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★ Natural satellite
Natural satellite, or moon, is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits planet or a minor planet.
In the Solar system of six satellites of the planets of the system, containing 205 known natural satellites. Four IAU-listed dwarf planets have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris. As of September 2018, there are 334 other minor planets known to have moons.
The system Earth–Moon is unique among planetary systems in that the ratio of the mass of the moon to the mass of the Earth much more than any other natural satellite–planet ratio in the Solar system. In 3.474 km 2.158 miles across, the Moon is 0.273 times the diameter of Earth. Thats five times more than the second largest moon to planet diameter. For the category of a planetoid, among the five, which is known in the Solar system, Charon has the largest coefficient, 0.52 half the diameter of Pluto.
1. Terminology. (Терминология)
The first known natural satellite, the Moon, but it was considered a "planet" until Copernicus introduction de orbium coelestium in 1543. Before the discovery of the Galilean moons in 1610 there is no possibility to refer to such objects as a class. Galileo chose to refer to his discoveries as from another planet "planet", but later, the researchers chose other terms to distinguish them from the objects they orbit.
The first to use the term satellite to describe orbiting bodies was the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in his pamphlet Narratio de Observatis a Se Quartet for the end of Iouis satellitibus erronibus "narration about four satellites of Jupiter observed" in 1610. He derived the term from the Latin. satelles, meaning "guard", "attendant" or "companion", because the satellites accompanied their primary planet in their journey through the heavens.
Thus, the term satellite has become normal to refer to the object in orbit of the planet, as it helps to avoid ambiguity "the Moon". In 1957, however, the launch of the artificial object Sputnik created the demand for new terminology. The conditions of an artificial satellite, and artificial moon were very quickly abandoned in favor of the simpler satellite, and as a result, the term became linked primarily with artificial objects flown in space – including, sometimes, not even in orbit of the planet.
Because of this shift in meaning, the term moon, which continued to be used in a broad sense in works of popular science and fiction gained respectability and is now used along with natural satellite, even in scientific articles. When necessary to avoid ambiguity, confusion with the Earths natural satellite the Moon and the natural satellites of other planets, on the one hand, and artificial satellites on the other, the term natural satellite with "natural" in the sense opposed to "artificial" uses. In order to avoid ambiguity, the Convention is to capitalize the word Moon when referring to earths natural satellite, but not when it comes to other natural satellites.
Many authors define "companion" or "satellite" as orbiting a planet or a minor planet associated with the "moon" – a definition all natural satellites of the moon, but the earth and other planets are not satellites. Some modern authors define the Moon as a "satellite planet or a small planet" and "planet" as a "companion star" – these authors considered the earth as a "natural satellite of the Sun."
1.1. Terminology. The Definition Of The Moon. (Определение Луны)
There is no established lower limit on what is considered "the Moon". Every natural celestial body with a certain orbit around the planets of the Solar system, some as small as a kilometer in diameter, was considered a Moon, though objects a tenth the size of Saturns rings that were not directly observed, have been called moonlets. Small satellites of asteroids, natural satellites of asteroids, such as Dactyl, have also called moonlets.
The upper limit is also vague. Two bodies in orbit sometimes called a double planet, not the primary and satellite. Asteroids such as 90 Antiope are considered double asteroids, but they have not forced a clear definition as to what constitutes a Moon. Some authors believe that the system Pluto–Charon a double dwarf planet. The most common dividing line on what is considered a Moon rests on Whether the barycentre is below the surface of a large body, although it is somewhat arbitrary, since it depends on the distance and relative mass.
2. The origin and characteristics of the orbit. (Происхождение и характеристики орбиты)
The natural satellites orbiting relatively close to the planet on programnym, uninclined circular orbits of the regular satellites, as a rule, formed from the same collapsing region of the protoplanetary disk that created its primary. In contrast, irregular satellites are considered to be captured asteroids possibly further split at collisions. Most of the major natural satellites of the Solar system have regular orbits, while most of the small natural satellites have irregular orbits. On the moon and possibly Charon exceptions among large bodies in that they are believed to have originated as a result of collision of two large protoplanetary objects, the giant impact hypothesis. Materials that have been placed in orbit around a Central body is predicted to have reaccreted to form one or more revolving moons. In contrast to planetary size bodies, satellites of asteroids, believed to typically form in this process. Triton is another exception, although large and in a tight circular orbit, its motion is retrograde and it is considered to be a captured dwarf planet.
2.1. The origin and characteristics of the orbit. Temporary satellites. (Временные спутники)
Capture of the asteroid from heliocentric orbit is not always permanent. According to the simulation, temporary satellites must become commonplace. The only discovered example of a 2006 RH 120, which was a temporary satellite of the Earth for nine months in 2006 and 2007.
3. Tidal lock. (Приливные замок)
Most regular satellites natural satellites after relatively close and direct orbit with small orbital inclination and eccentricity in the Solar system is tidal locked to their primaries, meaning that one side of the natural satellite is always directed on the planet. The only known exception is a natural satellite of Saturn, Hyperion, which rotates chaotically because of the gravitational influence of Titan.
In contrast, the outer natural satellites of the giant planets irregular satellites too far away to have become locked. For example, Himalia Jupiter, Saturns Phoebe and Neptunes Nereid rotation periods in the range of ten hours, while their orbital periods are hundreds of days.
4. Satellites. (Спутники)
No "Moons of Moons" or natural satellites, subsatellites that currently orbit a natural satellite of the planet called 2020. In most cases, the tidal effects of the planets would make the system unstable.
