★ Brougham Castle
Brougham castle is a medieval building about 2 miles South-East from Penrith, Cumbria, England. The castle was founded by Robert De Vieuxpont in the early 13th century. Location near the confluence of the rivers Eamont and Lowther, was chosen by the Romans to a Roman Fort called Brocavum. The castle is scheduled as an ancient monument, along with the Fort, as "Brougham Roman Fort and Brougham castle".
In its earliest form, the castle consisted of a stone Casing, protected by an earthen rampart and a wooden palisade. When the castle was built by Robert De Vieuxpont was one of the few lords in the region who were loyal to king John. In Vieuxponts was a powerful landowning family in the North-West of England, who also owned the castles of Appleby and Brough. In 1264, the grandson of Robert De Vieuxponts, also named Robert, was declared a traitor, and his property was confiscated by Henry III. Castle coach and the other estates were eventually returned to the Vieuxpont family, and stayed in their possession until 1269 when the estates passed to the Clifford family through marriage.
With the war for Scottish independence in 1296, Broga has become an important military base for Robert Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. He began refortifying the castle: the wooden outer defences were replaced were added to the stronger, more impressive stone walls and a large stone gatehouse. The importance of Brougham and Robert Clifford was such that in 1300, he was taken by king Edward I of England in the castle. Roberts son, Roger Clifford was executed as a traitor in 1322, and the family estates passed into the possession of king Edward II of England, though they were returned after his son Edward III became king. This region was often in danger from the Scots, and in 1388 the castle was captured and plundered.
After that, Cliffords began to spend more time on other castles, particularly castle of Skipton in Yorkshire. The carriage descended through several generations Cliffords, periodically serving as the residence. However, in 1592, he was in disrepair as George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland was to spend more time in the South of England due to its role as defender of the Queen. The castle was briefly restored in the early 17th century, to such an extent that King James I of England was passed there in 1617. In 1643, lady Anne Clifford inherited the estates, including the castles of Brougham, Appleby and Brough, and restoring them. Brougham castle was in good condition for a short time after the death of lady Anne in 1676, however, Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet, who had inherited the Clifford estates, sold the furnishings in 1714. The empty shell was left to decay, as it was too costly to maintain. As a ruin, Brougham castle inspired a painting by J. M. W. Turner, and was mentioned in the beginning of William Wordsworths poem "the prelude" and also be the subject of Wordsworths song at the feast Brougham castle after the restoration of Lord Clifford, the shepherd, to the estates and honors of his ancestors. The castle was left to the Ministry of works, in the 1930-ies, and today, under his successor, English heritage.
1. Background. (Фон)
The site of Brougham castle has been fortified since the Romans erected a fortress Brocavum at the intersection of three Roman roads. With the Eamont and Lowther rivers, flowing nearby and meet to the West, the site had a natural protection and the area was fertile and easy to grow. A civilian settlement grew around the Fort. When angles arrived in the area they named the place Brougham, meaning "the village by the Fort". Between the end of Roman rule in early 5th century and the Norman conquest in the late 11th century, Cumbria was a turbulent area. Although the site was legitimate position, there is no evidence that Brougham was refortified during this time. In 1092, William II, also known as William Rufus seized Cumbria South of the Solway Firth and established a new border far to the North of Brougham. On the website in Brougham remained unfortified. Carlisle castle secured the border, and castles at Appleby and Brough, on the South-East of Brougham, protected the line of communication from Carlisle to Yorkshire. In 1203, the Barony of Westmorland-containing Appleby, Brough, and Brougham – was awarded to Robert De Vieuxpont by king John. Favorite Jones, Vieuxpont was one of the few lords loyal to him in Northern England, where the people are so dissatisfied with the rule of the kings, which they eventually revolted. About 1214, Vieuxpont took control of more land, including half the manor of Brougham. It is in this atmosphere of unrest that Brougham castle was founded.
