★ Loket Castle
The Loket castle is a 12th-century Gothic style castle is about 12 km from Karlovy vary on a massive rock in the town of Loket, Karlovarsky kraj, Czech Republic. It is surrounded on three sides by the river Ohee. Once known as "the impregnable castle of Bohemia", because of its thick walls, it is one of the oldest and most valuable historical stone castles in the Czech Republic. It is administered by the Foundation of the castle Loket in 1993 and is today preserved as a Museum and national monument.
Every year the city became the center Opera festival, with the performance of the Czech national Opera in an outdoor amphitheatre with the castle as the background, as well as at the Grand Prix of the Czech Republic in motocross.
1. History. (История)
Loket, originally called Stein to book due to its rocky location, is said to have been founded in 870 by the margraves Vohenburg, which were then associated with the Dukes of Bavaria, who is only to book districts belonged until the 12th century.
The first written mention of Loket as a town comes from a 1234 deed when the first known Royal Loket the Burgrave was recorded. According to archaeological studies, the Foundation stone castle was built in the third quarter of the 12th century, during the reign of Ottokar I Peemysl or a Czech Prince Vladistav I subsequently Czech king Vladislav II of Bohemia, or Ministerial officials of the Emperor Frederick I Barbarosa. The old Romanesque castle comprised two towers, churches and buildings standing on the site of the present house of electors. The Church stood beneath the present castle where St. Wenceslaus Church is standing today. The other tower, which no longer exists, stood to the North-East from the castle. First of all, the castle served to protect merchants on the road leading from Prague via Cheb and in Plauen and Erfurt, but after you re-enable the Czech state it began functioning as a frontier Fort. By this time, he became the new administrative centre of the region.
At the turn of the 13th century the village was built around the castle, and then raised in Royal city. From the 1250s the castle was gradually expanded and the once Romanesque building was transformed into a Gothic fortress, which was often visited by members of the Royal family.
1.1. History. During the reign of king Premysl Ottokar II of Bohemia. (Во время правления короля Оттокара Пржемысла II в Чехии)
Peemysl under the rule of Otakar II built a new fortress wall with semi-cylindrical towers. Queen eliška Peemyslovna used to hide himself in the castle with her children during the upheaval of John of Luxembourg, as well as to protect themselves from his wrath. The last time she had to hide was there in the early spring of 1319, when king John took the castle with a trick, when he persuaded the guard to open the gate, pretending a friendly visit to his wife. Queen Eliza was taken prisoner and transported to Miller, the dowry of the Czech Queens castle. Their three-year-old son Prince václav, later Emperor and king Charles IV, was held here for two months in an underground prison, a period which he later described as a horrible imprisonment in a cellar with one tiny window. As an adult and an important European ruler, Charles IV not to hate Loket and often stayed there. In his outstanding code Maiestas Carolina, he classified Loket among the places that were supposed to remain in permanent property of the Czech crown.
The Hussite wars can not avoid Loket when it was in the hands of a supporter of the Catholic Church Burgrave Puta from Illburk. The Hussite troops tried twice to conquer the castle under the leadership of Krusina of Svamberk and later under the leadership of Jakoubek of Veesovice, but both campaign ended without success. A comprehensive restoration of the castle under Vaclav IV was crucial to its current form. Of the original Romanesque buildings that have survived to our time basically in very rare rotunda, the foundations of the tower and the North wing. House Margaves also arose during the reign of Vaclav IV.
1.2. History. During the reign of Sigismund of Luxembourg. (Во время правления Сигизмунда Люксембурга)
The castle continued to be increased up to 1420 years and in 1434 he was pledged to the Chancellor Caspar slick Sigismund of Luxembourg as a reward for his financial assistance. There was a further reconstruction in the second half of the 15th century, when the castle was turned into a representative of the ancestral seat under the control of the house of slik, which lasted more than 100 years. It served this purpose even after the House of slik were divided into several branches – Falknov, jáchymov and Ostrov. Its architecture followed the spirit of the late Gothic and the new Renaissance. In the Sliks changed the southern Palace into a Great hall, and the East Palace archive "slick". The castle has suffered from being turned into a prison in the 19th century.
In the 16th century the house of slik became one of the richest families in the country and the most powerful in the region. Their era in the Loket castle was one of dispute with the burghers of Loket, which often led to violence and open conflict. Because of their participation in the revolt of the Czech States against the king, later Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg, many of the possessions of the house of slik were confiscated and eventually they lost the castle. From 1551 to 1562, the castle was administered by the nobility of Plauen, but it was taken from them due to bad management and assigned to the Loket burghers. In 1598 he became a hereditary inheritance tradesmen, serving only for administrative purposes. Every time the municipality was faced with the disastrous state of the city elders spent their sessions.
