★ Cinema of Belgium
Cinema of Belgium refers to the film industry based in Belgium. Belgium is essentially a bilingual country divided into the Flemish North and Francophone South. There is also a small community of German language in the border area with Germany. Belgium is further a Federal country made up of three regions and three language communities, the French community and the German-speaking community). Because of these linguistic and political divisions it is difficult to talk about a national, Unified cinema of Belgium. It would be more appropriate to talk about the Flemish or Dutch-language cinema of Belgium, the Walloon or French movie from Belgium.
1.1. History. Early history. (Ранняя история)
While the cinematic invention of the French lumière brothers is widely regarded as the birth of cinema, a number of developments in photography preceded the advent of film. Among the people pioneering work on animation devices was a Belgian Professor of experimental physics Joseph plateau. Plateau, who was active at the Ghent University invented an early stroboscopic device in 1836, "phenakistiscope". It consisted of two disks, one with small equidistant radial Windows, through which the viewer can watch, and the other containing a sequence of images. When the two disks rotated at the correct speed, the synchronization of the Windows and the images created an animated effect. The projection of stroboscopic photographs, creating the illusion of motion, eventually led to the development of the cinema.
The first public projection in Belgium took place on 1 March 1896 in the kings gallery in Brussels. In subsequent years there was a surge of activity initially dominated by the French industrial Charles pathé. One of his assistants, Alfred machin founded the first Studio in 1910, some of his films are still preserved in the Royal Filmarchive in Brussels. The first Belgian producer of the film Hippolyte de Kempeneer, who produced several interesting films until his Studio burned down in 1923.
1.2. History. 1930 - 1980
However, in the 1930s the first serious attempt at a movie. Several prominent figures such as Charles Dekeukeleire and Henri Storck experimented with new filming techniques and founded the Belgian documentary school, which has long been considered one of the highlights of Belgian cinema. With the advent of sound, Directors such as Jan Vanderheyden fully explored the possibilities of the medium, adapting popular literary works such as de Witte of Ernest Claes. De Witte was the main work in the history of Belgian cinema. The film was a huge popular success and would spawn a future remake and a TV series, which was widely known in its own right.
While trying to get a serious feature film is often met with difficulty, Belgian animated films gradually acquired reputation abroad, led by animators such as Raoul Servais, who won several awards throughout the sixties in a career that ended with the Palme dor for best short feature in 1979 for Harpya.
In 1964, the film can be subsidized by the government, making way for a new generation of filmmakers such as andré Delvaux-de man die. as a result, the Haar Kort Liet Knippen, by Johan Daisnes novel, Roland Verhavert Pallieter, after Felix novel Timmermanss and Harry Kumel.
1.3. History. 1980 - 2000
In the 1980s, however, saw a break with tradition 60-ies and 70-ies, which is increasingly perceived to be too unnatural or otherwise concerned with the rural drama, which formed the basis for a more personal sand movie, was led by people such as Marc Didden Brussels by night and Rob de Hert Blueberry hill, Brylcream Boulevard. However, in 1985 saw the light of an ambitious, but spectacular failure de Leeuw van Vlaanderen, written and directed by Hugo Claus, after Hendrik conscience. Belgian recognition in the animation continued the Academy award for best animated short film in 1987 with the Greek tragedy, Nicole van Goethem.
Belgian cinema finally took flight during the 1990-ies, gained international renown through such films as Man bites dog with Benoit Poelvoorde, Director Daens Stijn Coninx, Rosetta directed by the Dardenne brothers and Toto the hero Toto the hero Jaco van Dormael. Toto the hero has received wide critical acclaim, winning the Cesar award for best foreign film and the camera Dor at the Cannes film festival. In 2000, Dominic Derudderes Known To All! was nominated for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film. As Rosetta, in the Dardennes LEnfant 2005 the film won the Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival. Other important Walloon Directors include Fabrice du Welz, Lucas Belvaux, Bouli Lanners and Vincent Lannoo.
