★ Nijō Castle
Nijo castle flatland castle in Kyoto, Japan. The castle consists of two concentric rings of fortifications, the Ninomaru Palace, the ruins of Honmaru Palace, various support buildings and several gardens. The area of the castle is of 275.000 square meters, of which 8.000 square meters is occupied by buildings.
This is one of the seventeen historic monuments of Ancient Kyoto which have been included in the UNESCO world heritage list.
1. History. (История)
In 1601 Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate, ordered all the feudal lords in Western Japan to contribute to the construction of nijō castle, which was completed during the reign of Tokugawa Iemitsu in 1626. When the construction of the castle, part of the land of the partially abandoned close to the garden, located to the South and absorbed the excess water was used in the castle gardens and ponds. Parts of Fushimi castle, such as the main tower and Caramon, were moved here in 1625-26. It was built as the Kyoto residence of the Tokugawa shoguns. The Tokugawa Shogunate used Edo as the capital city, but Kyoto continued to be the home of the Imperial court. Kyoto Imperial Palace is located North-East of Nijo castle.
The Central keep, or Tenshu, was struck by lightning and burned to the ground in 1750.
In 1788, the inner ward was destroyed by a citywide fire. This site remained empty until it was replaced by princes of residence transferred from the Imperial Palace in Kyoto in 1893.
In 1867, the Ninomaru Palace, in the outer office, was the stage for the Declaration by Tokugawa Yoshinobu, returning the authority of the Imperial court. The following year the Imperial Cabinet was installed in the castle. The Palace became Imperial property and was declared a private Palace. During this time, the Tokugawa crest mallow was removed wherever possible and replaced with the Imperial chrysanthemum.
In 1939 the Palace was donated to the city of Kyoto and opened to the public next year.
In the 21st century, typhoons periodically caused sections of plaster to peel off the walls after exposure to rain and wind.
2. Fortifications. (Укрепрайоны)
Nijo castle has two concentric rings of fortifications, each consisting of a wall and a wide moat. The outer wall has three gates, while the inner wall has two. In the South-Western corner of the internal wall, is the Foundation of the five-storey keep, destroyed by fire in 1750. The inner walls surround the interior, which contain Honmaru "Palace of the inner ward" with a garden. Ninomaru "second Palace ward", kitchens, a guard house and several gardens located in the outer compartment, between the two main rings of fortifications.
3. The Ninomaru Palace. (Дворец Ниномару)
In a 3.300 square meters and 36.000 square feet of 二の丸御殿 Ninomaru Palace, Ninomaru Gōten consists of five connected separate buildings and is built almost entirely of Hinoki cypress. Decoration includes a large amount of gold and complex carvings, intended to impress visitors with the power and richness of the shōguns. Sliding doors and walls of each room are decorated with paintings by artists of the Kanō school.
The castle is a fine example of social control manifested in architectural space. Low-ranking visitors were received in the outer regions of the Ninomaru, whereas high-ranking visitors were shown the more subtle inner chambers. Instead of trying to hide the entrances to the room for bodyguards, was done in many castles, the Tokugawas chose to display them in a prominent place. Thus, the construction lends itself to expressing intimidation and power of Edo-period visitors.
The building houses several different reception chambers, offices and living quarters in the shogun, where only female staff. One of the most striking features of the Ninomaru Palace are the "Nightingale floors" in the corridors uguisubari that make a whistling sound when walked on.
Some rooms in the castle also contained special doors where the shoguns bodyguards could sneak out to protect him.
Serial number starting with the entrance:
- Yanagi-no-MA room of willow.
- Chokushi-no-mA room of the Imperial envoys.
- Tozamurai-no-mA room warriors. (Tozamurai-ни-ма номер вояк)
- Wakamatsu-no-MA young pine room.
- Shikidai-no-MA foster. (Shikidai-нет-Ма Фостер)
- Rōchu-no-MA of Ministers offices.
Ōhiroma in the great hall of the Ninomaru Palace and consists of four chambers:
- Ichi-no-mA, the first of the Grand Chamber.
- San-no-MA, the third of the Grand Chamber.
- Yon-no-mA of the fourth Grand Chamber.
- No-no-mA the second of the Grand Chamber.
the Japanese as well as Musya-kakushi-no-mA chamber of bodyguards and hotel-no-MA fern-palm chamber.
The rear sections are Kuroshoin inner room and Shiroshoin the shogun with living quarters.
Main access to the Ninomaru is through Caramon, the court and Mi-kurumayose or "honourable carriages approach".
4. Honmaru Palace. (Дворца Honmaru)
本丸御殿 Honmaru Palace, Honmaru Goten has an area of 1600 square meters to 17.000 square meters. The complex consists of four parts: living quarters, reception and entertainment rooms, entrance hall and kitchen. Different areas connected by corridors and courtyards. The architectural style is late Edo period. Palace are paintings by several famous masters, such as Kanō Eigaku.
Honmaru Palace was originally similar to Ninomaru Palace. The original structure was replaced by the present structure between 1893 and 1894, by moving one part of the former Palace Katsura in Kyoto, the Imperial corps of Kyoto Gyoen, the enclosure surrounding the Imperial Palace in Kyoto to the interior Nijo castle as part of a systematic cleaning of abandoned houses and palaces of the Imperial body after the Imperial court moved to Tokyo in 1869. In its original site of the Palace had 55 buildings, but was transferred only a small part. In 1928 took place the enthronement Banquet of the Showa Emperor Hirohito was held here.
5. Gardens. (Сады)
The castle has several gardens and groves of cherry and Japanese plum. In the Ninomaru garden was designed by landscape architect and tea master Kobori Enshū. It is located between the two main rings of fortifications, next to the Palace of the same name. The garden has a large pond with three Islands and features numerous carefully placed stones and topiary pine trees.
At Seiryū-En garden is the most recent part of the Nijo castle. It was built in 1965 in the Northern part of the complex, as a room for receiving official guests of Kyoto and as a venue for cultural events. Seiryū-En has two tea houses and more than 1000 carefully arranged stones.
6. Literature. (Литература)
- Schmorleitz, Morton S. 1974. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. P. 81-83. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4.
- Motu, Hinago 1986. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. page 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1.
- Benes, Oleg and ran Zwigenberg 2019. Castles of Japan: strongholds of modernity In War and peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 374. ISBN 9781108481946.
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