to emphasise the defence of the curtain walls. There will be several rings of defensive walls, one inside the other, with the inner ring rising above the outer so that its field of fire was not completely closed. If the attackers were the first line of defense, they would be caught in the killing ground between the inner and outer walls, and the assault of the second wall.

Concentric castles were widely copied in Europe, for example, when Edward I of England, who had himself been on crusade – built castles in Wales in the late 13th century, four of the eight he founded were concentric design. Not all the features of the Crusader castles from the 13th century have been applied in Europe. For example, in Crusader castles to have the main gate towards the tower, and there will be two turns in the passageway, lengthening the time it took for someone to reach the outer shell. It is rare for this bent entrance in Europe.

One of the consequences of the Livonian crusade in the Baltic was the introduction of stone and brick fortifications. Although there were hundreds of wooden castles in Prussia and Livonia, the use of brick and mortar was known in the region before the crusaders. Until the 13th century and early 14th centuries, their design is heterogeneous, however this period saw the emergence of a standard plan: square in plan, with four wings around a Central courtyard. It was common for castles in the East to have arrowslits in the curtain wall at multiple levels, contemporary builders in Europe were wary of this, as they believed it weakened the wall. Arrowslits not to compromise the wall strength, but it wasnt until Edward the programme for the construction of the castle, which they became widespread in Europe.

The Crusades also led to the introduction of malekula in Western architecture. Until the 13th century, the tops of the towers were surrounded by wooden galleries, which allows the defenders to drop objects on attackers below. Although musicuse serve the same purpose as the wooden galleries, they were probably an Eastern invention, not evolution wooden form. Malekula was used in the East long before the arrival of the crusaders, and possibly in the first half of the 8th century in Syria.

The maximum period of castle-building in Spain in the 11th to 13th centuries, and they are most commonly found in the disputed borders between Christian and Muslim lands. The conflict and interaction between the two groups led to an exchange of architectural ideas, and Spanish Christians adopted the use of detached towers. The Spanish Reconquista, driving the Muslims on the Iberian Peninsula, was complete in 1492.

Although France has been described as "the heart of the medieval architecture", the British were at the forefront of castle architecture in the 12th century. French historian Francois Gebelin wrote: "a great revival in military architecture was led, as one would naturally expect, the powerful kings and princes of that time, the sons of William the Conqueror and their descendants of the Plantagenets, when they became Dukes of Normandy. These people have built all the most typical twelfth-century fortified castles remaining to-day". Despite this, in the beginning of the 15th century, the pace of construction of the castle in England and Wales went into decline. New castles were generally easier to build than earlier structures and presented few innovations, although strong sites were still created as Raglan in Wales. At the same time, French castle architecture came to the fore, and a leading position in the field of medieval fortification. Throughout Europe, especially in the Baltic States, Germany, and Scotland – castles were built in the 16th century.


3.6. History. The advent of gunpowder. (Появление пороха)

Artillery works on the gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the 1320s and spread quickly. Handguns, which were initially unpredictable and inaccurate weapons, were not recorded until 1380-ies. Castles were adapted to allow small artillery pieces – an average of 19.6 and 22 kg 43 and 49 lb – to fire from towers. These guns were too heavy for man to carry and fire, but if it supports the butt and rested the muzzle on the edge of the gun port he could fire a weapon. Gun ports developed in this period show a unique feature that horizontal timber through the hole. A hook on the end of the gun can be latched over the timber so the gunner did not have to take the full recoil. This adaptation is found across Europe, and although the timber rarely survives, there is a pristine example in the castle Doornenburg in the Netherlands. The gun ports were in the keyhole, with a round hole in the bottom for the weapon and a narrow slit on top to allow the gunner to aim.

This form is very common in castles adapted for guns, found in Egypt, Italy, Scotland and Spain, and everywhere in between. Other port, though less common, were horizontal slits – allowing only lateral movement – and large square openings, which allowed more movement. The use of guns for defence gave rise to artillery castles, such as château de ham in France. Objections against guns were not developed at a later stage. Ham is an example of the trend for new castles to dispense with earlier features such as Masibulele, high towers and battlements.

