★ Autogenous vaccines
Autogenic vaccines, also called autologous vaccines, autovaccins,” samovaccins or conventional vaccines, are vaccines that are produced by isolating and destroying micro-organisms in infected people and are used to provide immunity to the same person.
Autogenic vaccines were introduced in the early twentieth century with growing evidence of their effectiveness against certain infections. These vaccines rely on the activation of an individuals immune system to produce immunity against an infectious pathogen. They are usually produced when an individual or small group has a disease, and can be used for various bacterial and viral infections. Autogenic vaccines are very similar to conventional vaccines in terms of their use, but they are different and may be preferable to conventional vaccines in some areas. Currently, several autogenic vaccines are available for veterinary use in several countries. Human use of this type of vaccine is limited and has not been widely approved due to a lack of scientific evidence and research.
1. History. (История)
Autogenic vaccines were studied as early as the 1900s. This type of vaccine was first introduced by sir Almroth Edward Wright in 1903, and several case reports were published in the following years concerning the preparation and indications for the use of autogenic vaccines.
Autogenic vaccines have been used in adults, children, and infants to treat a variety of chronic infections, including infections of the skin, respiratory tract, colon, and urinary tract. Autogenic vaccines were also used for bronchial asthma, septicaemia, gonorrhea, candidiasis and osteomyelitis.
The effectiveness of autogenic vaccines for human use has shown various results. Patients reactions range from no relapses for many years to no effects at all, to the appearance of local and systemic adverse reactions, especially at high doses. Concern about possible side effects led to the introduction of intradermal skin tests by I. Chandler Walker in 1917. Later, researchers concluded that autogenic vaccines provide hyposensitization in patients with chronic and recurrent infections that can cause allergic reactions.
Autogenic vaccines soon became less popular as a therapeutic agent against bacterial infection due to the discovery of antibiotics. However, antibiotics proved to be less than satisfactory in their effectiveness with prolonged consumption and caused undesirable complications, which eventually led to the resumption of the use of autogenic vaccines.
Autogenous vaccines are currently used to a lesser extent in humans than in animals. Human use is mainly limited to Eastern Europe for the treatment of chronic and recurrent diseases, such as chronic staph infections. For animals, conventional mass-produced vaccines are less effective because they rarely account for strain variations due to high research and development costs. Autogenic vaccines provide an alternative method of inducing immunity in animals without paying expensive fees for unnecessary vaccine strains.
2. Mechanism of action. (Механизм действия)
The mechanism of action of an autogenic vaccine is not fully understood, but it is assumed that it involves the activation of the innate immune system to produce a non-specific immune response and the activation of the adaptive immune system to produce a specific immune response. After the injection, the innate immune system is activated, which sends a large number of phagocytes to the injection site, which kills microorganisms. Phagocytes then present antigens to T-helper cells to activate the adaptive immune system. T-helper cells activate macrophages and neutrophils to aid in the destruction of pathogens. T-helper cells also help plasma cells produce antibodies, which allows the immune system to” remember vaccine agents. Because the surface antigens in the vaccine are the same as those of the pathogen, the immune system can recognize pathogenic agents and produce an immune response to kill them when the pathogen is encountered.
3. Preparation. (Подготовка)
The production of autogenic vaccines usually occurs when there is such a demand.
In humans, samples of pathogens are isolated from the focus of infection in a sick person, such as pus or abscess, sputum, urine, and vaginal discharge. Identified pathogenic agents are then cultured and inactivated either by chemicals or heat. The process of inactivation involves the destruction of the activity of the antigen while preserving its protein composition, since the protein state can affect the effectiveness of the immune response in a patient. Then tests will be carried out to ensure sterility, safety and quality. The entire production process can take anywhere from 3 to 4 weeks, depending on the manufacturer.
In animals, the drug acts similarly. An example of this is when an infectious disease is detected in a farm herd. This discovery encourages the veterinarian to take samples from infected animals. These samples will then be taken to a laboratory for culturing and isolating pathogenic agents. Once pathogenic agents are identified, they can be used to make vaccines. This is followed by a series of steps to formulate the desired product and ensure its quality and safety. The formulated vaccine is then delivered back to the veterinarian,where the vaccine will be injected into the herd.
