★ Cinema of Korea
The term "cinema of Korea" encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life during the past century, the film industry has often been dominated by political events since the end of the Joseon dynasty to the Korean war to the intervention of the Republican. While both countries have relatively robust film industry, only South Korean films have achieved wide international recognition. North Korean films tend to portray their Communist and revolutionary themes.
South Korean movies were in the late 1950-ies the "Golden age", and the 1960-ies, but in the 1970s was considered to be of low quality. Nonetheless, by 2005 South Korea had become one of the few Nations to watch more domestic than imported films in theatres due largely to laws restrictions on the number of foreign movies can be shown in a theater a year. In the theaters, Korean films must be played for 73 days per year since 2006. On cable TV 25% quota of domestic films will be reduced to 20% after KOR-us FTA.
1. The early period up to 1926. (Ранний период до 1926 г)
According to the October 19, 1897 issue of the times, "the movie has finally been introduced into Joseon, a country located in the far East. At the beginning of October 1897, motion pictures were shown in public in Jingogae, Bukchon, in a shabby barrack that was borrowed from its Chinese owner for three days. The works screened included short films and actuality films Francis Pathe pictures". There are reports of another showing of the film to the public in 1898 near Namdaemun in Seoul. However, these allegations were refuted by researcher Brian Yecies, who said that he could not find a question time, or any similar article, and considers the introduction of the 1897 date is a myth.
American traveler and lecturer Burton Holmes was the first film in Korea as part of its travel programs. In addition to displaying his films abroad, he showed them to the Korean Royal family in 1899. An ad in a newspaper, Hwangseong Sinmun Imperial names another early public screening on June 23, 1903. Advertised Dongdaemun Electric company, the price for the entrance to the viewing of scenic photography was 10 Jeon coin.
Koreas first movie theater, Dongdaemun Studio, was opened in 1903. In Dansung-SA theater opened in Seoul in November 1907. Before the creation of the domestic cinema industry, films imported from Europe and the United States have shown in the Korean theaters. Some of the imported films of the era most popular with Korean audiences were D. W. Griffiths broken blossoms in 1919 and way to the East in 1920, Douglas Fairbanks Robin hood 1922, and the Nibelungen the films of Fritz lang, Siegfried and Kriemhilds Rache 1924 both.
Not only took to the theater-operator, as First producer in Korea, Dansung-CAC owner, Pak sung-Pil, an active part in supporting early Korean cinema. He financed the first Korean domestic film, loyal revenge Korean: 의리적 구투, Gutu Uirijeok, as well as the first Korean documentary film, scenes of Kyongsong city and showed in his theater on October 27, 1919. Uirijeok Huto was used as a dramatic film, live theatrical production on the background of the film projected onto the stage.
Over the next few years, film production in Korea consisted of the Kino dramas and documentaries. As in the first screening of the film in Korea, the first feature film produced in Korea also seems to be unclear. Some call the filming of Chunhyang-Jeon Korean: 춘향전 in 1921 was published in 1922, as the first Korean feature film. The traditional story, Chunhyang, was to become the most-filmed story of Korah later. It was probably the first Korean feature film, and was certainly the first Korean sound film, color film and widescreen film. Im Kwon-taeks 2000 pansori version of Chunhyang number of films based on Chunyang to 14. Other sources, however, name Yun Baek-nams user interface Ulha Mengse "plighted Love under the moon", released in April 1923, the year as the first Korean feature film.
2. The Golden era of silent cinema 1926-1930. (Золотая эра немого кино 1926-1930)
Korean film studios at this time were Japanese-operated. A hat-merchant known as Yodo Orajo created a film company called Choson kinema productions of. After appearing in the Choson Kinemas production 1926 Nongjungjo Korean: 농중조, a young actor by Woon-Gyu got the chance to write, direct and star in his own film. The films release, NAS, Arirang Korean: 아리랑 1926-the beginning of the era of silent film in Korea.
As in the folk song "Arirang" which the name was based, UN-gyus on Arirang was not openly political themes. However hidden or subtle messages can be increased due to the use of a live narrator in the theater. A newspaper article of 1908 shows that this tradition of "byeonsa" Korean: "변사", or "benshi" in Japanese appeared in Korea almost from the beginning of the film in the country. In Japan, it has become an integral part of the show silent films, especially for imported films, where byeonsa provides an economical and interesting alternative translation of the intertitles. In an interesting aspect of the byeonsa tradition in Korea, when Japanese authorities were not present the narrators could inject satire and criticism of the occupation into the film narrative, giving the film a political subtext invisible to Japanese government censors. Some of the more popular byeonsa were better-paid than the film actors.