Was developed big guns, and in the 15th century has become an alternative to siege weapons such as catapults. The advantages of the big guns, trebuchets – the most effective siege engine of the Middle ages before the invention of gunpowder – were those of greater range and power. In an effort to make them more effective, guns were made larger, though it interfered with their ability to reach remote locks. In 1450-ies of the gun was chosen as a siege weapon, and their effectiveness was demonstrated by Mehmed II in Constantinople.

The response towards more effective cannons was to build thicker walls and round towers, as the curving sides were more likely to deflect a shot than a flat surface. While this was enough for new locks, existing structures had to find a way to deal with worn guns. An earthen Bank could be piled up over the castles curtain wall to absorb some shock from impact.

Often, castles constructed before the age of gunpowder were incapable of using the weapon as a wall-walks were too narrow. The solution to this was to pull in the top of the tower and fill the bottom part with gravel to provide a surface for the cannons to shoot from. The decline in objections in this case has the effect, making them easier to scale with ladders. A more popular alternative to defense, which avoids damaging the lock, was to establish a bulwark for the defense of castles. They can be built from earth or stone and was used for weapon mount.


3.7. History. Bastions and star fortress of the 16th century. (Бастионы и звезды крепости 16-го века)

Around 1500, the innovation of the angled Bastion was developed in Italy. With events such as these, Italys first permanent artillery fortifications, which took over from the defensive role of castles. From this evolved Star FORTS, also known as the trace Italienne. The elite responsible for the construction of the castle had to choose between the new type which could withstand cannon fire before, more complex style. The first was ugly and uncomfortable he was at least safe, although it offers greater aesthetic appeal and value as a status symbol. The second option proved more popular as it has become evident that there is no point in trying to make the site truly justified in the face of guns. For a number of reasons, not the least of which is that many castles have no history, no firm number of castles built in the Middle ages. However, it has been estimated that between 75.000 and 100.000 were built in Western Europe, of which 1.700 were in England and Wales, and about 14.000 in German-speaking areas.

Some true castles were built in America by the Spanish and French colonies. The first stage of Spanish Fort construction has been termed the "castle period", which lasted from 1492 until the end of the 16th century. Starting with Fortaleza ozama, "these castles were mostly European medieval castles transposed in America." Among the other fortifications, including FORTS and fortress, castles were built in New France in the late 17th century. In Montreal the artillery was not as developed as on the battle fields of Europe, some regions outlying FORTS were built like the fortified manor of France. Fort Longueuil, built from 1695-1698 by a family of barons, has been described as "the most medieval Fort built in Canada". The manor house and stables were in a fortified Bailey, with a high round tower at each corner. "The most substantial castle-like Fort" near montréal was Fort Senneville, built in 1692 with square towers connected by thick stone walls and fortified mill. Stone FORTS such as these served as defensive residences, as well as imposing structures to prevent Iroquois incursions.

Although castle construction faded towards the end of the 16th century, castles have become obsolete. Some have retained their role in local administration and became law courts, while others are still handed down in aristocratic families of hereditary seats. A particularly famous example of this is Windsor castle in England, which was founded in the 11th century and is home to the monarch of the United Kingdom. In other cases, they still play a role in defense. Tower houses, which are closely related to locks and include Pele tower, was protected by towers that were permanent residences built in the 14-17 centuries. Especially common in Ireland and Scotland, they could be up to five storeys high and succeeded common enclosure castles and were built by a greater social range of people. Although it is unlikely to provide maximum protection as a more complex castle, they offered safety from raiders and other minor threats.


3.8. History. Later use and revival castles. (Последующего использования и замки возрождение)

According to archaeologists Oliver Creighton and Robert Higham, "the great country houses of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries, in a social sense, the castles of their day". Although there is a tendency for the elite to move from castles into country houses in the 17th century, castles were not completely useless. In later conflicts such as the civil war in England 1641-1651, many castles were fortified, although subsequently slighted to prevent them from being used again. Some country residence, which was not supposed to be strengthened were given a padlock to deter potential invaders, such as adding turrets and through a small window. An example of this is 16th century castle in Bubaqra Malta, which was rebuilt in the 18th century.

