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★ Nijō Castle - castle ..

Nijō Castle
                                     

★ Nijō Castle

Nijo castle flatland castle in Kyoto, Japan. The castle consists of two concentric rings of fortifications, the Ninomaru Palace, the ruins of Honmaru Palace, various support buildings and several gardens. The area of the castle is of 275.000 square meters, of which 8.000 square meters is occupied by buildings.

This is one of the seventeen historic monuments of Ancient Kyoto which have been included in the UNESCO world heritage list.

                                     

1. History. (История)

In 1601 Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate, ordered all the feudal lords in Western Japan to contribute to the construction of nijō castle, which was completed during the reign of Tokugawa Iemitsu in 1626. When the construction of the castle, part of the land of the partially abandoned close to the garden, located to the South and absorbed the excess water was used in the castle gardens and ponds. Parts of Fushimi castle, such as the main tower and Caramon, were moved here in 1625-26. It was built as the Kyoto residence of the Tokugawa shoguns. The Tokugawa Shogunate used Edo as the capital city, but Kyoto continued to be the home of the Imperial court. Kyoto Imperial Palace is located North-East of Nijo castle.

The Central keep, or Tenshu, was struck by lightning and burned to the ground in 1750.

In 1788, the inner ward was destroyed by a citywide fire. This site remained empty until it was replaced by princes of residence transferred from the Imperial Palace in Kyoto in 1893.

In 1867, the Ninomaru Palace, in the outer office, was the stage for the Declaration by Tokugawa Yoshinobu, returning the authority of the Imperial court. The following year the Imperial Cabinet was installed in the castle. The Palace became Imperial property and was declared a private Palace. During this time, the Tokugawa crest mallow was removed wherever possible and replaced with the Imperial chrysanthemum.

In 1939 the Palace was donated to the city of Kyoto and opened to the public next year.

In the 21st century, typhoons periodically caused sections of plaster to peel off the walls after exposure to rain and wind.

                                     

2. Fortifications. (Укрепрайоны)

Nijo castle has two concentric rings of fortifications, each consisting of a wall and a wide moat. The outer wall has three gates, while the inner wall has two. In the South-Western corner of the internal wall, is the Foundation of the five-storey keep, destroyed by fire in 1750. The inner walls surround the interior, which contain Honmaru "Palace of the inner ward" with a garden. Ninomaru "second Palace ward", kitchens, a guard house and several gardens located in the outer compartment, between the two main rings of fortifications.

                                     

3. The Ninomaru Palace. (Дворец Ниномару)

In a 3.300 square meters and 36.000 square feet of 二の丸御殿 Ninomaru Palace, Ninomaru Gōten consists of five connected separate buildings and is built almost entirely of Hinoki cypress. Decoration includes a large amount of gold and complex carvings, intended to impress visitors with the power and richness of the shōguns. Sliding doors and walls of each room are decorated with paintings by artists of the Kanō school.

The castle is a fine example of social control manifested in architectural space. Low-ranking visitors were received in the outer regions of the Ninomaru, whereas high-ranking visitors were shown the more subtle inner chambers. Instead of trying to hide the entrances to the room for bodyguards, was done in many castles, the Tokugawas chose to display them in a prominent place. Thus, the construction lends itself to expressing intimidation and power of Edo-period visitors.

The building houses several different reception chambers, offices and living quarters in the shogun, where only female staff. One of the most striking features of the Ninomaru Palace are the "Nightingale floors" in the corridors uguisubari that make a whistling sound when walked on.

Some rooms in the castle also contained special doors where the shoguns bodyguards could sneak out to protect him.

Serial number starting with the entrance:

  • Yanagi-no-MA room of willow.
  • Chokushi-no-mA room of the Imperial envoys.
  • Tozamurai-no-mA room warriors. (Tozamurai-ни-ма номер вояк)
  • Wakamatsu-no-MA young pine room.
  • Shikidai-no-MA foster. (Shikidai-нет-Ма Фостер)
  • Rōchu-no-MA of Ministers offices.