The success of Arirang inspired a burst of activity in the Korean film industry in the late 1920-ies, as a result, this period became known as the "Golden era of silent cinema." More than seventy films produced at this time, and the quality of the film improved as well as quantity.
On UN-Gyu then Arirang with popular and highly respected movies like Punguna 풍운아, a person of destiny 1926 and Deuljwi 들쥐, vole 1927. It is formed in UN-Gyu Productions with Park sung-Pil for the purpose of receiving films by Koreans for Koreans. Although this company was short-lived, it produced important films like Jalitgeola 잘 있거라, bye 1927, Beongeoli Sam WREN 벙어리 삼룡, dumb Samryong 1929, and Salangeul chajaseo 사랑을 찾아서, to find love, 1929.
Another important Director of this period, shim Hoon, directed only one film, Mondongi Tultte 먼동이 틀 때 at dawn. Although reviews of the film were as strong as those for Arirang SIM died at the age of 35 while directing his second film, based on his own novel, Sangroksu 상록수 evergreens. The novel was subsequently filmed by Director Shin San OK, in 1961, and im Kwon-Taek in 1978.
A characteristic feature of the cinemas during this era was the presence of" the narrator of the film” nicknamed ”pyŏnsa”. In pyŏnsa acted as ”the narrator who introduces the characters and the situation, and explains the physical action and psychological dilemmas during silent film screenings”. In pyŏnsa also functioned ”as a cultural mediator during a movie-watching Korean audience experience, and to use his narrative, supplementing censorship or technological limitations during the silent period of cinema.”
3. Late silent era 1930-1935. (В конце эпохи немого кино 1930-1935)
In the first half of 1930-ies there was a decline in the domestic film industry in Korea. Censorship and harassment by the occupation authorities played a role in reducing the number of films produced at this time only two or three a year, and some filmmakers fled Korea for the more robust film industry in Shanghai at this time.
Imported movies, mostly replaced by domestic movies, although with the Korean General, the Law No. 40, 1933, the Japanese ruled that all foreign films distributed in Korea must be imported to Japan." Although some of them were very popular among Korean audiences, offer society as a whole, and some of those coming from Japan was so worn that the facial expressions of the actors were blurred. Storytellers can, however, even worn-out films and make up for the poor proposed movie”.
Perhaps the most important film of this era, Imjaeobtneun ferry naleutbae without the Ferryman 1932, directed by Lee Gyu-hwan 1904-1981, starred by Woon-Gyu na. The increase in government censorship meant that commentators called it the last pre-liberation film is a significant nationalistic message.
4. At the beginning of the sound era, 1935-1945. (В начале эры звукового кино, 1935-1945)
Koreas first sound film was Lee Myeong-woos 1935 Chunhyang-Jeon. The sound technique was reportedly poor, but Korean audiences gratefully listened to their language in the movie.
The number of films has increased during the last decade. By Woon-Gyu started to do more films with significant works as Kanggeonneo maeul 1935, and Oh Mong-nyeo 1937, until his premature death in 1937.
Korea was one of Japans first and most important colonial centers of film production. The support of the Japan shorts, newsreels and feature films have largely contributed to the cultural assimilation to colonized Korean audiences. With this goal in Korean colonial Cinema group 朝鮮総督府キネマ was created for the production and distribution of movies mix of movies that promote Japanese culture and customs, as well as the benefits of modernization in Japanese.
As they are in the mid - late 1930-ies sound films in Korea faced much harsher censorship from the Japanese government-General than the silent film before them. In addition, the loss of the byeonsa narrators with the coming of sound film meant that anti-authority Messages could no longer be sneaked around the censors along the way. Such a case occurred with the importation of the American silent film Ben Hur 1927 in Korea. While Japanese colonial censors failed to find anything possibly inflammatory about the film, the byeonsa immediately recognized and alerted audiences to the obvious Parallels between the conditions of the Jews on the screen with those of the Koreans under Japanese colonial rule resulting in the film almost starting a riot.