Revival or mock castles became popular as a manifestation of romantic interest in the middle Ages and chivalry, and as part of the broader Gothic revival in architecture. Examples of these castles include Chapultepec in Mexico city, Neuschwanstein in Germany, and Edwin Lutyens castle Drogo 1911-1930 – the last flicker of this movement in the British Isles. Although churches and cathedrals in the Gothic style could faithfully imitate medieval examples, new country houses built in the style of "castle" differed internally to their medieval predecessors. It was because to be faithful to medieval design would have left the house cold and dark by modern standards.

Artificial ruins built in the form of remnants of historic buildings, was a hallmark of the period. They were usually built as the center pieces in a planned aristocratic landscape. Follies were similar, although they differed from artificial ruins in that they were not part of a planned landscape, but rather seemed no reason for construction. Both drew on elements of castle architecture such as battlements and towers, but serves no military purpose and were solely for display. Toy castle is used as a common involvement of children in playgrounds and amusement parks such as castle Playmobil fun in Ħal far, Malta.


4. Construction. (Строительство)

Once on the site of the castle had been selected – whether a strategic position or one intended to dominate the landscape, as a sign of strength – building material should be selected. The earth and wood castle was cheaper and easier to install than one built of stone. The cost of construction is not recorded, and most surviving records relate to Royal castles. A castle with earthen ramparts, a Motte, protection of wood and buildings could be built on unskilled labor. The source of man-power was probably from the local lordship, and the tenants already have the necessary skills of felling trees, digging and working timber necessary for the Earth and timber castle. You may forced to work for their Lord, the construction of earthen and wooden strongholds would not be a drain on the funds of the clients. From the point of view of time, it has been estimated that the average size of the Mott – 5 m 16 feet high and 15 m wide at the summit 49 ft – would have taken 50 people about 40 working days. Exceptionally expensive Motte and Bailey was that of clones in Ireland, built in 1211 for £20. High cost relative to other castles of this type, because workers had to be imported.

The cost of construction of locks vary depending on factors such as their complexity and transport costs of the material. He is certain that stone castles cost a lot more than those that were built with earth and wood. Even a very small tower, such as peveril castle, would cost around £ 200. In the middle were castles such as Orford, which was built in the late 12th century for $ 1.400 at top end were such as Dover, which cost about £of 7.000 between 1181 and 1191. Costs across the vast castles such as château Gaillard around £15.000 to the $ 20.000 between 1196 and 1198 are easily supported by the crown, but for lords of smaller areas, castle building was a very serious and costly event. It was usual for a stone castle to take the best part of a decade to complete. The cost of a large castle built over this time anywhere from £1.000 to £10.000 wanted to take the income from several manors, severely shaking the lords of Finance. Costs in the late 13th century were similar to those with castles such as Beaumaris and will cost £14.500 and £9.000, respectively. Edward on the campaign of castle-building in Wales cost £of 80.000 between 1277 and 1304, and £of 95.000 between 1277 and 1329. Renowned designer master James of Saint George, responsible for the construction of Beaumaris, explained the cost:

In case you should wonder where so much money can go in a week, we would you know we need and will continue to need 400 masons, as the cutters and layers, together with 2.000 less skilled workmen, 100 carts, 60 wagons and 30 boats bringing stone and sea coal, 200 Quarrymen, 30 Smiths and carpenters for putting in the joists and floor boards and other necessary jobs. All this takes no account of the garrison. no procurement of material. Of which will be a large number. The salary of people was and still is a lot of debt and we are experiencing the most difficulty in maintaining them because they have simply nothing to live on.

Not only stone castles expensive to build in the first place, but their repairs were a constant drain. They contain a lot of wood, which were often unseasoned and, consequently, needs careful care. For example, it is well documented that in the late 12th century and in the repair of castles such as Exeter and Gloucester cost between £20 and £50 a year.