2. Under Vieuxponts. (Под Vieuxponts)
Vieuxpont was one of the few supporters of the king in Northern England and he most likely began construction of the castle crew as soon as he purchased land. At this stage, the castle would have been enclosed by an earthen rampart topped with a wooden palisade. The first three floors of the stone keep date from this period. It was entered through the first floor via a forebuilding. In the East it was a stone structure which was probably the hall. Building in stone is expensive and time consuming process. No records tell us how much Brougham cost to construct, but there are records for other stone construction. For example, at the end of the 12th century stone keep behind Peveril castle in Derbyshire would have cost around £ 200, although something on a much larger scale, such as the vast château Gaillard cost an estimated £15.000 to $ 20.000 and took several years to complete.
In 1216, when a Scottish army invaded the Eden valley and Alan of Galloway occupied Westmorland, Brougham castle played no role in the countys of defense, probably because it was unfinished. Construction was suspended until Alan retreated in 1217. Vieuxpont received control over the income of the kings of Cumberland, and they helped Fund the construction of the castle. Brougham castle was built in the Northern part of the old Roman Fort, and stone from the ruins was probably used to help build a castle. When Robert De Vieuxpont died in 1228, his only son – John – was a minor, so his property was taken into the care of elders.
John de Vieuxpont died in 1241 before he reached adulthood. The new heir, Johns son Robert, was not old enough to inherit, so the families of the land were left to the care. During this time the manor fell into disrepair, and this probably included Brougham castle. When Robert De Vieuxpont came at the age of about 1257 he inherited considerable debts. He was one of the Northern lords that revolted in support of Simon de Montfort during the Second barons War 1264-1267. By June 1264, Vieuxpont was dead, because he is considered a traitor, his property was confiscated by king Henry III. In 1266, the king pardoned Vieuxpont posthumously, and his two daughters inherited the family estates. Guardians of two girls who at the time was too young to marry, is divided into Vieuxpont land with the expectation that they will come into their possession through marriage. Isabel Vieuxpont was given in marriage to Roger Clifford, the son of her guardian, and with her the shrievalty of Westmorland and the castles of Brougham and Appleby transferred to high-speed Internet access.
3. The Family Of Clifford. (Семья Клиффорд)
By 1269, Roger Clifford had married Isabel Vieuxpont and possession of Brougham castle – as well as her other property – descended through the Clifford family. In 1283, Roger survived his wife, who died in 1292. In 18 years, their son Robert was old enough to take his lands. During his three-year minority, his estates have suffered from neglect and poaching. When the wars of Scottish independence began in 1296, Robert Clifford played a prominent role in the conflict. As the northernmost of their castles, Broga was Cliffords the most important base and he spent a lot of time there. It was during this period that Clifford undertook an extensive construction program. Forest fence around the Playground was replaced with a stone curtain wall. Four-storey stone residential tower, called the tower of League, built in the castles of the South-Western corner. The fourth floor was added to save, and a double gatehouse attached to its Northern side. Construction of a new stone hall to the South of the keep may indicate that during the war there was a big garrison than in peacetime, or it may have been built in anticipation of the Royal visit. In July 1300, Edward I – himself a renowned castle Builder – visited brougham with a large household of followers and the Prince of Wales. Although it is not certain whether the king stayed in the castle, according to historians, it probably was. In 1309, Robert Clifford was granted a licence to crenellate Brougham castle, this was taken as an indication that at this point the restoration was completed. A license to crenellate permission for a person to enhance the site. They were also proof of a relationship with or favour from the monarch, who was responsible for the issuance of a permit.