Japanese film censors had replaced the American and European films, Japanese films, as part of a larger colonial project of cultural colonization of Korea. Japanese films in Korea addressed the audience in Japan in the form of exotics. 望楼の決死隊 suicide troops of the Watchtower, 1943, for example, was one of several advocacy functions, which contributed to the Japanese occupation the concept of naisen Ittai, or "Japan and Korea as one body". Although the Japanese film production in Korea began in the early 1930-ies, the total mobilization and consolidation of Korean film industry under Japanese will not begin until after Japans full-scale invasion of China in 1937. The film was an important way in which the Japanese maintained their colonial rule in Korea by facilitating the assimilation policy. For example, in 1941 Japans Shochiku studios together with the support of Japanese-Korean military information Department of the co-producer of the film You and I 君と僕. The film became the Korean Hae-Yeon who has worked extensively in Japanese film industry using the name "Hinatsu Eitaro". You and I promoted the "volunteer" recruitment of Koreans in the Japanese Imperial army and wear as a story of interracial marriage between Japanese and Korean. After the film was completed, Hae went to Java in Indonesia, where he continued to shoot documentaries for the Japanese. After the war he changed his name to Dr. Huyung, married an Indonesian woman with whom he had two sons, and produced three important Indonesian movies. Until his death in 1952, he told a close friend, "if I went back now in Japan, there would be no work for me and if I came back to Korea, the code is likely to be branded a Japanese collaborator." Although the Japanese colonial administration officially banned the Korean language, Japanese film studios operating in Korea continues to make films with characters who spoke it until the end of the war.
5. After Liberation, 1945-1954. (После Освобождения, 1945-1954)
Most of the films in 1946 and 1947, immediately after the liberation of Korea from Japanese colonial rule were films that expressed the feeling of the liberation of Korea. In 1946, Choi In-Kyu based on the bark production company and has released a free Mans 자유만세, which was a huge success at the box office, followed by Lee GU-young records of An Jung-Geun 안중근 사기, Yun Bong-Chun Mathur CPS Yunbong Gil 윤봉길 의사, Jeon Chang-Geun my hometown was liberated 해방된 내 고향, Lee Kyu hwan adventure Ddol-ddol 똘똘이의 모험. Then in 1947, the young Bon-Chung Yu Gwan-sun 유관순, Shin Kyung-Kyun, a new Oath 새로운 맹세, Choi in-Kyu innocent 죄없는 죄인 prisoner, Lee Kyu hwan Gulls 갈매기. The following year, in 1948, Han Hyung-Mo is aimed to break the wall 성벽을 뚫고 and greatly succeeded. During the Korean war in 1950, the filmmakers once again in a period of difficulties, but in 1952, Jung Chang-Geun direted Nakdong river 낙동강 Lee man-hung, directed gentle mountains 애정산맥 and Shin San OK, student of Choi in-Gyu, devils night 악야 and Jeong Chang Hwa Last temptation 유혹 최후의. Returning to the capital in 1954, the filmmakers made the film hard, despite the new problem of flooding foreign films. In 1954, Kim Seong-min is 41 degrees North latitude 북위 41도, Yun Bong-Chun Song about his hometown 고향의 노래, Hong sun-Kee departure 출격명령, and Shin San OK of Korea 코리아. In may 1955, steps were taken for the tax exemption is implemented for Korean films, which later served as a major reason for Korean films to enjoy prosperity. Chunhyangjeon Lee Gyu hwan 춘향전 was released in 1955 and made the rebirth of Korean cinema.
6. The heyday 1955-1979. (Расцвет 1955-1979)
For convenience, if you compare the number of films produced in Korea, dividing the period into three parts, there are 166 films produced in the early years 1919-1945, 86 films, produced between 1946 and 1953 and 2.021 films created in the period from 1954 to 1970. Measures for tax exemption, the introduction of new film making machine and boost film audiences with great enthusiasm by the filmmakers. There are new genres such as teen films and literary films in the early to mid 1960-ies. Kim Ki-youngs the housemaid 1960 movie was released in 1960. Sin son-Il has earned fame through such films as barefoot youth 청춘 맨발의, the youth audience 청춘교실 and rye 흑맥 around this time. In 1961, Shin San OK In this house and my mother 사랑방 this application 손님과 and Yoo Hyun-MOX Obaltan aimless bullet, 오발탄 was produced. Whether the person is one of the best universities in late autumn 만추 in 1966, Choi ha-won old ceramist 독 짓는 늙은이 in 1969 improved the quality of Korean films. In the 1970-ies, however, the Korean film industry was again experiencing a terrible recession and began to seek a breakthrough, with Lee Jang-hos heavenly homecoming of the stars 별들의 고향 in 1974 and Kim Ho-sun winter woman 겨울여자 in 1977.
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