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★ Auraiya - auraiya ..


Auraiya
                                     

★ Auraiya

Auraiya is a city and a municipal Board in Auraiya district in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is also the district headquarters. HX 19 passes through the center of the city.Dibiyapur RS is nearest railway station.The Saifai airport is the nearest airport.and share district of etava, in 1995

                                     

1. History. (История)

17 September 1997, two "tehsilimi" named Auraiya and Bidhuna were separated from district etava form the new district named as Auraiya. New Ajitmal Tehsil Auraiya district. It is situated on National highway no. 2 Mughal road and 64 km in the East district Etawah and 105 km. in the Western part of Kanpur.

                                     

1.1. History. Modern History. (Современная История)

Under the Rohillas in 1760, Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India, he was against the Marathas in 1761, on the field of Panipat and inflicted on them a signal defeat. Among other Maratha chieftains Govind RAO Pandit lost his life in action. Before departure from India the Durrani chief consigned large tracts of country to the Rohilla chieftains, and while Dhunde Khan received shikohabad, Inayat Khan, Son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan received the district Etawah. Was then in the possession of the Marathas and accordingly in 1762 a Rohilla in force was sent under Mullah Mohsin Khan to wrest the assigned property from the Marathas. This force was opposed near the town of Etawah on Kishan RAO and RAO Bala Pandits, who were defeated and forced to flee across the Yamuna river. After the siege was laid the Fort Etawah to Mohsin Khan, but the Fort was soon surrendered by its commander, and the district fell into the hands of the Rohillas.

The occupation, however, was at first merely nominal, zamindars refused to pay revenue to Inayat Khan and, secure in their mud FORTS set his authority at defiance. Strong reinforcements were sent to the Rohillas, including artillery, to Coober Sheikh and Mullah baz Khan, and many small FORTS were razed to the ground, but in their gorges, fortresses, zamindars of Kamait in the TRANS-Yamuna tract is still resisting power Inayat Khan. Then Hafiz Rahmat and Inayat Khan came in person to Etawah and operations was vigorously pressed against the refractory zamindars. In the end the annual tribute was agreed upon last. Then Hafiz Rahmat departed to Bareilly, and Rohilla garrisons were established in convenient places in the area. Meanwhile a new Minister arose at Delhi called Najib Khan, better known as Najib-UD-Daula, Amir-ul-Umra, Shuja-UD-Daula managed to Safdar Jang as Nawab Wazir and occupied most of Bangash possessions as far as Aligarh, with the exception of those provided for in Durrani Rohillas after the battle of Pandit. But wazirs hostility to the Farrukhabad Afghans had not abated one iota, and in 1762 he convinced Najib-UD-Daula to join him in the attack on Farrukhabad. The attack was repulsed with the aid of Hafiz Rahmat Khan and matters, and everything is peaceful again.

In 1766 the Marathas under Mulhar RAO, awaiting their opportunity, once more crossed the Jamuna and attacked Phaphund, where they were placed the Rohilla force under Muhammad Hasan Khan eldest son of Mohsin Khan. On receipt of this news Hafiz Rahmat was released from Rajahmundry against the Marathas. It was registered under Phaphund Sheikh Kuber, the Rohilla Governor of Etawah, and prepared to give battle, but Mulhar RAO refused to risk an engagement and once more retired across the Jamuna. The ambitions of Najib-UD-daulah was greatly annoyed by the intervention of the Rohillas on behalf of Ahmad Khan Bangladesh in 1762, and though he was too busy otherwise to pursue his plans of revenge, he began in 1770 to plot the fall of Hafiz Rahmat Khan.

Accordingly, the Maratha army was invited in Delhi for the first wresting Farrukhabad from Ahmad Khan and after the invasion Rohikhand. The United forces of Najib-UD-Daula and the Marathas out of Delhi, but at Koil Najib-UD-Daula fell ill and retraced, leaving his eldest son, zabita Khan to operate with the Marathas. However zabita Khan was not inclined to fight against his brother Afghans. Maratha, knowing this, kept him a prisoner in their camp, and he asked Hafiz Rahmat Khan to obtain his release. Hafiz Kamal Khan therefore opened negotiations with the Marathas for the release of zabita Khan, but the Maratha leaders demanded as their price the surrender of jagirs Etawah and Shikohabad. Hafiz Rahmat Khan was not inclined to accept those terms, and yet negotiations on the purchase of hammered Maratha Khan escaped. Its been a few inconclusive clashes between the Marathas and Afghan forces. Inayat Khan was summoned by his father to Farrukhabad with the fact that it can be advice about putting his jagirs. But while Dhunde Khan agreed to give Shikohabad Inayat Khan refused to surrender Etawah.

