★ Cinema of Romania
Cinema of Romania is the art of the motion picture in the country of Romania and the Romanian filmmakers abroad. It was home to many world famous films and Directors.
How many worlds of early cinema, the ravages of time have left their mark on the printing of Romanian film. Dozens of items were destroyed or lost forever. Of these films, only memories, articles and photos published in the Newspapers of the time left. 1965 archive Naționala de film ANF, the national film archive is making serious efforts to recover the incomprehensible history of Romanian cinema, in parallel with the publication of memoirs and private research undertaken on big movie fans, such as film critics ion Cantacuzino and Tudor Caranfil, together with the Directors Jean Mihail and Jean Georgescu.
Romanian films have won best short film at the Cannes film festival in 2004 and 2008, with Camry by Catalin Mitulescu, and Megatron, Marian Crisan.
The Romanian cinema became widespread in the 2000-ies with the appearance of such films as the Death of Mr. Lazarescu, directed by Christi Puiu, 2005 Cannes prize UN certain regard winner, and 4 months, 3 weeks and 2 days, directed by Cristian, by Cristian Mungiu "the Gold palm branch" Cannes 2007 Dor winner. The latter, according to Variety, is "further proof of Romanias new prominence in the film world".
1. Beginning. (Начало)
History of cinema in Romania started before 1900, pushed by film screenings which helped arouse public curiosity towards the new invention and enthusiastic operators have started to make films out of passion for the newly discovered art. Due to basic technical conditions, early films were actualities, very short, much less than one shot per minute scenes to capture moments from everyday life.
The first cinematographic projection in Romania took place on 27 may 1896, less than five months after the first public screening of the lumière brothers on 28 December 1895 in Paris. In the Romanian exhibition, a team of lumière brothers screenings of several films, including the famous Larrivee Dun train EN Gare De La Ciotat. The event was organized by Edwin Schurman, impresario of Adelina Patti and Eleonora Duse, and was organized by the French-language newspaper LIndependance Roumanie. Mișu Vacarescu a descendant of a boyar family Vacarescu, journalist LIndependance Roumanie, noted that "presentation of a miracle of the century". Initially the elite of attraction, regular screenings as the building LIndependance Roumanie and in other places, such as the biggest newspaper House in Eforiei Spitalelor civil aviation Boulevard, and then Hugh room opposite the old National theatre helped the ticket price down and the cinema became a popular sight in Bucharest.
The following year, in 1897, the French cameraman Paul menu, an employee of the Lumiere brothers shot the first film set in Romania, the Royal parade on 10 may 1897, showing king Carol I mounted, taking his place on the Boulevard to head the parade. He went on to shoot 16 more news in the next two months, but only two survive today as the NR. 551 and 552 in the Lumiere catalog. The first menu Romanian films were presented on 8 June / 23 June 1897, including images of floods in Galati, of the Navy of Romania, on the Danube, and scenes from Baneasa Hippodrome.
However, by 1898 public interest in cinema started fading, so Paul menu offered his camera for sale "LIndependance Roumaine", 16 March 1898. The camera was bought by doctor Gheorghe Marinescu who became the first Romanian filmmaker, realizing a series of short health topics films between 1898 and 1899. Gheorghe Marinescu, together with cameraman Constantin M. Popescu, made in 1898 the first scientific film in the world, walking difficulties in organic hemiplegia. In a letter to doctor Marinescu from 29 July 1924, speaking about these films, Auguste Lumiere recognized that "unfortunately, some scientists have taken the path you open." His films were considered lost until 1975, when a TV reporter named Cornel Rusu discovered in a metal Cabinet in a hospital bearing the name of the famous doctor.
Beginning in 1906, in Macedonia, the Aromanian Manakia brothers made a career with their social and ethnographic themed actualities.
Screenings resumed in Bucharest in 1905 in various places like the Edison, the Eforie, the lyric theatre, and Circul Sidoli. In may 1909, the first theater in Romania, built specifically for exhibiting films, Volta, was opened on the street Batken in Bucharest. Transylvania, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, has already had its first cinema in Brasov since 1901. Volta followed, starting next year, for example, Bleriot on the Sarindar street, Bristol, Apollo and Venus. The program consisted of actualities and short "little films with actors", for example, a five minute shot of Victor Eftimiu and Romanesco Aristizza during a stately walk on the seashore. Films increases gradually in time, eventually developing into newsreels and feature films.
