★ Sar Shalom ben Moses
Rabbi SAR Shalom Ben Moses Halevi also called Zuta the last of the Egyptian geonyms, he controversially held the position of Nagid of the Egyptian community in Fustat from 1170 to 1171 and again from about 1173 to 1195, during which time he was excommunicated several times by Maimonides for tax farming.
1. Biography. (Биография)
Born in Egypt, his father Moses Ben Mevorah was the Scion of a distinguished family of doctors-courtiers in Egypt. In his early years, he held the post of AV Beth DIN in the Shel Eretz Yisrael yeshiva in Damascus. Later, he served as a diplomat and possibly a doctor at the Fatimid court, with whom he developed a close relationship. In 1170, he succeeded his brother Netanel Ben Moses Halevi as Nagid. After the fall of the Fatimid Caliphate, he was removed from this post by the Ayyubids when they came to power in 1171. He was succeeded by Maimonides, who had close ties to the Ayyubid family and served as their court physician. However, only two years later, in 1173, SAR Shalom resumed his post and held it until at least 1195. His reign is considered extremely controversial and political, as described by Megillatus Zutta, written in 1197. This work describes and criticizes the rule of SAR Shalom, and also notes the restoration of Maimonides as a Nagid in 1195. The author, Abraham Ben Hillel, accuses SAR Shalom and his father of gaining supremacy over Jews through corrupt methods, including gaining favor with the government by levying taxes on local leaders and informing on other Jews. In addition, the author describes SAR Shalom, whom he calls Zuta, which means "little", as a "despotic ignoramus" blinded by his aristocratic ancestry.
Letters and documents found in Fustat Genizeh contain additional information about how SAR Shalom tried to appoint tax farm governors in El mahalla, Alexandria and Bilbeis. Maimonides also confirms these accusations in his commentary on Pirkei Avot 6: 4, where in response to these events, he inserted a passage prohibiting the collection of taxes by religious leaders. Many of the local Egyptian governors resisted SAR-Shalom attempts to force them to pay agricultural taxes, and from 1169 to 1170, the Jewish community of Alexandria banned anyone who recognized SAR-Shaloms authority and officially excommunicated him from the Church. However, Maimonides revoked this ban, fearing that it would lead to an even greater split in society. It was at this time that many influential Jews lobbied the Ayyubids to get RID of SAR Shalom. After the Jewish Governor of El Mahalla, Perahya Ben Joseph, refused to help SAR-Shalom collect agricultural taxes, SAR-Shalom threatened to appoint its own Governor. However, supporters Perhas threatened to excommunicate anyone who recognizes or appointee cooperating with the SAR Shalom. In response, Maimonides decreed that excommunication was mandatory for those who accepted it. This prevented SAR Shalom from replacing Perahya.
In 1187, Maimonides threatened to excommunicate Anyone who recognized or associated with the rulers of SAR-Shalom. In addition, the ban excommunicated All those who gave the right to conclude marriages and divorces to rabbis who did not know the laws on marriage and divorce, which was a direct blow to SAR-Shalom. As Nagid had the exclusive power to appoint judges, the ban was associated with a public rejection of the government of the SAR-Shalom. Maimonides repeated this decision when he assumed the office of Nagid in 1195. After the death of SAR Shalom and Maimonides in 1204, Maimonides son Abraham Maimonides was appointed Nagid in 1205, which led to members of SAR Shaloms family attempting to undermine his authority by falsely claiming that he was trying to Islamize the synagogues Liturgy.
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