Ultimately, disgusted by him arrangement fathers, he returned to Bareilly, and his father, under their own responsibility sent orders to Sheikh Kuber, the Rohilla Governor of Etawah, to surrender the Fort by Marathas. The Marathas now marched to Etawah, but as the orders had not yet reached him Sheikh Kuber gave them battle. Several desperate attacks were made on Fort Etawah which were all beaten off, but in the end he was handed over to the Marathas in accordance with Hafiz Sharaf khans orders, and the Rohillas to leave the area, leaving it again in the hands of the Marathas. Later in the same year, 1771, the Marathas advanced to Delhi and reinstated the Emperor Shah Alam, who was cast with him, on the throne. Now they were the masters of the Empire and zabita Khan are against them. Gathering his strength, he attacked the Marathas near Delhi, but was defeated, and in 1772 the Marathas captured most of Rohilkhand and captured Najafgarh, where crowded families, the khans lived and his treasure lay.

When the Government hammered Oud Khan requested the assistance of Shuja-UD-Daula, Nawab Wazir of Avada, but the Nawab declined to interfere unless Hafiz Rahmat Khan applied on his behalf. Negotiations began with Shah Alam and the Marathas for the recovery of slaughtered families, the khans and the evacuation of Rohilkhand. Maratha agreed to take 40 lakhs of rupees, provided that Shuja-UD-Daula laid the responsibility for the payment, but Shuja-UD-Daula now refused to enter into any such engagement, if Hafiz Kamal Khan gave him the money. Before Hafiz Kamal Khan agreed, bond was signed and the Marathas retired from Rohilkhand. In 1773, the Marathas proposed to attack Shuja-UD-Daula and attempted to gain the help of Hifaz Rahmat Khan. The latter refused them to him. Instead, he sent information to Shuja-UD-Daula concerning what he had done, and requested the restoration of his bonds. Shuja-UD-Daula expressed his approval of Hafiz Sharaf khans of conduct and promised to return the bonds to the Marathas, was defeated. Maratha was defeated at Asadpur by the combined forces Shuja-UD-Daula and Hafiz Rahmat Khan, with the result that they cease not only Rohilkhand but Delhi also.

Shuja-UD-daulah then returned to oudh, but never denied that he promised to restore the link. Then he seduced many of the Afghan Rohillas from their allegiance to Hafiz Rahmat Khan, and then extract the Maratha garrisons of etava and Shikohabad although Rahmat khans protest. When he went further and called upon Hafiz Rahmat Khan, to fulfill the balance of the 35 lakhs of the bond. It was only a pretext for provoking hostilities, for which purpose the Nawab had already begun to assemble an army and Hafiz Kamal Khan, having failed to pay, the Nawab advanced to the Ganges. The last scene in the tangled history of the period closed with the defeat of Hafiz Rahmat Khan by Shuja-UD-daulah, which was sent to British troops at the battle of Miranpur Katra in the Shahjahanpur district on April 23 1774 Etawah under the oudh government.

From 1774 to 1801, the district Arvind remained under the government of the RM. Little occurred to disturb it during this period and little is known about its history. For many years the district administration was in the hands of MIAN Almas Ali Khan. Ails were stationed, we know, at Etawah, Kudarkot and Phaphunnd. One of those who held this position last name was posted Raja Bhagmal or Baramal. Last one was the caste of jats and sisters the son of Almas Ali Khan, who was by birth a Hindu, but later was a eunuch and converted to Islam. Raja Bhagmal built the Fort at Phaphund and the old mosque, which still bears an inscription recording thenamed donor. Almas Ali Khan, recording at the colony Sleeman,"the greatest and best man" Awad ever created, to be amassed enormous wealth, but having no heirs, he spent his money for the benefit of people who pay him. He sometimes held court at Kudarkot, where he built a Fort, in which the massive ruins still remain. In etawah the amils to say that lived in the fortress, but the building was destroyed by Shuja-UD-Daula as a result of the Etawah townspeople that, while amils occupied such an impregnable residence, they would never do anything except oppression of the people.

                                     

2. Geography. (География)

Boundaries and area the district of Auraiya lies in the southwestern portion of Uttar Pradesh 26° 21" and 27° 01" North latitude and 78° 45" and 79° 45" East longitude and is part of Kanpur division. It is bounded on the North by the districts of Kannauj, Western border adjoins Tehsil Bharthana of etava district and Gwalior. The Eastern frontier marches with the district Kanpur Dehat, and along the South lie Jalaun. The total area according to the statistics of 1991-92 is calculated 2054 square kilometer.

