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Basturs Poble bonebed
                                     

★ Basturs Poble bonebed

Basturs Poble bonebed is a mega-skeleton of hadrosaur fossils discovered in Catalonia, Spain. Hundreds of hadrosaur fossils have been found at this site, which must have been located on the Big island at the end of the Cretaceous period, when the preserved animals were still alive. Despite the huge number of specimens, taxonomically informative material at this site was scarce, leading to extensive discussions about its nature. The number of species present, the age of individuals present in the sample, and the taxonomic identity of the remains were the main issues discussed. Previously thought to represent Koutalisaurus, Pararhabdodon, or several possibly dwarf species, it is now believed that a single, undetermined species of lambeosaurine was present at the site, and that individuals of many different ages were present there.

                                     

1. The opening and the length. (Отверстие и длина)

Mark Boada discovered in the late 1990s a new fossil locality 300 meters 980 feet from the village of Basturs, Catalonia. Since the village has already given its name to the area where the dinosaur eggs were found, it was named Basturs Poble BP locality, "Poble" comes from the word for village. This locality belongs to The Konk-formation of the Tremp group, Dating from the late-early Maastrichtian. For ten years, from 2001 to 2011, field work was carried out on this site, and a massive skeleton consisting of about a thousand skeletal elements was discovered. This discovery was first reported in the literature in an abstract at the conference "55th Symposium on vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy and the 16th meeting of the Symposium on paleontological preparation and conservation" in 2007. The authors thus approached the Bone bed in accordance with the hypothesis of a single species present at this site. It was reported that all ontogenetic stages are present.

The stratigraphic layer in which the bone was found has a thickness of 1.5 meters 4.9 feet. About 95% of all remains from this site belong to dinosaurs, almost all identified specimens from this specimen belong to hadrosaurs. From the prepared material, 270 skeletal elements can be confidently identified as belonging to hadrosauroids. The total number of hadrosaur specimens at this site may be more than 500, and possibly 900 individuals. In addition to the large number of fossils of the animals themselves, the BP area is one of the many areas of the tremp syncline where hadrosaur tracks have been found. At least one trace remains at this site, in a Sandstone block from a stratigraphic level similar to that on the bone bed. It is the richest hadrosaurian backbone ever found in Europe, and the largest ever found in a single paleoinsular region. as such, it is the most important hadrosauroid site of the Eastern Tremp Syncline.

                                     

2. Number of species present. (Количество присутствующих видов)

The main subject of research concerning bone cover has been the taxonomic identity of hadrosaurs there, namely, whether only one taxon or several taxa are present. The question is complicated by the rarity of cranial elements in the sample, since they are the most taxonomically informative parts of the skeleton in hadrosaurs. Initially, it was assumed that only one species was present in the sample. In 2015, a study by Alejandro Blanco and colleagues conducted several types of morphometric analysis to study the diversity of hadrosaurs in the Pyrenees using dentures. The number of alveolar positions in the dentria was the main indicator for distinguishing, since more basal taxa possess a smaller number, although it was noted that this may also increase with age as the individual grows. Three morphotypic groups of samples with different anatomy from other groups were found in the sample, of which two numbers two and three were present in the BP bone tissue. Analysis of the growth trajectories of various morphotypes confirmed their separation. Sexual dimorphism, which is the cause of different anatomies, was considered unlikely due to different regression analysis results. The three morphotype was interpreted as belonging to the dwarf, potentially the relic hadrosauroid, and the two morphotypes were considered as representing larger lambeosaurine animals. It was emphasized that each morphotype is not necessarily a single species, but only a representative of a certain line of hadrosaurs.

In 2018, a more extensive study of the material was conducted by Victor Fondevilla and colleagues, and the question of how many taxa were present in the sample was investigated using samples from multiple body parts, not just dentures. In General, a large number of variations were observed in the samples, but since this was gradual and not a case of two obvious morphotypes, the authors attributed this to individual variation. As for dentures, they were also not clearly divided into several morphotypes due to the large number of variations between all of them. It was noted that one particular denture is quite different from the rest, but taphonomic damage or improper restoration during the preparation of the fossil was considered as possible explanations, rather than taxonomic differences. The authors suggested that hadrosaurs present in the bony masonry should be identified as a special taxon of lambeosaurus.

                                     

3. Size and age of individuals. (Размер и возраст особей)

In the taxonomy that has been noted and studied, the size and ontogenetic growth and development of the individuals represented are closely intertwined. The sample contains individuals of various sizes, but in General they are smaller animals than hadrosaurs known from Asia and North America. Despite this, a small number of individuals falling into the adult size range of other hadrosaurs are designated by isolated elements such as thighs. Many hypotheses have been put forward to explain this: first, juvenile individuals may have been the dominant stage of life living in the area where the backbone was preserved, due to ecological differences over the course of life; second, they may be dwarf animals dominating the environment of relatively rare larger species; and finally, it is possible that large individuals were comparative giants of a single dwarf species near the extreme end of individual species variability. A 2015 analysis of hadrosaur dentures from the Pyrenees revealed the presence of two morphotypes in the bone tissue, so they supported the second hypothesis.

A deeper 2018 study used histological analysis to estimate the age of various individuals using the tibia bones. Of the several shins tested, four ranging in length from 390 mm to 450 mm (15-18 inches) were identified as juveniles between one and three years old based on comparison with tissue patterns of other ornithopods, and three more were probably juveniles based on similarities to the first four. It turned out that the eighth 550 millimeters long 22 inches and the ninth 720 millimeters long 28 inches belong to an early adult and subadult individual, respectively. It was found that 720 mm 28 in the femur share subadult growth features with the subadult tibia. It was found that three tibia bones measuring 550 mm 22 inches, 600 mm 24 inches and about 900 mm 35 inches, respectively, belonged to adults. The growth trajectory was found to be consistent between the shins, which supports the idea that the site represents a wide variety of age stages of a single species.



                                     

4. Taxonomic identity. (Таксономическая идентичность)

A poster presentation and Abstract at the conference suggested that the specimens may have belonged to Koutalisaurus kohlerorum, but they cautioned that to test the hypothesis, it would be necessary to detect an adult dentary from bone marrow. This was later rejected, as Koutalisaurus was invalidated by a nomen dubium. Fondevilla et al. 2018 is compared with material from Basture Poble for recognized lambeosaur species from geographically and temporarily similar locations in the Pyrenees. It was discovered that ugali from the sample differ from those known from Bratisava and Aranibar, possible synonyms of Prarabdha, and frontali is also different from the last. The identity of both the specimens and any of these taxa was therefore excluded. Overlap of taxonomically informative material with Pararabdodon was not found from bone tissue, except for the upper jaw, which is too fragmentary for use in the referral. However, both the typical localization of SRA and the localization of the mentioned upper jaw MCD 4919 are close to the area where the bone was found. Thus, it was considered most likely that the Basturs of Poble hadrosaurs are representatives of the species P. isonensis, but the poor state of preservation of the only comparable material in the bonebed prevented a reliable direction. Later, in 2019, a study by Prieto-Marquez et al. a new genus and species of Spanish lambeosaurus, Adynomosaurus arcanus, has been described. They compared the material of their species with that of bone, and although similarities were found, their dental crowns and Elias had different shapes, and the scapulae from this location did not have the distinct shallow nature that characterizes A. arcanus. Accordingly, they considered it unlikely that the backbone belonged to their own species. In addition, they commented on the absence of synapomorphs of cintaosaurines in the bone material and therefore retained a reference to unspecified lambeosaurines, instead of considering it a representative of Pararhabdodon.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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