Medieval machines and inventions, such as the treadwheel crane, became indispensable during construction, and techniques of building wooden scaffolding were improved since ancient times. When building in stone a prominent concern of medieval builders were quarries nearby. There are examples of some castles where stone was quarried on the site, such as Chinon, château de coucy and château Gaillard. When it was built in 992 in France the stone tower at château de langeais was 16 metres 52 ft, 17.5 m 57 ft wide and 10 meters 33 feet long with walls averaging 1.5 M 4 ft 11 inches. The walls contain 1.200 42.000 cubic meters cubic feet of stone and have a total surface area both inside and outside of 1.600 square meters to 17.000 square feet. The tower had 83.000 average working days to complete, most of which was unskilled labour.

In many countries, has both timber and stone castles, however in Denmark is small quarries and as a result, most of his castles, earth and timber Affairs, or later on built from brick. Brick construction is not necessarily weaker than their stone counterparts. Brick castles are less common in England than stone or earth and timber constructions, and often it was chosen for its aesthetic appeal or because it is fashionable, encouraged by the brick architecture of the low countries. For example, when Tattershall the castle was built between 1430 and 1450, had plenty of stone nearby, but the owner, Lord Cromwell, chose to use brick. About 700.000 bricks used for the construction of the castle, which has been described as "the finest piece of medieval brick-work in England". Most Spanish castles were built of stone, while in Eastern Europe, castles were usually wooden buildings.


5. Social. (Социальные)

Due to the presence of the lords in the castle, it was the control center, from where he ruled his lands. He relied on the support of those below it and without the support of his more powerful tenants, a Lord could expect his power to be undermined. Successful lords regularly held court with those who are below them on the social ladder, but absentees could expect to find their influence weakened. More grace can be huge, and it would be impractical for the Lord to visit all properties that deputies were appointed. This especially applied to royalty, who sometimes owned land in different countries.

Allow the Lord to focus on their responsibilities in relation to administration, the family has servants to take care of such matters as the provision of food. Family was Chamberlain, to Treasurer leaving the estates written records. Royal households took essentially the same form as baronial families, although on a much larger scale and the positions were more prestigious. The important role of the housekeeper was cooking in the kitchen of the castle would be a busy place when the castle was occupied, called on to provide large meals. Without the presence of the household of lords, as a rule, because he was in another place, and the castle would be a quiet place with a small number of residents, focused on maintaining the castle.

Social centres castles were important places for display. The builders took the opportunity to draw on symbolism, with the help of motifs to evoke a sense of chivalry, which was sought in the Middle ages among the elite. Later structures of the romantic Revival would draw on elements of castle architecture such as battlements for the same purpose. Castles have been compared with cathedrals as objects of architectural pride, and some castles are included the gardens as decorative elements. The right to crenellate, when granted the monarch – although not always necessary – it is important not just as it allowed a Lord to defend his property, but loopholes and other attributes associated with castles were prestigious through their use by the elite. A license to crenellate is also evidence of a relationship with or favour from the monarch, who was responsible for the issuance of a permit.

Courtly love was the eroticisation of love between the nobility. The emphasis was on restraint between lovers. Though sometimes expressed through chivalric events such as tournaments, where the knights would fight to wear a token from their lady, it can also be private and secret. The legend of Tristan and Isolde is one example of stories of courtly love told in the Middle ages. It was a perfect love between two people not married to each other, although the man may be married to another. It was not uncommon or ignoble for a Lord to be incorrect – Henry I of England for over 20 bastards for instance – but for a lady to be promiscuous was seen as Dishonourable.

