★ Christiana Mary Demain Hammond
Christiana Mary Demain Hammond was an English artist and Illustrator. She was a member of the Cranford school of illustration and illustrated reprints of classic 19th-century English texts. Her illustrations can often be found in journals such as "Cassells", "quiver" and "St Pauls". She frequently exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Institute of artists in watercolors.
1. Early life. (Ранняя жизнь)
Hammond Mary Demaine Hammond was born in Coldharbour lane, Brixton, London, on 6 August 1860" and baptised on 16 September 1860. She was not named in her birth registration, but simply registered as a female child. Her parents were Horatio Demaine Hammond, 1833-March 11, 1900, a Bank clerk, and Eliza wood, baptised June 21, 1836-first quarter of 1882, who married at St. Georges, Bloomsbury, London, may 5, 1858.
The couple had three children, all of them artists:
- Gertrude Ellen Demain was baptized on July 6, 1862-21, 1951. Gertrude and Christiana studied together, first at the Lambeth school of art and then at the Royal Academy of art. She was an artist and Illustrator, just like Hammond. Gertrude was a prolific Illustrator of books, including childrens books and retelling historical stories. Gertrude married Henry Goring Mcmurdy around 1860-28 November 1948 in Fulham, London, on 14 June 1898, and the couple lived with Hammond at 2 St. Pauls Studios, on what is now Talgat road, Kensington.
- Percy Edward Demain 6 December 1865-3 April 1946 was described as a stained glass artist in the 1901 census and as a decorative artist in 1911 and 1939. In 1906, he worked as an artist for the Crittall Manufacturing Company, known for its involvement in the art Deco movement, both as suppliers of steel Windows used in art Deco buildings and for commissioning art Deco buildings. He was described as a poster artist in 1907, suggesting that he was involved in advertising for Crittall. Percy married Martha Cantwell in Lambeth in the third quarter of 1904. The couple had at least one son, Seymour Edward Demain, who was baptised on July 7, 1905 – October 15, 1948.
- Christiana Mary Demain 1860-11 May 1900.
Christiana was the only one of her siblings who didnt get married.
1.1. Early life. Education. (Образование)
Hammond received her first instruction in drawing from a governess, and then attended Lambeth school of art with her sister Gertrude in 1879. At Lambeth school, Hammond won the Cressy for the best sketch on a particular subject, a competition open to all students of the school, with an award made by sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
Hammond and her sister both won scholarships for three years of study at the Royal Academy schools, where they started in 1889. Here Hammond distinguished herself by passing through various schools almost as quickly as possible. However, she was not eligible for a second three-year scholarship, as even though she had passed all the exams, she had missed many lectures due to illness, and a good track record was a prerequisite for receiving an additional scholarship. Thus, her art education ended three years earlier than she would have liked. It was this aspect of her education that made her focus on pen and ink rather than oil painting.
2. Works. (Работает)
Hammond painted and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1886, 1891, 1892, 1893 and 1894, and at the Royal society of painters in water colours in 1886 and 1895. While still a student at the Royal Academy, she came to the attention of James Barr, editor of the Detroit free press, and Henry Reichardt, art editor of pickup, who gave her commissions. Hammond also contributed to the first issue of Reichardts new illustrated weekly St. Pauls in 1884. After this first appearance of her work in St. Paul, she was approached not only by publishers such as Macmillan and Allen, but also by Sir William Ingram, owner of the Illustrated London news and sketch. Since then, she has refused to work because she was offered more orders than she could fulfill.
She has also published in Cassells Magazine, the Quiver, the English Illustrated Magazine, the Queen, Pall Mall Magazine, Pearsons Magazine, the Idler, Madame, Good Words, the Ludgate Monthly, and the Temple Magazine
Hammond is considered a member of the Cranford school, along with C. E. Brock, H. M. Brock, Fred Pegram, F. H. Townsend, and inaugurator Hugh Thomson. The school was, strictly speaking, a General style, since individual artists had no special relationship with each other. It was a style that celebrated a sentimental, pre-industrial view of old England."
2.1. Works. Books illustrated by Hammond. (Книги, иллюстрированные Хаммондом)
The following list is based on the list presented in Argosys obituary. Most of Hammonds work was intended for posthumous publication. However, in three cases it illustrated the first editions.
3. Death. (Смерть)
Hammond died unexpectedly at the home she shared with her sister and brother-in-law on may 11, 1900, at the age of 39. Her father had died only two months ago. Her fortune was estimated at 2.198 million pounds, and her brother Percy acted as executor.
4. Evaluation. (Оценка)
Foreman, in her Argos obituary, claimed that no competent critic would deny her a place among the top six of her contemporaries, and others equally competent would not hesitate to place her in the top three. and this imagination, subtlety, energy, variety, subtlety of characterization, difference of conception and execution - all this was at the disposal of Miss Hammonds in abundance.
Thorpe noted that Hammonds elegant and charming drawings were very popular, and that She had a long list of books that deserved her attention. However, he also believed that many of her figures – especially those of women-were spoiled by disproportionately small heads, and that her sister was a more skilled draughtsman. Hammond and her sister in the 1890s were at that time by far the most prominent representatives of their sex in the field of illustration. Peppin agrees with Thorpes assessment that Gertrude was the best draughtsman.
Hauf notes that Hammonds work is quite loose, and she excels in costume subjects in a style not unlike Brocks eighteenth-century Pastiche style. Lusi notes that Hammond was the first female Illustrator of Jane Austen novels, illustrating three Austen books for two publishers. And that, compared with other representatives of the Cranford school, Hammond Austins illustrations are generally more serious, less whimsical, and more visually surprising than those of Thomson or Brock. Southam calls Hammond the best artist of this period and claims that her resolute and characteristic pen-and-ink drawings are neither fanciful nor overly decorative.
Cook argues that Hammonds contribution to the escapist discourse of the Cranford school of sentimental pre-industrial old England was simple but effective. Although she presents her characters with historical accuracy, her main focus is on small nuances of facial expression and gesture. This makes her an ideal Illustrator for Jane Austen. Cook summed it up by saying that her sophisticated and insightful illustrations, designed for a broad bourgeois audience, had a broad currency, only displaced by a growing taste for the radicalism of English modernism.
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