1.3. History. During the reign Jiei Popel of Lobkowicz. (Во время правления Jiei Попел из Лобковиц)
In 1607 a nobleman Jiei Popel of Lobkowicz, who was the highest regulator of the Czech Kingdom, died of apoplexy in prison Loket castle. He was accused of treason and imprisoned in the Kladska, for many years. He was later buried at the site of the former Church tower. During the Thirty years war, the city was afflicted with many disasters. At its beginning, the Protestant Loket supported the opposition against the Emperor. After the battle of White Mountain, the citizens of Loket allowed Mansfeld detachments that enter the city. In 1621 the city was besieged by the Bavarians led by Tilly, and after a huge bombardment, the city was forced to surrender, and the Saxons had to leave. Then the city was punished for disobedience of extensive repressive measures. This situation repeated itself again in 1631, when the burghers allowed the Saxons to come in and captured the city. Swedish troops operating in the area Loket basis city from their attacks, but thirty years of war and repressive measures of the tsarist officials brought a large economic loss for the city of Loket.
1.4. History. From the 18th century to the present. (С 18 века по настоящее время)
In 1725 the castle was burned and only on the first floor and underground of the castle remained. In the early 19th century, the House of electors, then was rebuilt and the Museum of porcelain was created. In 1788, a proposal for the reconstruction of the castle in the city jail was made, and the work was finished in 1822. During this time, the Palace is called the stone chamber, in the vicinity of the tower was demolished and other buildings were reduced by one floor. The prison was abolished in 1948. Since 1968 the castle was controlled by the ancient monuments departments in Plzen. The turning point for the improvement and opening of the castle came in 1992, when he was returned to the town of Loket again. The city was founded by the Foundation of the castle of Loket, which was later converted to the General welfare of the Corporation.
2. Sections of the castle. (Разделы замок)
Today the castle consists of nine different parts that contains many medieval monuments of historical interest. In addition to the electors of the house, where the exhibition of porcelain on display and the remains of a Romanesque rotunda, the smallest of its kind in the Czech Republic, in the castle are also prison cells and torture chambers, the wedding and the ceremonial hall, the historical arms and archeological hall, where the layout of the so-called "bewitched Burgrave" is a meteorite on display, Romanesque prismatic tower of the 15th century burgraves house and the house of captains, and the 16th-century Palace with two wings and fortifications incorporating strongholds.
2.1. Sections of the castle. The House Of Electors. (Дома Избирателей)
Built in the Romanesque style, it was finally set in its present form as a city Museum in 1907. After a recent renovation, the Museum of local porcelain production was re-opened to the public on the ground floor. Later, exhibitions were held in other rooms in the castle. Several gravestones are arranged in a row at the entrance to the building. One of them coming from Rabbi Benjamin tomb of the Renaissance of the extinct Jewish cemetery, which was situated on the outskirts Robicske, with a laudatory poem, built around 1700, while others come from the former Loket cemetery at St. Jones.
2.2. Sections of the castle. Archaeological hall. (Археологический зал)
During archaeological research in the spring of 1993, many fragments and other materials From many periods of reconstruction, the castle of Loket was found. Masonry Romanesque Shaft until 1230 when the castle was built, then was open. Wall 2.2 2.5 7.2 metres with a thickness of 8.2 ft. They are based directly on the rock, and is built entirely of quarry stone. In the upper part of the excavation, below the main window, the walls of the Palace from the time of the reconstruction of the castle during the reign of king Wenceslas and a kitchen of the Renaissance, built in 1528-1536 were also found. In the corner of a rectangular Foundation for a heating element is also noticeable near the wear from the stone threshold.
2.3. Sections of the castle. Rotunda. (Ротонда)
The rotunda, which was originally hidden in the body of a spiral staircase in the Northern part of the castle, indicates the origin of the Slavs. It has an internal diameter of 3.6 m to 12 m with peripheral walls about 75 to 80 cm 30 to 31 in thick and stood alone until 1966, when he was discovered. It probably originated in the late 12th century, because the whole concept of the building of the Romanesque castle, otherwise there was an exception in the concept of přemyslid castles of the 12th century. It should be added that even historians do not agree whether the lock on the work Schtauf or architecture Premyslid.
2.4. Sections of the castle. Cathedral. (Собор)
The Cathedral in Baroque style was built on the site of a Gothic Church which burned down in 1725. The new Church was completed in 1734 under the project Wolfgang Braubock. Picture of the altar attributed to Petr Brandl, and as a valuable side altars were probably the work of Loket sculptor Ian wild. When the Church was renovated, the old churchyard behind the priest was restored. A monument to Lord václav Popel of Lobkovice, imprisoned in the castle and buried in the Church crypt, was erected here.
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