The purpose of marriage between the medieval elites was safe land. Girls were married In their Teens, but boys did not marry until they came of age. There is a widespread perception that women play only a minor role in the medieval castle household, and that he was in the power of the Lord. This derives from the image of the castle in a military institution, but most castles in England, France, Ireland, and Scotland were never involved in conflicts or sieges, so the domestic life is a neglected facet. The lady was given Dower in their husbands estates – usually about a third – which was hers for life, and her husband will inherit after her death. It was her duty to administer them directly, as the Lord gave their land. Despite generally excluded from military service, the woman may be in the castle or on behalf of her husband or if she was widowed. Due to their influence in the medieval family, women influenced construction and design, sometimes through direct patronage, historian Charles Colson emphasizes the role of women in applying "a refined aristocratic taste" castles due to their long stay.


6. Places and landscapes. (Места и пейзажи)

The location of castles was influenced by the available terrain. Whereas hill castles such as Marksburg were common in Germany, where 66 per cent of all known medieval were the mountain region, while 34% were on low-lying land, they are a minority of seats in England. Because of the wide range of functions they must fulfil, castles were built in various places. There were several factors considered when selecting a location, balancing the need to defend the position with other considerations such as proximity to resources. For example, many castles are located near Roman roads, which remained important transport routes in the Middle ages, or it can lead to change or creation of new road system in the region. Where available it was common to use already existing means of protection, such as building with a Roman Fort or the ramparts of the iron age in Danbury. Known site that overlooked the surrounding area and offered some natural defences may also be chosen because its visibility made it a symbol of power. Urban castles is particularly important in the fight against centres of population and production, especially with the occupation forces, for example as a result of the Norman conquest of England in the 11th century the majority of Royal castles were built in or near cities.

As castles were not only military buildings but centres of administration and symbols of power, they had a significant impact on the surrounding landscape. Posted a frequently used road or river, the castle ensured that the Lord would like to have it because of the loss of money from merchants. Rural castles were often associated with mills and field systems due to their role in the management of the estate of lords, which gave them greater influence over resources. Others were near or in Royal forests or deer parks and were important in their upkeep. Ponds for cultivation of fish was a luxury of the aristocratic elite, and many were found near castles. They are not only practical in that they provide water supply and fresh fish, but they were a status symbol, as they were expensive to build and maintain.

Although sometimes the construction of the castle led to the destruction of the village, for example, in Eaton Socon in England, it is more common for the villages nearby to have grown as the result of the presence of the castle. Sometimes planned towns or villages were created around the castle. The advantages of the construction of the castle on the calculations not only in Europe. When in the 13th-century Safad castle was founded in Galilee in the Holy Land, 260 of the village residents received a newfound ability to move freely. When built, a castle could result in the restructuring of the local landscape, with roads moved for the convenience of the Lord. Settlements could also grow naturally around a castle, not planned, in connection with the advantages of proximity to the economic centre in a rural location and safety protection. Not all such settlements survived, as once the castle lost its importance – perhaps succeeded the farmstead as the center of management – the advantages of living near the disappeared castles and the settlement depopulated.

During and shortly after the Norman conquest of England, castles were inserted in important existing cities to control and subjugate the population. They were usually located near any existing town, defense, Pantheon, though sometimes as a result of the demolition of structures occupying the desired location. In Lincoln 166 houses were destroyed to make way for the castle, and in York agricultural land was flooded to create a moat for the castle. As the military importance of urban castles waned from their early origins, they became more important as centres of administration, and their financial and judicial functions. When the Normans invaded Ireland, Scotland and Wales on the 11th and 12th centuries, settlement in those countries, mostly outside the settlements, and the Foundation of towns was often linked with the creation of the castle.

The arrangement of locks of a relatively high state characteristics, such as ponds for fish farming, was a statement of power and control over resources. Also often found near a castle, sometimes in his defense, he was a parish Church. This indicates a close relationship between feudal lords and the Church, one of the most important institutions of medieval society. Even elements of castle architecture that have usually been interpreted as military could be used for display. Water features of Kenilworth castle in England – comprising a moat and several satellite ponds – forced anyone approaching the castle entrance the water is very ornate way, bypassing the defense before the final approach towards the gateway. Another example is that of the 14th-century Bodiam Castle, also in England, though it seems, advanced the castle is a place of small strategic importance, and the moat was shallow and more likely intended to make the site appear impressive than as a defence against mining. The approach was long and took the viewer around the castle, ensuring they got a good look before entering. In addition, the gun ports were impractical and unlikely to be effective.