1.4. History. Present. (Присутствует)
Pauline and Paulette a 2001 Comedy-drama film directed and co-written by Lieven debrauwer website is joining Belgium in the Oscar 2001 for Best foreign language film but failed to get a real nomination. Dora van der Groen was awarded Best actress at the Joseph plateau awards for her role of Pauline. Erik van Looys detective film the Case of Alzheimers is known worldwide as the memory of a killer was released in 2003. Van Looys subsequent Thriller the Loft opened in 2008, and twice the opening reception is the same as in the case of Alzheimers disease. Ben X directed by NIC Balthazar became an international success after its release in 2007. The film was the Belgian entry for the Best foreign film in 2007, but will not be nominated.
Classical literary works continue to be adapted, in particular the work of Willem Elsschot, and often in co-production with Dutch production companies.
The adaptation of new literary works are also frequent. In the Misfortunates Director Felix van Minsk and released in 2009, is an adaptation of the eponymous book De helaasheid der dingen by Flemish writer Dimitri Verhulst. The film won several awards including the Prix art and essays at the Cannes film festival Quinzaine Des Realisateurs hotel and three Gold Star awards at the 17th international film festival in the Hamptons. The film is the official entry of Belgium to the 82nd Oscar 2010 in the category Best foreign language film. Another example of adaptation of the modern novel-2007 Movie ex drummer directed by Koen Mortier that was based on the book by Herman Brusselmans of the same name. Mr. Nobody Director Jaco van Dormael and released in 2010 gained wide critical acclaim, having won the Magritte award for Best film and the andré Cavens award. In 2012, Belgian film Rundskop Bullhead Michael R. Roskam was nominated for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film.
In addition, in Belgium annually hosts several festivals, the most important of which are the Flanders international film festival Ghent and the Brussels international festival of fantastic film.
2. Belgian movies. (Бельгийские фильмы)
- The Music Teacher 1988.
- Luke and Lucy: the Texas Rangers 2009.
- Rosetta 1999. (Розетта 1999)
- Farinelli 1994. (Фаринелли 1994)
- LEnfant 2005.
- Man Bites Dog 1992.
- Daens 1993.
- Small Gods 2007. ("Мелкие Боги" 2007)
- In The Misfortunates 2009.
- The Broken Circle Breakdown 2012.
- Steve Sky 2004. (Стив Неба 2004)
- Mr. Nobody 2009. (Господин Никто 2009)
- Two Days, One Night 2014.
- New Testament 2015. (Новый Завет 2015)
- Pauline and Paulette 2001.
- In The Case Of Alzheimers Disease 2003.
- Oxygen 2010. (Кислород 2010)
- The Hotel Le Huitieme Jour: The Eighth Day 1996.
- Camping Cosmos 1996. (Кемпинг "Космос" 1996)
- Home Sweet Home 1973.
- Bo 2010. (Бо 2010)
- Toto the hero Toto Le heros 1991.
- N - madness of reason 2013.
- Loft 2008. (Лофт 2008)
- All Known! 2000. (Всем Известен! 2000)
- Los Flamencos 2014. (Лос Flamencos 2014)
- De Witte, 1934. (Де Витт, 1934)
- Le Choix 1976. (Ле Чойсе 1976)
- Bullhead 2011. (Подкаменщик 2011)
- Ben X 2007. (Бен X 2007)
- Dirty Mind 2009. (Грязные Мысли 2009)
3.1. Famous people. Of Directors. (Директоров)
- Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne.
- Benoit Lamy. (Бенуа Лами)
- Hugo Claus. (Хьюго Клаус)
- Raoul Servais. (Рауль Серве)
- Peter Kruger. (Питер Крюгер)
- Floor Panel. (Панель Пола)
- Harry Kumel. (Гарри Kumel)
- Jean-Marie Is The Daughter Of Bouquet.