Edward I died in 1307, and his successor, Edward II was distracted from war with Scotland by internal strife, allowing the Scottish to roam further South through England. In 1310 or 1311, Robert Clifford was given Skipton castle, he was further from the border than Bruma and at a time when Scottish raids ravaging Westmorland, Clifford chose to spend more time and effort building at Skipton. Clifford was killed at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, which ended the English counter-offensive into Scotland. During Roberts death his son, Roger de Clifford, 2nd Baron de Clifford, was only 14 and not old enough to inherit. Therefore, the Clifford estates experienced another period of regulation through guardians, suffering from Scottish raids to such an extent that in 1317 the king granted Roger £200 towards the maintenance of his castles. Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere responsible for the contents of Brougham castle and some other Clifford properties including Appleby castle. Between 1316 and 1318 he spent £363 on the garrisons at Brougham and Appleby, though was supported by the king who gave £1.270 to their content. Funds to pay the garrison were not easily gathered from the Clifford estates, and they were accused of poaching and pillaging. In 1320, Roger Clifford received his inheritance, but probably spent more time in Skipton. He was executed as a traitor in 1322 after his capture at the battle of Boroughbridge. Brougham castle was among the Clifford lands confiscated and given to Andrew de Harcla for supporting the King against the uprising. However, by 1323 Harcla too had been executed for treason and the castle passed into the possession of Edward II. In may 1323, a truce was signed between the Scots and the English in the result of the reduction in the size of the garrison in the North of England.
When Edward III replaced Edward II on the throne, Robert Clifford, Rogers younger brother got all the land that had been confiscated. In 1333, Robert had United under his control all the estates which belonged to the Vieuxpont family. Hostilities between England and Scotland resumed in 1332 when Edward Balliol invaded to seize the Scottish throne. He was expelled from Scotland in December 1333. On entering Westmorland, Balliol sought refuge with the Clifford family, staying at the castles of Appleby, Brougham, Brough and Pendragon. Robert Clifford was not heavily involved in a new conflict, although he really took part in battles in 1332, 1337 and 1342. When the value of his property was estimated at his death in 1344 the manor of brougham are suffering from the war, with instructions that Brougham castle was in poor condition, having survived 1340-e without funds for maintenance. After two minorities, until Roger Clifford, 5th Baron Clifford, came of age in 1354. Another truce between Scotland and England was signed in 1357, this time lasts until 1384. Although Roger Clifford spent much time in the air, which was Westmorlands district of the city – he was responsible for the restoration of residential buildings in Brougham castle, including the hall. He was ordered by the king to maintain a force of 40 men at arms and 50 mounted archers near the Western end of the Scottish borders, and some of them are probably stationed in the Brougham. The need for additional housing is a possible reason why Clifford began rebuilding. In August 1388, the Scottish launched an attack into England, with one force advancing to the East and eventually meet in the battle of Otterburn in Northumberland – and another foray to the West, reaching Bro, 20 miles 32 km to the South-East. During this time Brougham castle was briefly captured by Scottish forces.
Roger Clifford died at Skipton castle in 1389, and the Clifford family began to lose interest in Westmorland. In Cliffords preferred their properties in Yorkshire to their dilapidated castles in Westmorland, which was ravaged by wars with Scotland. Brougham castle is not known to have been used again as a residence until 1421, when a man was accused of forging coins in the castle. Although little is known about Brougham during this period, according to historians, it is likely that repairs were made, and there was a rivalry between the Clifford family and the house of Neville that would later have consequences for Brougham. Family enmity meant that the Earl of Salisbury, a Neville, used his position as Lord of Penrith exacerbation of Cliffords, it is likely that Brougham castle was kept a garrison due to its proximity to Penrith. In the wars of the Roses 1455-1485, the two families were on opposite sides, Cliffords the service of the house of Lancaster and the Nevilles service of the house of York. When the Yorkist Edward IV seized the throne in 1461 the lands of John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford were confiscated. In 1471, Edward IV granted sir William Parr Brougham castle and other properties that belonged to Cliffords. A year later, Henry Clifford, son and heir of John, was pardoned and when the Lancastrian Henry Tudor ascended the throne as Henry VII, Henry Clifford appealed for the return of the possessions of Clifford. This was granted in 1485 Nov.