Topography

Auraiya lies entirely in the Gangetic plain, but its physical features vary considerably and are determined by the rivers that cross it. The area of Etawah and Auraiya districts is divisible into four portions of district natural characteristics. The first consists of countries lying to the North-East of the senger river, which crosses it from West to East almost parallel to the Yamuna, it involves in the Northern part of tahsils Etawah and Bharthana. The second tract lies to the South of the senger and extends to the high lands immediately overlooking the Yamuna. It includes slightly undulating switch of country covering portions of Etawah and Bharthana and the mass Auraiya Tehsil Auraiya district. The tract includes parts of some "tehsilimi" that adjoins the river Yamuna. Beyond the Yamuna, stretching from the borders of wave Bah in Agra to the confluence of the Sindh, Kuwari, Chambal and Yamuna rivers, lies the high and broken Country formerly known as Janibrast. These sites differ from each other in a very appreciable degree, although each represents the total satisfaction within their own borders.

Soil

In the Pachar and Ghar tracts of soil are widely distinguishable in thinking or loam, matiyar or clay and Bhur or sand. Moreover, they can be found everywhere low-lying beds of clay in which water collects during the rains and rice alone can be grown, these clay beds are known as Jhabar. In kurka and TRANS-Yamuna tract several other classes of soil met with. In the cliffs of the river land immediately adjacent fields are full of kankar and gravel, the soil of which is called Pakar, it is a sandy soil mixed with gravel. Below the ravines and in the wider valleys between them the soil, the flooded Yamuna kachhar is called, and the edges of the streams there is a rich strip of alluvial deposits, which is called TIR. As kachhar and TIR vary greatly in quality: some areas of these soils consist of a rich reddish clay which lets at a high rent, the other parts consist of dark loam, and sandy in appearance and less fertile.

River system the rivers and streams in Auraiya and Etawah districts jointly consist of the Yamuna two large affluent, the Chambal and Kuwari in the Sengar and its tributary Sirsa, the rind or Arind and its tributaries Ahenya, the Puraha and in Panda.



                                     

3. Demographics. (Демография)

As of the 2001 census of India, Auraiya had a population of 64.598. Men account for 53% of the population and females 47%. Auraiya has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 56% men and 44% of women are literate. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.

                                     

4. Language and script. (Язык и письменность)

The language of almost the entire population is what is known as Western Hindi. The results of the population census of 1981 showed that this language was extended to 96.8 per cent of the population. In 1971, the percentage of speakers of Hindi persons 96.4. Western Hindi is divided into several units. In 1981, known as Hindi or Urdu is spoken by about 3.10 per cent 3.35 per cent in 1961 people, representing for the most part the inhabitants of Etawah city, while the majority of people says Antarbedi, or its variant called Pachharua, so called after the tract of that name. In the TRANS-Yamuna part of the district is the dialect known as Bhadauri, which is a form of Bundelkhandi, itself a branch of Hindi. It got its name from the Bhadawar house Bhadoria Rajputs. Some people also speak Punjabi, Bengali or Hindi. Devannagri the script used for Hindi and its subsidiaries allies, such as Garhwali, Kumauni etc. and the script used for Urdu, Farsi. Other languages, as a rule, using your own scripts.but devnagri is the most used language in this area

                                     

5. Tourist Places. (Туристические Места)

Yagya Sthal of Bhagwa Kali temple this temple is located in the South district headquarters of Auraiya and close to the banks of the river Yamuna. According to the ancient history and customs, the temple belongs to the 11th century BC, but archaeological view of it was built in the 18th D. E. the temple is mainly dedicated to Lord Shiva. A very old Shiva temple is located near the Yamuna riverThere is a Mela is held every year in the month of Sawan.

It is 3.8 km from the bus station, Auraiya.

Kamdev temple this temple is very old temple on Auraiya road is 3.9 km from the bus station, Auraiya.

Temple Guraiya

This temple is famous for ancient architectural values. This Shiva temple is built on a square platform on the road to 1.5 km from the bus station, Auraiya.

Devi Kali

very old Lord the temple is situated near the river Yamuna. There is a Mela is held every year in the month sawan.by road 1.2 km from the bus station, Auraiya.

Collectorate

The headquarters of the Collectorate, is situated at Kakor Auraiya-Dibiyapur road. on the road 12 km from the bus station, Auraiya.

Badi Devi

The temple is situated in the heart Padheen Darwaja to Phaphund road Auraiya by road is 3.8 km from the bus station, Auraiya.



                                     

6. Transport. (Транспорт)

Airways. (Хаво йуллари)

The nearest airport is Kanpur airport at Chakeri, which is

less than 2 hours drive from the city.

Railroad. (Железная дорога)

  • The nearest train from phaphund headquarters Auraiya.
  • The nearest railway junction is situated in Etawah of 60 km.
  • Graduated nearest railway station Phaphund is 20 km Dibiyapur.
                                     
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