Ōhiroma in the great hall of the Ninomaru Palace and consists of four chambers:

  • Ichi-no-mA, the first of the Grand Chamber.
  • San-no-MA, the third of the Grand Chamber.
  • Yon-no-mA of the fourth Grand Chamber.
  • No-no-mA the second of the Grand Chamber.

the Japanese as well as Musya-kakushi-no-mA chamber of bodyguards and hotel-no-MA fern-palm chamber.

The rear sections are Kuroshoin inner room and Shiroshoin the shogun with living quarters.

Main access to the Ninomaru is through Caramon, the court and Mi-kurumayose or "honourable carriages approach".



                                     

4. Honmaru Palace. (Дворца Honmaru)

本丸御殿 Honmaru Palace, Honmaru Goten has an area of 1600 square meters to 17.000 square meters. The complex consists of four parts: living quarters, reception and entertainment rooms, entrance hall and kitchen. Different areas connected by corridors and courtyards. The architectural style is late Edo period. Palace are paintings by several famous masters, such as Kanō Eigaku.

Honmaru Palace was originally similar to Ninomaru Palace. The original structure was replaced by the present structure between 1893 and 1894, by moving one part of the former Palace Katsura in Kyoto, the Imperial corps of Kyoto Gyoen, the enclosure surrounding the Imperial Palace in Kyoto to the interior Nijo castle as part of a systematic cleaning of abandoned houses and palaces of the Imperial body after the Imperial court moved to Tokyo in 1869. In its original site of the Palace had 55 buildings, but was transferred only a small part. In 1928 took place the enthronement Banquet of the Showa Emperor Hirohito was held here.

                                     

5. Gardens. (Сады)

The castle has several gardens and groves of cherry and Japanese plum. In the Ninomaru garden was designed by landscape architect and tea master Kobori Enshū. It is located between the two main rings of fortifications, next to the Palace of the same name. The garden has a large pond with three Islands and features numerous carefully placed stones and topiary pine trees.

At Seiryū-En garden is the most recent part of the Nijo castle. It was built in 1965 in the Northern part of the complex, as a room for receiving official guests of Kyoto and as a venue for cultural events. Seiryū-En has two tea houses and more than 1000 carefully arranged stones.

                                     

6. Literature. (Литература)

  • Schmorleitz, Morton S. 1974. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. P. 81-83. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4.
  • Motu, Hinago 1986. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. page 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1.
  • Benes, Oleg and ran Zwigenberg 2019. Castles of Japan: strongholds of modernity In War and peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 374. ISBN 9781108481946.
                                     
  • Kyoto, Japan Nijō Castle a castle in Nakagyō - ku, Kyoto Nijō Station Kyoto a train station in Nakagyō - ku, Kyoto Nijō Fukuoka 二丈町, Nijō - machi a former
  • Nijō Station 二条駅, Nijō - eki is a train station in Nakagyō - ku, Kyoto, Japan. West Japan Railway Company JR West Sagano Line Sanin Main Line Kyoto
  • hallways of some temples and palaces, the most famous example being Nijō Castle in Kyoto, Japan. Dry boards naturally creak under pressure, but these
  • 50th stop. It was built in a similar fashion to Nijō Castle Katō Akitomo became lord of Minakuchi Castle in 1682 and his descendants ruled it until the
  • Shinsenen 神泉苑 is a Shingon Japanese Buddhist temple located south of Nijō Castle in the approximate center of the modern city of Kyoto, Honshu, Japan
  • Nakagyō - ku. It is also home to several historical places and temples. Nijō Castle a former residence for the Tokugawa Shogunate Kyoto International Manga
  • finials. Not all Japanese castles originally possessed tenshu e.g. Sendai many well - known castles have lost their tenshu e.g. Nijō Edo many have had
  • he created a number of large - scale works for Edo Castle Nijō Castle Osaka Castle Nagoya Castle and Nikkō Tōshō - gū. Prolific in a variety of painting
  • Prefecture, Japan. Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line Station Number: T14 Nijō Castle Shinsenen Garden Mikane Shrine Takenobu Inari Jinja Horikawa Street Oike
  • eventually made a star out of Matsunosuke Onoe. Its first studio was the Nijō Castle Studio, the second the Hokkendō Studio. In 1912, Yokota Shōkai merged