4.1. Applications. In people. (В людях)
Before the introduction of the developed vaccine to the patient, an intradermal skin test is performed to make sure that the patient does not have any hypersensitivity reactions to the vaccine. As soon as the test is performed and a negative result is proven, treatment can begin.
Autogenic vaccine is administered subcutaneously at intervals of several weeks or months. The application process usually involves a gradual increase in doses and intervals. Another method of administration is oral therapy, especially for bronchial asthma. In light of possible side effects, the patient should be monitored within an hour after administration of the drug.
4.2. Applications. In animals. (У животных)
Autogenic vaccines are used to treat a variety of animal infections, including, but not limited to, dermatitis, sinusitis, otitis externa, pharyngitis, laryngitis and mastitis, which can be caused by gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and yeast.
As a rule, indications for the use of autogenic vaccines include resistance of pathogens to antibiotic therapy, ineffective therapy or immune response, as well as the absence of commercial vaccines.
Autogenic vaccines can be made for individuals when treatment does not produce the desired results, for large groups when the spread of the disease needs to be controlled.
For dogs, autogenic vaccines are usually prepared for dogs with pyoderma and inflammation of the middle and outer ear, especially when previous treatment with antibiotics has not given the desired results. Autogenic vaccines are also useful for rabbits suffering from subcutaneous abscesses, cats with purulent lesions, and horses with inflammation of the noses and sinuses, which are all caused by staph infections. For pigs, autogenic vaccines can be used for skin infections, and for cows-for mastitis.
Before the introduction of the developed vaccine, an animal is injected with an immunostimulator containing bacteria, once subcutaneously a few days ahead of time. Immunostimulation activates macrophages in such a way that bacteria from the autogenic vaccine can be more effectively destroyed.
The vaccine itself can be administered differently depending on the type. The route of administration for most animals is subcutaneous injection, while injections are administered intramuscularly to pigs and into the wing membrane of birds. The dose may also vary depending on the animal and the disease. The usual method is either three doses of the same volume but increasing density, three doses of the same density with the last two as booster doses, or just one dose. Sometimes the treatment is combined with antibiotics to get a more effective result.
5.1. Advantages and disadvantages. Advantages. (Преимущества)
There are several advantages of autogenic vaccines:
One of the main advantages is its effectiveness in preventing diseases. This is the function of each vaccine-to limit the occurrence and spread of diseases, as well as to treat diseases associated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Autogenic vaccines can also reduce production costs. Research and development costs for a conventional vaccine are high compared to those required for the production of autogenic vaccines. In some cases, conventional vaccines do not provide full immunity to the disease and are therefore economically unprofitable. Autogenic vaccines can effectively solve this problem.
In addition, this type of vaccine restricts the number of vaccine interventions by combining multiple valences so that the number of necessary injections is small.
Another advantage is the assurance of food safety. Autogenic vaccines allow livestock and poultry to be healthy and fit for human consumption by inducing immunity in animals, reducing the excretion of microbial toxins that can cause infections, and limiting the use of excessive therapeutic agents. Autogenic vaccines are also a good and fast alternative when there are no vaccines against a new emerging disease or a relatively unusual disease or a relatively unusual species. This type of vaccine can also be used when there is antigenic variability within the same bacterial species, so that conventional vaccines cannot provide specific immunity.
5.2. Advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages. (Недостатки)
However, autogenic vaccines also have their drawbacks. One of the main drawbacks is that the pathogenic antigen cannot always be identified correctly and accurately due to limitations in knowledge and technology. Another disadvantage is that adjuvants used in vaccines to ensure their safety are limited in autogenic vaccines, since they require extensive testing. In addition, the cost of producing autogenic vaccines tailored to each individual or group may be higher than the cost of conventional vaccines in the long run.
5.3. Advantages and disadvantages. Negative consequence. (Негативное последствие)
Autogenic vaccines are usually considered safe. However, side effects such as mild redness and swelling may occur at the injection site, as well as rare systemic reactions such as fever, sore throat, headache and malaise.
6. Regulation. (Регулирование)
Autogenic vaccines are regulated in countries such as the United States, Europe and the United Kingdom. The use of autogenic vaccines in the United States is regulated by the virus-serum-toxin act of 1995. Europe is mainly focused on veterinary application regulations, while the Directorate of veterinary medicines is the body responsible for overseeing the use and quality of veterinary medical products, including autogenic vaccines.
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