★ Arnulf of Valenciennes
Arnulf of Valenciennes, a 10th-and 11th-century count and sometimes Margrave, was Lord of the fortress of Valenciennes, which at that time was located on the border with France, but not in France.
It was part of the pagus of Hainaut, and in the Tenth century it is often mentioned together with the Margrave of the Imperial Fort at Hainaut and the count of Mons, count Godfrey "the prisoner".
It was probably the same man as Arnulf, count of Cambrai.
1. 10th century. (10 век)
As Ulrich Nonne points out, many of the sources in which Arnulf and Godfrey appear as counts in Hainaut are clerical narrative sources rather than dated charters. In the gest of the bishops of Cambrai, for example, these two counts are listed as the next in the order of counts in Hainaut, after the two brothers Werner and Reynold, who in turn replaced count riecher. While several such sources very clearly describe count Godfrey as a count in Mons, only one, Translatio s. Sulpicii, describes this Arnulf specifically as count of Valenciennes.
Only one entry seems to describe Arnulf as a Margrave, not a count, and that is a military list compiled in 982, where Gottefred and Arnulf marchiones are listed among many different Imperial leaders who were responsible for bringing a certain number of armored knights for an Imperial campaign planned in Italy.
Arnulf is also clearly mentioned in the charters of St. Peters Abbey in Ghent, where his wife and son are also mentioned on several occasions. This shows that he had possessions on both sides of the Flemish March, both in the Kingdom of France and in the Holy Roman Empire. In 998, one of these charters shows that he held mater, very close to the border Fort of Ename, between Ghent and Valenciennes, and a place of campaign held by Godfrey as a prisoner.
2. 11th century. (11 век)
A count named Arnulf, usually equated with Arnulf of Valenciennes, who had rights in Cambrai, in 1001 the Emperor Otto III transferred them to the Bishop of Cambrai, and then in 1007, without naming any count, his successor Henry II granted the Bishop the County of Cambrai.
Arnulf survived a captive who died in 1002, and at some point before he died, a count named Reginar controlled Mons, either Reginar IV or V. this was recorded in the story of the miracle of Saint Ghislain.
At the end of his life, a few years before his death, Vita Balderici wrote in Liege that the Fort of Arnulfs in Valenciennes had come under pressure from the County of Flanders. In 1006, Baldwin IV of Flanders took control of Valenciennes. Having fallen ill, his relative Bishop Balderic went to visit him, and he advised him to leave his "Castrum", presumably Valenciennes, to the bishopric.
Baldric returned to Liege, and Vita says that he was trying to raise a military force when Arnulf died. According to modern historians, this happened in 2011. Matching dates that differ by one day can be found in the obituaries of Liege and Cambrai.
The widow of Arnulf Lethard, barely able to resist the pressure of Flanders, tried to go to Liege, but was captured by count Lambert I of Louvain. The Vita records that Lambert, who attacked and defeated Balderic II at the battle of Hogarden in 1013, took the opportunity to force Letgard to cede to him the rights in Hanret, which he then ceded to Balderic II. these rights in Hanret became part of the domain of the new Cathedral of St. James, founded by Bishop Baldric in Liege.
3. Family. (Семья)
His mother was named Countess Bertha in documents relating to donations she made to Sint Truiden Abbey shortly before her death in 967. Not only was her son and heir count Arnulf, but Dhondt and Vanderkinder pointed to a common connection with the Pagan Cariban, near Lille, about 45 km West of Valenciennes, in the Kingdom of France. Grants version, recorded in the chronicle of Sint Truiden itself, showed that she had rights in the area of Sint Truiden itself, in Melveren and Brustem.
He, his wife and son appear in the 994 Gent Charter of St. Peter granting Carwyn Abbey in Caribant, and he made another grant in 983 for the soul of his late brother Roger of Corulis in Caribant.
The historian bas Aarts pointed out that the evidence of Berthas gift also partially coincides with another gift of Bertha with her son Arnulf to the Abbey of Nivelle, consisting of 5 mansions with a meadow and forest in the upper reaches of the river Dyle. In this Charter named two younger brother Arnulf: Herman and Reweard.