                                     
  • 1892 1981 Nijō Motohiro Nijō Atsumoto Nijō Narinobu Nijō Nariyuki Nijō Masamaro Nijō Toyomoto 1909 1944 Nijō Tamemoto 1911 1985 Nijō Suiko married
  • laid siege against the Ninomaru Palace and Honmaru Palace currently Nijō Castle With no help arriving in time from the daimyōs that could have supported
  • this period is apparent in the characteristics of Ninomaru Palace at Nijō Castle as well as the shoin at Nishi Hongan - ji. The simpler style used in the
  • gate at Nijō Castle Three karahafu gables at Himeji Castle Matsunoo Taisha Shuri Castle in Okinawa Karamon Japanese architecture Japanese castle karahafu 唐破風
  • Sagami - no - kami - gumi and the Izumo - no - kami - gumi. The headquarters for the force was Nijō Castle in Kyoto. The purpose of the Mimawarigumi was very similar to that of
  • Fukushima Nijō Castle Kyoto, World Heritage Site Nirayama Castle Izunokuni, Shizuoka Nirengi Castle Toyohashi, Aichi Nishikawa Castle Toyohashi
  • Pagodas, Kaohsiung Itsukushima Shrine, Hiroshima Himeji Castle Hyogo Japanese Tea Ceremony in Nijō Castle Kyoto Zoological park image Nothing very little
  • many castles still standing today in Japan, only the honmaru remains. Nijō Castle in Kyoto is an interesting exception, in that the ni - no - maru still stands
  • Honnō - ji temple Hello Work Karasuma Oike Plaza Nichicon Corporation Nijō Castle Shinsenen Garden Shimadzu Corporation Sanjō Factory Kyoto Shiyakusho - mae
  • built for Hideyoshi s Fushimi castle in 1598. When the castle was dismantled in 1623, the gate was first moved to Nijō castle and then to the Konchi - in
  • the line from Daigo to Nijō opened. On November 26, 2004, the line from Daigo to Rokujizō opened. An extension westward from Nijō to Uzumasa Tenjingawa
                                     
  • Akō Castle Fushimi Castle Goryōkaku Nakagusuku Castle Nijō Castle Odawara Castle Oka Castle Osaka Castle Shibata Castle Shuri Castle Uwajima Castle Daugavpils
  • Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 54, No. 2 Dec., 1994 pp. 509 551. Nijō Castle construction, Columbia University. Bolitho, Harold. 1974 Treasures
  • month A terrific storm of wind and rain strikes Kyoto and the keep of Nijō Castle is burnt after it was struck by lightning. Nussbaum, Louis - Frederic.
  • there was a shriek, and a nue fell down around the northern parts of Nijō Castle Instantly Ino Hayata seized it and finished it off. In the skies above
  • courtyards or lying detached, similar to the structures that can be seen in Nijō Castle in Kyoto today. These structures were used for either residential or
  • Mikatagahara. 1573 Genki 4, 2nd month Yoshinaka began to fortify Nijō Castle and he sent messages to Azai Nagamasa, Asakura Yoshikage, and Takeda
  • Seimei Shrine. Ichijō Modori Bashi 一条戻橋 Horikawa Shopping Street 堀川商店街 Nijō Castle Hotel Ana Crowne Plaza Kyoto. Nijōjō - mae Subway Station. Nakagyō - ku
  • Honnoji and killed Nobunaga, Katsunaga was killed while defending the Nijō Palace Nijō - gosho Katsunaga s son Oda Katsuyoshi became a retainer of Oda Nobukatsu
  • Ehime Niimi Nankichi Niimi, Okayama Niitsu, Niigata Niiza, Saitama Nijō Castle Nijō Fukuoka Miho Nikaido Nikkatsu Nikkei 225 Nikkō, Tochigi Nikkō priest

Encyclopedic dictionary

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