2. Fictional Romanian films 1911-1930. (Вымышленный румынские фильмы 1911-1930)
The first Romanian fiction films are shrouded in an aura of legend.
Investigation relative to the beginning of Romanian cinema, published in an Insert of the newspaper on a civil word in December 1933, mentions that in 1911 an "arrangement of a play for the cinema", Papușa the doll was made of operators Nicolae Barbelian and Demichelli in collaboration with the head of the troupe of actors, Marinescu. At the same time, Victor Eftimiu, in collaboration with Emil Garleanu, wrote the screenplay, which they offer for free to a certain Georgescu. As a result, the film, called Dragoste La manastire love in monastery or altar two altar and shown only in 1914, played for just eight days. This is despite the fact that the film consisted only of shots taken during two rehearsals for the role by Tony Bulandra and Marioara Voiculescu, the rest of the movie is the intertitles and long letters.
The first Romanian fiction film was a novel Amor fatal love, starring Lucia Sturdza, Tony Bulandra and Aurel Barbelian, actors from the National theatre in Bucharest. The film was directed Grigore Brezeanu, a Director of the same theatre and son of the great actor ion Brezeanu. The film played between 26 and 30 September 1911 at the Apollo cinema.
7 November 1911, the film Inșirate Margarita. To spread themselves, daisies premiere. It was based on Victor Eftimius poem, actually showed scenes shot in different places in the country to end the game with the same name, which played at the National theatre of Bucharest, it was what today would be called a Magic lantern. Aristide Demetriade and Grigore Brezeanu directed. Aristide Demetriade appeared in the role of a Fat Frumos. This film / Theater hybrid was well received by the audience of the day.
In December 1911, the theatrical magazine rampa published a note under heading "a movie in the theatre", signed V. Scanteie indicating that "the Maestro Nottara is in the course of a Patriotic work re-creating the Romanian war of independence on film, so todays generation can learn the history of the battles of 1877, and for future generations tableaux of Romanian bravery will remain".
As a result, the Director of the Bucharest branch of the Gaumont-Paris Studio, Raymond Pellerin, announced the premiere of his movie Razboiul DIN 1877-1878 war of 1877-1878, scheduled for 29 December 1911. A "film" made in haste, with a troupe of second-hand actors and with the help of General Constantinescu, who commanded a division at pitești, from whom he obtained the extras needed for the war scenes, "Razboiul DIN 1877-1878" was shown before the prefect of the Metropolitan police, which decided that it does not correspond to historical fact. Consequently, the film was confiscated and destroyed, Raymond Pellerin was declared persona non grata and he went to Paris, and the "collaborationist" General saw moved to another garrison as a means of discipline.
On may 5, 1912 magazine Flacara the flame brought to its readers that "as you know, few artists have created a society with the purpose of making a film about the war for independence. Such an undertaking deserves praise." The initiators were a group of actors: Constantin Nottara, Aristide Demetriade, V. Toneanu, ion Brezeanu, B. Soreanu, p. Liciu, as well as the young Grigore Brezeanu, associate producer and creative mastermind of the entire operation. Since a large amount of money was needed for production, they also brought into this effort Leon Popescu, a wealthy man and owner of the Opera house. The group received strong support from the public authorities, the army and all necessary equipment is at his disposal, plus military advisers, possibly including Pascal Vidrașcu. Cameras and their operators were brought from abroad, and the print was prepared in Parisian laboratories. Could Grigore Brezeanu have been the Director of the movies? No single source of that time gives credence to this hypothesis. On the contrary, they present him as "initiator", producer of the film, in addition to the members of the National theatre and Leon Popescu. In addition, it seems that he attracted the financier of the enterprise. In 1985, the film critic Tudor Caranfil discovered among the papers Aristide Demetriades his notebooks of Directors Independența Romaniei, unequivocally confirming that he was the Director of the movies. Thus, the film production crew was as follows: producers: Leon Popescu, Aristide Demetriade, Grigore Brezeanu, Constantin Nottara, Pascal Vidrașcu. Writers: Peter Liciu, Constantin Nottara, Aristide Demetriade, Corneliu Moldoveanu. Director: Aristide Demetriade. Operator: Franck Daniau. Makeup and hairstylist: Pepi Machauer.