His father is not mentioned in medieval records, but based on the fact that he was the count of Cambrai, and his name, it has been suggested that his father must be Arnulf, who was named as the son of count Isaac of Cambrai in 941.
Vanderkinder also suggested that there was a count of Valenciennes before him named Count Amulric, who is mentioned in two records from about 953 to 973. In the earliest records from the 950s, he was described as the count of Hainaut, and it was mentioned that he married the daughter of Isaac, count of Cambrai, but the marriage was annulled by the Bishop because they were too closely related.
He was a close relative of the Bishop of Liege, Balderic II, and therefore probably a relative of his family, the counts of Loon. This connection was noted in two later Liege documents-the life of Balderic himself and a falsified Charter supposedly drawn up in 1015. Wunderkinder figured it had to be connected to his mother Bertha.
His wife, who survived him, was called Legard or Leithart. It has been suggested that she was related to the family of the counts of NAMUR, both because of the name of her son Adalbert, and because, after Arnulfs death, she was involved in transactions that led to the acquisition of Hanret, which is located in the direction of NAMUR, by Lambert I, count of Louvain.
From Arnulf and Legarda had a son named Adalbert, albert, who died before both of them. The obituaries kept by Saint-Lambert in Liege commemorate the deaths of count Arnulf on October 23 and count Adalbert on March 30 for granting them the vise, showing that Arnulf had an important inheritance very close to Liege itself.
4. Biography. (Биография)
- De Waha, Michel 2000, "Filii Ragineri in terra patrum suorum relocati sunt. Pouvoir, opposition et integration dans le Hainaut du Xeme siecle", in Billen, Claire ed., Hainaut et Tournaisis, regards sur dix siecles dhistoire. Recueil detudes dediees à la memoire de Jacques Nazet 1944–1996, pp. 61–85.
- Dhondt, J 1943, "De crisis van het grafelijk gezag in Vlaanderen na den dood van Arnulf den Eerste", Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis en de oudheidkunde: 54–55.
- Koch, De Meyer 1951, "De overlijdensdatum van graaf Arnulf van Valenciennes", Revue belge de Philologie et dHistoire, 29 1: 139–142.
- Lays, Charles 1948, Etude critique sur la Vita Balderici Episcopi Leodiensis.
- Stiennon, Jacques 1951, Etude sur le chartrier et le domaine de lAbbaye de Saint-Jacques de Liege.
- Aarts, Bas 1988, "Het" Ansfried-probleem "in Hilvarenbeek en elders", in Scheirs ed., Hilvarenbeek Duizend Jaar. Bijdragen tot een symposium over de geschiedenis der Brabantse dorpen.
- Aarts, Bas 1994, "Ansfried, graaf en bisschop. Een stand van zaken", in Coolen, Forschelen eds., Opera Omnia II. Een verzameling geschied- en heemkundige opstellen.
- Vanderkindere, Leon 1902, La formation territoriale des principautes belges au Moyen Age PDF.
5. Primary source. (Первичный источник)
- Van Lokeren, Chartes et documents de labbaye de Saint Pierre au Mont Blandin à Gand depuis sa fondation jusquà sa surpression avec une introduction historique.
- De Borman, Camille, Chronique de labbaye de Saint-Trond, 2.
- Hemptinne, T. de, A. Verhulst and L. De Mey eds, De oorkonden der graven van Vlaanderen Juli 1128 - September 1191, Uitgave 2, Band 1 Brussels 1988.
- Perts, ed. 1841, Vita Balderici Episcopus Leodiensis, MGH SS, 4, pp. 725-726.
- Fayen 1906, Cartulaire de Gand. 2, Livre des donations faites à labbaye de Saint-Pierre de Gand: depuis ses origines jusquau XIe siecle, avec des additions jusquen 1273.
- Marchandisse, Alain 1991, L’obituaire de la cathedrale Saint-Lambert de Liege XIe-XVe siecles.
- Dillo, van Singel, EDS. 1979, 2: De heerlijkheden Breda en Bergen op Zoom, part 1: 709-1288, Oorkondenboek van Noord-Brabant tot 1312.
- Пиот, изд. 1870, Cartulaire de labbaye de Saint-Trond, 1.
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