Henry Clifford lived until 1523. Under him and his son – also called Henry, who later became Earl of Cumberland – the castle was intermittently in use as a residence for the family. After Brough castle was destroyed in a fire in 1521 it is likely that Broga has become a new administrative center and focal point of local lordship. As Earl of Cumberland Henry controlled by Penrith and Carlisle, although he was unpopular master. When the North of England rose in the pilgrimage of grace in 1536, Henry was one of those targeted by the rebels. He met with rebel leaders at Kirkby Stephen in February 1537, and after his defeat he retreated to Brougham castle. After of the pilgrimage of grace was suppressed, was a reform of the regional government in the North-West. One of the results was that the title of the Earl of Cumberland gave Clifford wardenship of Penrith and Carlisle with the castle, the carriage is once again becoming Cliffords is the most northerly castle.
Henry died in 1542 and his son, Henry Clifford, 2nd Earl of Cumberland, inherited the family estates. During the uprising in the North of the country, where the Catholic magnates rebelled against Elizabeth I, Henry remained loyal to the Tudor dynasty, despite Cliffords being a Catholic family. He dismantled Appleby castle to prevent it from being used against Royal forces, and at the same time put Brougham at the service of the government of Elizabeth, though there were no fighting in the castle. Under the second and third Earls, Henry and George, the castle is still used as a residence, the third Earl, was born at Brougham castle. However, it was under George that the house began to crumble, and in 1592 it was empty. George Clifford spent much time in southern England in his role as the Queens champion or at Skipton. The inventory of the contents castles in 1595 shows that the building was abandoned, poorly furnished, and what furniture there was old and in poor condition.
4. The Patroness Clifford. (Покровительница Клиффорд)
When George Clifford died in 1605, his wife Margaret became Dowager Countess and began repairing Brougham castle, which became her favorite residence. Margaret claimed with claim of ownership on the family estate with her brother-in-law Francis Clifford, 4th Earl of Cumberland, but held onto the castle, Brougham. Her daughter, lady Anne Clifford continued the restoration of the castle and other Clifford properties. The only one of Margarets three children to survive childhood, Anne inherited the Clifford estates after her mother died in 1616. The inheritance was not without incident. The Earl of Cumberland reaffirmed his claim to the Clifford estates, however the privy Council in favor of Anna. The solution was temporary, and in April 1617 the king decided that the Earl of Cumberland was the rightful heir, and the Clifford estates passed to Francis Clifford. Later in the same year, James I visited Scotland and on his return journey he stayed at the castles of Carlisle, Brougham, and Appleby, where expensive banquets were given in his honor. It is assumed that the holiday will cost about £1.200. After this, Brougham was almost forgotten by its owner and neglected.
Francis Clifford died in 1641, and the death of his son Henry Clifford, 5th Earl of Cumberland in 1643 left the line without a direct heir. At the moment, estate of Clifford returned to lady Anne. Civil war broke out in England in 1641. Brougham was one of several castles, mainly the royalists of Cumberland and Westmoreland, which were stationed cavalier forces. Sir John Lowther, the commander of the garrison, stated that he took control of Brougham castle, not because it was strategically important, but to deny the parliamentarians of its use. While under the control of royalists, lady Anne donated the income from her estates for the maintenance of her locks. In June 1648, Appleby endured a four day siege until surrender to the parliamentarians, but slightly manned Brougham castle succumbed easily to Colonel John Lambert. Although many castles in Cumberland and Westmorland were dismantled so they could not be used again, Brougham was spared this fate, most likely because it was not strategically important. In 1650, lady Anne Clifford began repairs Appleby and Brougham. Repairs were largely complete by 1653, but continued for several years after the work estimated cost of £40.000. By this time Brougham castle was not a serious fortification and had become Annes country house. She planted a garden on the site of an old Roman Fort, which led to the discovery of such Roman artefacts, coins and three altars. 10.5 ft 3.2 m Stone wall was built around the garden, enclosing the area from the entrance to the southern tip of a Roman Fort.