7. War. (Войны)

As a static structure, castles could often be avoided. Their immediate zone of influence was about 400 metres of 1.300 feet and their guns had a small range at an early age of artillery. However, leaving an enemy behind would allow them to affect communications and to make raids. Garrisons were expensive and as a result often small unless the castle was important. The cost also meant that in peace time garrisons were small, and small castles were manned, perhaps a couple of watchmen and gate-guards. Even during the war, garrisons were not necessarily large as too many people in a defending force would strain supplies and reducing the ability of the locks to withstand a long siege. In 1403 a force of 37 archers successfully defended Caernarfon castle against two assaults Owen Glyndŵrs allies during a long siege, demonstrating that a small force can be effective.

Early on, manning a castle was a feudal duty of vassals to their magnates, and magnates to their kings, however he was later replaced with paid forces. The garrison was usually commanded the policeman, whose role in peacetime would be to look after the castle in the absence of the owners. Under him were the knights, who for the benefit of their military training would have acted as the officer class. Below them were archers and bowmen, whose role was to prevent the enemy reaching the walls as can be seen by the positioning of arrowslits.

If it was necessary to seize control of the castle, the army can either launch an assault or siege. It was more efficient to starve the garrison, rather than capturing it, especially the most heavily protected sites. Without help from an external source, the defenders ultimately to imagine. The siege could last weeks, months, and in rare cases years if the supplies of food and water was a lot. A long siege could slow down the army, allowing help to come for the enemy to prepare a larger force for later. This approach is not only limited to locks, but was used in a fortified city in a day. On occasion, siege castles would be built to defend the besiegers from a sudden Sally and was abandoned after the siege ended one way or another.

If forced to assault a castle, there were many options available to the attackers. For wooden structures, such as early Motte-and-Bailey, the fire was a real threat and will attempt to set fire to them as you can see on the tapestry of Bayeux. Throwing weapons have been used from ancient times and ballista petraria – from Roman and Eastern origin, respectively – were the main two that were used in the middle Ages. Trebuchet, which probably evolved from the petraria in the 13th century, is the most effective siege weapon before the advent of guns. These weapons were vulnerable to fire from the castle, as they had short range and were large machines. On the other hand, weapons such as trebuchets could be fired from the castle because of the high trajectory of its projectile, and to be protected from direct fire curtain.

Ballista or springald were siege engines that worked on the same principles as crossbows. With their origins in Ancient Greece, tension was used to project a bolt or spear. Missiles fired from these engines had a low trajectory than trebuchets or mangonels and was more accurate. They are often used in the garrison and not the building of the castle. Eventually cannons developed to the point where they were more powerful and had greater range than the trebuchet, and became the main weapon in siege warfare.

Walls could be undermined in SAP. The mine leading to the wall would be dug and once the target has been reached, the wooden supports preventing the tunnel from collapsing would be burned at the stake. It will SAG and bring down the structure above. The construction of the castle on a rock outcrop or surrounding it with a wide, deep moat helped prevent this. A counter-mine could be dug towards the besiegers of the tunnel, assuming the two converged, this would result in underground hand-to-hand combat. Mining was so effective that during the siege to Margat in 1285 when the garrison were informed a SAP was dug they surrendered. Battering rams were also used, usually in the form of a tree trunk given an iron cap. They were used to force open the gates of the castle, although they are sometimes used against walls with less effect.

As an alternative to the time consuming task of creating a breach, an Escalade could be attempted to capture the walls with fighting along the walkways behind the walls. In this case, cyber criminals will be subject to arrowfire. A safer option for those assaulting a castle was to use a siege tower, sometimes called a belfry. After the ditch around the castle was partially filled, these wooden mobile towers can be pressed against the curtain wall. As well as offering some protection for those inside, a siege tower could overlook the interior castle, giving bowmen an advantageous position from which to unleash missiles.

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Encyclopedic dictionary

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