However, calculations performed after the recent detection of a possible ring system around Saturns moon Rhea indicate that satellites orbiting Rhea would have stable orbits. In addition, the suspect rings are considered to be narrow, a phenomenon normally associated with shepherd moons. However, targeted images taken by the spacecraft Cassini was able to detect rings around Rhea.
It was also suggested Saturn yapet had satellite in the past, this is one of several hypotheses put forward with regard to its Equatorial ridge.
5. Trojan satellites. (Троянские спутники)
Two moons are known have small companions at their L 4 and L 5 Lagrangian points, sixty degrees ahead and behind the body in its orbit. These companions are called Trojan moons, as their orbits are analogous to the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter. Trojan moons Telesto and Calypso, which are the leading and following companions, respectively, the moon of Saturn, Tethys, and Helene and Poligone, leading and following satellites of Saturn moon dione.
6. Satellites of asteroids. (Спутники астероидов)
The opening 243 IDAs natural satellite Dactyl in the early 1990-ies have confirmed that some asteroids have natural satellites, indeed, 87 Sylvia has two. Some, such as 90 Antiope, a double asteroids with two similar sized components.
7. Form. (Форма)
Neptunes moon Proteus is the largest irregular shape of the natural satellite. All other known natural satellites that are at least the size of Uranuss Miranda slipped into a rounded ellipsoid in hydrostatic equilibrium, i.e. "round / rounded satellites". Larger natural satellites, being tidal locked, inclined to ovate-egg-shaped: to squat at their poles and Equatorial axes in the direction of their primaries, their planets, than in the direction of their movement. Saturns moon Mimas, for example, has a major axis 9% greater than its polar axis and 5% more than the other Equatorial axis. Methone, another moon of Saturn, is only about 3 km in diameter and markedly ovate. The effect is smaller for the largest moons, where self gravity is greater relative to the effects of tidal distortion, especially those that orbit a less massive planets or, as in the case of the moon, at large distances.
8. Geological activity. (Геологическая активность)
Of the nineteen known natural satellites in the Solar system that are large enough to have lapsed into hydrostatic equilibrium, several remain geologically active today. IO is the most volcanically active body in the Solar system, while Europa, Enceladus, Titan and Triton display evidence of ongoing tectonic activity and cryovolcanism. In the first three cases, the geological activity is powered by tidal heating in the result, having eccentric orbits close to their giant planets primaries. This mechanism will also be operated on the Triton in the past, before its orbit was circularized. Many other natural satellites, such as Earth, moon, Ganymede, Tethys and Miranda, show evidence of past geological activity, obtained from sources of energy such as the decay of their primordial radioisotopes, greater past orbital eccentricities due in some cases to past orbital resonances, or the differentiation or freezing of their interiors. Enceladus and Triton both have active features resembling geysers, although in the case of Triton solar heating for energy generation. Titan and Triton have significant atmospheres, Titan also has hydrocarbon lakes. Also Callisto and IO have atmospheres, even if they are very thin. Four of the largest moons, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan, as scientists believe, subsurface oceans of liquid water, while smaller Enceladus may have localized water is taken.
9. Natural satellites of the Solar system. (Естественных спутников Солнечной системы)
Objects within our Solar system have natural satellites, there are 76 in the asteroid belt, five and two, four Jupiter Trojans, 39 objects, near-Earth two with two satellites each, and 14 Mars-crossers. There are also 84 known natural satellites of TRANS-Neptunian objects. About 150 additional small bodies observed in the rings of Saturn, but only a few were recorded long enough to establish orbits. Planets around other stars are most likely to have satellites as well, although many candidates have been discovered to date, was not confirmed.
The inner planets, mercury and Venus have no natural satellites, Earth has one large natural satellite known as the Moon, and Mars has two small natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The giant planets have extensive systems of moons, including half a dozen comparable with the size of the Earth and the moon: the four Galilean moons, Saturns Titan and Neptunes Triton. Saturn has six medium natural satellites massive enough to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium, and Uranus has five. It has been suggested that some satellites may potentially harbour life.
Among the identified dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. Pluto has the relatively large natural satellite Charon and four smaller natural satellites, Styx, nix, Kerberos and Hydra. Haumea has two natural satellites, and Eris and Makemake one. The Pluto–Charon system is unusual in that the center of mass lies in open space between the two, a characteristic sometimes associated with the double planet.
The seven largest natural satellites in the Solar system more than 2.500 km in a few Jupiters Galilean moons, Saturns moon Titan, Earth, moon, and Neptunes captured natural satellite Triton. Triton, the smallest of them has a greater mass than all smaller moons together. Similarly, follows a group of nine medium natural satellites, between 1000 km and 1600 km in diameter, Titania, Oberon, Rhea, yapet, Sharon, Ariel, Umbriel, dione, and Tethys, small, Tethys, has more mass than all smaller moons together. And also natural satellites of the various planets, there are also over 80 known moons, dwarf planets, minor planets and other small bodies of the Solar system. According to some estimates, up to 15% of all TRANS-Neptunian objects have satellites.
Following is the comparative table of classification of natural satellites in the Solar system by diameter. The column on the right includes some notable planets, dwarf planets, asteroids and TRANS-Neptunian objects for comparison. Natural satellites of the planets were named after mythological figures. It is predominantly Greek, with the exception of Uranus natural satellites named after Shakespearean characters. Nineteen bodies massive enough to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium in bold in the table below. Small planets and satellites suspected but not proven, that have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium in italics in the table below.
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- The following is a list of Satellite Landing Grounds SLG A Satellite Landing Ground is typically an airfield with one or two grass runways which is
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