5. The picturesque ruins of. (Живописные руины)
Lady Anne Clifford died at Brougham castle in 1676 and her grandson, Nicholas Tufton, 3rd Earl of Thanet, inherited the Clifford estates. He died in 1679, and over the next five years ownership has passed through his three younger brothers. Under the youngest, Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet, Brougham castle suffered particular neglect. In 1714, he decided that Appleby castle was a sufficient residence and sold the contents of Brougham castle for $ 570. Only the tower of League was left untouched, but in 1723 its contents were also sold for £40 in 1750-ies, the locks only practical use was as a ready source of building material for the village in a carriage which prospered due to investment from the Earl of Thanet. In 1794, a record about the sad state of the castle noted that "most of the internal walls were removed as well in order to build houses on the neighboring farmhold".
At the end of the 18th century the lake district became a popular visitor attraction, and a sense of romanticism glamorised such historic ruins of Brougham castle. In the poem the prelude, William Wordsworth said, exploring the ruins of Brougham as an adolescent with his sister. Brougham also provided inspiration for another of Wordsworths poems, song at the feast Brougham castle after the restoration of Lord Clifford, the shepherd, to the estates and honors of his ancestors. The fallen castle attracted tourists and antiquarians, such as William Gilpin and Richard Warner. In his diary, the Journey to the lake district from Cambridge 1779, William Wilberforce described Brougham castle as a "very fine ruin". The artist J. M. W. Turner visited brougham in 1809 and 1831, and the first time have produced a sketch, which will be the starting point for a later watercolour. To avoid the castle decaying further, Charles Tufton, 10th Earl of Thanet, spent £41 repairing the structure in 1830, and his successor Henry Tufton, 11th Earl of Thanet, carried out repair work in the late 1840-ies, costing £421.
Henry Tufton died in 1849, and castle ownership fell to Hothfields. The service was too expensive for the family, and by 1859 cattle kept in its gatehouse, and visitors complained that parts of the romantic ruin became inaccessible. Without sufficient funds, the castle quickly fell into marked decay.
In 1915, the ancient monuments Board declared Brougham castle a monument" the preservation of which is regarded as a national value." With the introduction of bus stops in the area, the castle experienced a revival of interest from the public, and in the late 1920s, around 2000 people attend annually. In 1927, the 2nd Baron Hothfield granted guardianship of Brougham castle to the office of works, although he retained ownership. The organisation repaired the castle at a cost of £5.925. In the 1930-ies of an additional £of 1.050 was spent removing the masonry added in the 1840s.
Brougham castle, in fact, survives, as it was when the main repairs were finished in the 1930-ies. The castle is a monument, so it is a "nationally important" historic building and archaeological site which gave protection from unauthorized changes. Until 1984, when a survey was conducted of permanent structure, little archaeological research had taken place at Brougham castle. The survey was part of a monograph on the castle detailing its history and the stages of structure. Brougham is one of the few castles in Cumbria, where they were carried out extensive archaeological research. Today the castle is open to the public, and the Museum is run by English heritage, the successor to office work.
6. Layout. (Макет)
The path to Brougham castle leads from East to West. To the South, or to the left of someone approaching the castle, are the earthworks of a Roman Fort and in the location of 17th-century garden. Land terraces, and to the North the land descends to the river Eamont. The ditch along the Eastern, southern and Western sides of the castle, its width varies between 10 and 15 metres, 33 and 49 feet and lying up to 3.4 m 11 feet deep. Although the moat is now dry it is likely that he used to be filled with water. The castle has the shape of an irregular polygon with a size of about 68 metres 223 feet along the West side, 72 meters 236 feet along the South, with a width of 48 metres 157 ft on the East, and 54 metres 177 metres on the North side.