- Ernst Murman. (Эрнст Мурман)
- Hans Herbots. (Ганс Herbots)
- Koen Mortier. (Коэн Мортье)
- Lieven Debrauwer Website. (Сайт Сайту Debrauwer Ливен)
- Jan Vanderheyden. (Ян Вандерхейден)
- Ben Stassen. (Бен Стассен)
- Patrick Jean. (Патрик Жан)
- Patrick Van Antwerpen. (Патрик Ван Антверпен)
- Anna Frijters. (Анна Frijters)
- Erik de Kuper. (Эрик де Купер)
- Charles Dekeukeleire. (Чарльз Dekeukeleire)
- Sammy Szlingerbaum. (Сэмми Szlingerbaum)
- Julien Vrebos. (Жюльен Vrebos)
- Rob De Hert. (Роб Де Hert)
- It Dominique Deruddere. (Это Доминик Deruddere)
- Edmond Bernhard. (Эдмонд Бернхард)
- Yael Andre. (Яэль Андре)
- Bouli Lanners.
- Boris Szulzinger. (Борис Szulzinger)
- Thierry Zeno. (Тьерри Зено)
- Fien Troch. (Fien Трохи)
- Boris Lehman. (Борис Леман)
- Daniel Lambo. (Дэниэл Ламбо)
- Andre Delvaux. (Андре Дельво)
- Piha. (Пиха)
- Daniel Maze. (Даниил Лабиринт)
- Joachim Lafosse. (Йоахим Лафосс)
- Maurice Rabinowitz. (Морис Рабинович)
- Jan Bucquoy. (Января Bucquoy)
- Felix Van Minsk. (Феликс Ван Минске)
- Frans Buyens. (Buyens Франс)
- Noel Godin. (Ноэль Годин)
- Frederik Du Chau. (Фредерик Дю Чау)
- Jan Baptiste Verheyen. (Ян Батист Ферхайен)
- Yasmine Kassari. (Ясмин Кассари)
- Marion Hansel. (Марион Гензель)
- Henri dUrsel. (Анри dUrsel)
- Marc Didden. (Марк Didden)
- Eric Van Looy. (Эрик Ван Looy)
- Olivier Smolders. (Оливье Смолдерс)
- Stijn Coninx. (Стейн Coninx)
- Jean-Jacques Andrien. (Жан-Жак Andrien)
- Henri Storck. (Анри Шторк)
- Chantal Akerman. (Шанталь Акерман)
- Roland Lethem. (Роланд Летем)
- Jaco Van Dormael. (Жако Ван Dormael)
- Luc Belvaux. (Люка Бельво)
- Roland Verhavert. (Роланд Verhavert)
- Pascal Adant. (Паскаль Adant)
3.2. Famous people. Actors and Actresses. (Актеры и актрисы)
- Jacques Brel. (Жак Брель)
- Francois Damian. (Франсуа Дамиан)
- Jan Decleir. (Января Decleir)
- Jeremie Renier. (Жереми Ренье)
- Dora Van Der Groen.
- Deborah Francois. (Дебора Франсуа)
- Matthias Schoenaerts. (Schoenaerts Маттиас)
- Benoit Poelvoorde. (Бенуа Poelvoorde)
- Stéphane de Groodt. (Стефан де Groodt)
- Koen De Bouw. (Коен Де Bouw)
- Josse De Pauw. (Жосс Де Паув)
- Ann Petersen. (Энн Петерсен)
- Cecile de France. (Сесиль де Франс)
- Annie Cordy. (Анни Корди)
- Hotel Alexandra Vandernoot. (Отель Alexandra Vandernoot)
- Antje De Boeck. (Антье Де Бек)
- His Emilie Dequenne. (Его Эмили Dequenne)
- Jean-Claude Van Damme. (Жан-Клод Ван Дамм)
- Natasha Regnier. (Наташа Ренье)
4. Bibliography. (Библиография)
Mathijs, Ernest ed. The cinema of the low countries, wallflower press, London, 2004.
Mosley, Philip, split screen: Belgian cinema and cultural identity, new York University Press, Albany, 2001.
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