★ HMS Tourmaline (1919)
HMS Tourmaline was an S-class destroyer that served in the Royal Navy during the Greco-Turkish war and the Russian Civil war. The tourmaline was one of the destroyers ordered from Thornycroft, with more powerful geared turbines than most ships of its class, and structural changes such as a raised forecastle that improved seaworthiness. Launched on 19 April 1919, the ship operated as part of the fourth destroyer flotilla serving the Atlantic and Mediterranean fleets. After serving in the Black and Marmara seas, during which the sister ships speedy and Tobago were lost, tourmaline led the Gibraltar local defense flotilla. With the signing of the London Naval Treaty, the Royal Navy needed to retire several destroyers to meet the tonnage requirements, and tourmaline was chosen for retirement. Thus, after just over a decade of service, the destroyer was decommissioned on 28 November 1931 and scrapped.
1. Design. (Дизайн)
The tourmaline was one of three S-class destroyers ordered by the British Admiralty from Thornycroft in June 1917 as part of the twelfth war construction program. The project was based on the R-class destroyer "Rosalind", built by the shipyard. Compared to standard S-class ships, the design, also known as the modified Rosalind, was longer, with the forward gun raised and 18.457 mm torpedo tubes moved to a new position, both of which improved seaworthiness. Like previous designs, thornycroft also installed more powerful equipment to give the warship a higher top speed. This also allowed for a more stable hull design with a larger beam and a metacentric height of 2 ft 10 in at 0.86 m
Tourmaline had a long total length of 275 ft 9 in 84.05 m and a length of 266 ft 9 in 81.31 m between the perpendiculars. The beam was 27 ft 4 in 8.33 m and the draft was 10 ft 4 in 3.15 m. The displacement was 1.087 long tons, 1.104 t normal and 1.240 long tons, 1.260 T full load. Three Yarrow boilers fed steam to two sets of Brown-Curtis geared steam turbines with a capacity of 29.000 horsepower, 22.000 kW, and drove two shafts, giving a design speed of 36 knots, 67 km / h, 41 mph at light load, and 32 knots, 59 km / h, 37 mph at full load. Here were two funnels, the front of which was larger in diameter. 250 tons of oil were transported, which gives a design range of 3.450 nautical miles 6.390 km, 3.970 miles at a speed of 20 knots 37 km / h, 23 mph. The staff consisted of 90 officers and enlisted men.
Armament consisted of three QF 4in Mk IV guns mounted on the ships centerline. One of them was mounted on the forecastle, the second-between the pipes, the third-on the stern. The ship was also equipped with a single 2-pounder 40 mm POM-pom anti-aircraft gun for air defense. A total of six torpedoes were installed, consisting of four 21-mm 533-mm tubes in two twin rotating mounts at the stern and two 18-mm 457-mm tubes on fixed mounts installed on the ships. Fire control included one Dumaresq and a Vickers range watch.
2. Shoes for service personnel. (Обувь для обслуживающего персонала)
Laid down in January 1918, tourmaline was launched on April 19, 1919. Upon completion on December 18 of the same year, the ship joined the fourth destroyer flotilla of the Atlantic fleet under the command of the C-class light cruiser castor. As part of the fleet led by the iron Duke, the ship was sent to Constantinople as part of a broader presence to represent British interests in conflicts in the Black sea. The fleet soon began operating in support of the Volunteer army fighting on the southern front of the Russian Civil war. For destroyers, this often included operations near the coast in areas where the risks were highest. For example, while tourmaline and sister ship Tobago were patrolling the Black sea area between Novorossiysk and Tuapse between November 1 and 10, 1920, the Tobago was fatally crippled after being blown up by a mine.
Soon after, the tourmaline was also damaged. While leaving Portland on 17 January 1921 to rejoin the fleet, the destroyer collided with the yarrow-built s-class destroyer Turquoise and instead had to sail to Portsmouth for repairs. Shortly thereafter, the flotilla was transferred to the Mediterranean fleet. The destroyer was part of the fleet that was part of the Royal Navy during the Greco-Turkish war. The ship was assigned to Constantinople and patrolled the areas around the sea of Marmara. it was during this service that the ship took on Board survivors from the sister ship speedy when that ship sank on September 24, 1922 with the loss of ten lives. After the end of this operation, on may 15, 1926, tourmaline was again sent to Gibraltar to lead the local defense flotilla. On April 22, 1930, the London naval Treaty was signed, which limited the total tonnage of destroyers in the Navy. Tourmaline was one of those chosen for retirement, and on November 28, 1931, the destroyer was sold to those who were ward, and broken up at Grays.
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