Brougham castle is entered through a three-storey double-gatehouse. Originally the coat of arms of Roger Clifford and his wife was carved above the entrance to the hut, but in the 19th century it was replaced by the current inscription "tis made Roger", by Henry Tufton, 11th Earl of Thanet. The inscription was originally above the entrance to the great hall built by Roger Clifford, 5th Baron Clifford. Erected on the slope of the slope down to the river, the gatehouse was built in the early 14th century by Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. The complex consists of three parts: the inner and outer gates and a courtyard between them. The inner gatehouse was preserved to a height of 12.5 m 41 m in the East. On the ground floor a passage through the building with vaulted and there is a gate on the East side. The gate was hidden behind the ledge in the North side of the gatehouse and would have provided a discrete opportunity to leave the castle. The floors above each passage consisted of one large room and was connected to the keep, allowing people to move between the two without having to go outside. In the 17th century lady Anne Clifford converted the top floor into her bedroom. As inner gate, the outer section of the square plan on the upper floors would each have been occupied one room. The building is preserved to a height of 48 metres 14.5 m in the East. Under the outer gatehouse was a dungeon, and on the first floor on the North side of the guardhouse. Spacious rooms in both the gate was used as a residence. Although at the top of the gatehouse has not survived, it would have been crested with maticulate.
Adjacent to the gatehouse is the 13th-century keep. Keep contained the main domestic accommodation in a castle, usually high status, and also provided that the last refuge if the surrounding enclosure fell during an assault. Broughams keep has a square plan and is between 19 and 20 meters 62 and 66 feet high, although originally would have stood taller. Access to each floor was provided by a spiral staircase in the North-East corner, with each floor consisting of one large room. In the wardrobe was located in the Northwest corner. For a long time it was believed that the tower was built in the last quarter of the 12th century thanks to its simple design, square design, the use of narrow buttresses at each corner, and an entrance through a forebuilding consistent with other stores built in the late 12th century. By the 13th century, Broughams keep an old-fashioned compared to the polygonal structures introduced in the 13th century. However, historian Henry Summerson who assessed the historic documents for the castle concluded that construction could not be started earlier than in the first quarter of the 13th century. Wooden floors not to survive, but the use of the rooms are mostly conjectural, but it is likely that the first floor served as a storeroom, the first floor used as a hall and premises for the guards, and the second floor providing rooms for the Lord. The final fourth storey was added in the early 14th century. Keep the level of the first floor, through the East side, where he was a gallery on forebuilding. Despite stores the value of the lock structure, little survives of the home.
The South-East to keep a hall built by Roger Clifford in the late 14th century as a replacement for earlier room. He provided the premises for the garrison, swelled by the Anglo-Scottish wars, and was a place for the Lord to eat with his soldiers. In the hall were large Windows that can be deducted from building the defense, although it is assumed that leaves holes large wooden shutters. In the kitchen, which serves the entire castle, was set in the South-Eastern corner of the fortress wall. Along the South wall were arranged more hotels, a well, a chapel, the second another addition by Roger Clifford. In the South-Western corner of the castle was the tower of League, built around 1300 by Roger Clifford. It included further rooms for accommodation, but in particular also allowed the defenders to fire on the enemy emerging from the gatehouse. Four storeys tall with one room on each level, the presence of the wardrobe and a fireplace on each floor suggests that the tower was intended for high-status visitors. The square plan of the towers is typical of such structures built in Northern England at this time, as seen at castles such as Warkworth and Egremont, although it contrasts with rounded towers largest in the South.
7. Folklore. (Фольклор)
The antiquarian William Stukeley visited Brougham castle in 1725, and recorded local beliefs about some of the "monuments of stone" to the South of Brougham castle:
They are, as a rule, the country people said, what must be done Michael Scott, the famous magician in their view, who was a monk of the Abbey in Cumberland: they have a notion that one Turquin, a giant, lived at Brougham castle, and the tower called pagan tower, and sir Lancelot de lake lived in Mayborough, and killed him.
Turquin, or Tarquin, is also associated in folklore with the ruins of Lammerside castle nearby. Folklorist Marjorie Rowling identified him with another legendary local giant, Hugh Cesario, but Jennifer Westwood and Jacqueline Simpson prefer to draw it out of Tarquin sir, the enemy of sir Lancelot in Thomas Malorys Le morte dArthur, they believe that this story, the position at Mallory probably was associated with North-West England because king Arthur was often said to hold his court in Carlisle.
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- the nearby castles of Brough and Brougham to the west, on the same Roman road over the Stainmore Pass. Bowes Castle was inherited by his son, Conan, and
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