On 2 September 1912, at the Eforie cinema, the largest cinema in Bucharest, the premiere of Independența Romaniei held. Despite all its shortcomings as theater acting, errors of the army of extras beyond the control of the direction which provoked unintentional laughter in some scenes and rendered dramatically limp those beginning, the film was well received by spectators, being shown for several weeks. Through this realization, through the aspects of their topics, using the selected distribution method, through the genuine artistic intentions, through its professional editing to create this film can be considered Romanias first step in the art of cinematography.
And one who understands the job, the man who kept the whole team together, the theatre Director Gregory Brezeanu, was left disappointed. The press of the time made ostentatious mention of Leon Popescu, who financed the film and made sure that the distance to other financiers to buy them, there is no praise, in the opinion of the public, the art of the film. This caused producer Gregory Brezeanu to say in an interview given to the magazine "rampa" and published on April 13, 1913: "my dream was to build a big Studio. I came to the conclusion that this is impossible. First of all, we do not have enough large capital investments. Without money we cannot rival the foreign studios.The Studio, according to our financiers, is something outside art, something in the realm of agriculture and the C. F. R. hence I have abandoned this dream with great regret."
But Leon Popescu - after the appearance of certain products allegedly of the Romanian cinema, filmed Pathe-frères Studio and second-hand actors, actually, it was a mixture of foreign films with scenes in which Romanian actors, they were presented in scenes of cinema, in the form of theatrical performances, the actors "in flesh and blood" coupled with scenes of the same actors, known as "cinemasketches" - answered with a wide offensive plan, forming the film De Arte Leon Popescu Leon Popescu art film society in 1913.
Collaborating with the troupe Marioara Voiculescu, which included actors sympathetic to Popescu, C. Radovici, ion Manolescu and G. Storin, they were able to put on the market the following films: Amorul unei prințese love of a Princess 1913, Razbunarea revenge 1913, Urgia cereasca the sky-borne disaster of 1913, Cetatea Neamțului the Germans the Citadel 1914, Spionul spy 1914, with all but the penultimate was significantly below expectations.
In particular, in 1913, there appeared another Romanian film, "Otselul" razbuna steel takes its revenge, directed by Aristide Demetriade - who that same year directed another film: Scheci CU Jack bill sketch with Jack bill. The film was funded by the Director, with substantial help from Professor Gheorghe Arion 8.000 lei. 40-minute film received positive reviews and is a great success. Today there is only one drum in A. N. F., taking minutes, projected time, fortunately, all the actors were visible close up. Film producer Gheorghe Arion, its Director and editor was Aristide Demetriade, Franck Daniau was the cinematographer, and it starred Aristide Demetriade, Cinsky Marioara, Țacovici-Cosmin Andrei Popovici, Nicolae Grigorescu, Petre Bulandra and Romald Bulfinsky.
At the end of 1914, Leon Popescu society merged with the society Cipeto for the import of small-sized projectors and at the same time rent the films produced Marioara company Voiculescu third parties.
During the First world war the production of films mainly focused on documentaries and newsreels. The few Romanian cameramen were mobilized, and during the retreat to Moldova film cameras in the country were saved. His Majesty Ferdinand I was shot at the front, together with the generals Constantin Prezan and Alexandru Averescu, while Queen Mary was taken in hospitals to relieve the suffering of patients. A few sequences remain of the thousands of metres filmed. Some of them were later used in the film Catherine Teodoroiu produced in 1930. here
After world war I, internationally, film production developed in accordance with the interests of entrepreneurs in the new sector. New studios endowed with good equipment and specialists who have undergone good training in new technologies appeared, Directors and actors known to the General public were involved in the new industry as prominent writers. The markets were opened for finished goods of the film, which through a market-tested formula managed to bring profits and Finance new productions. Film industry with generous financial resources began to dominate the market, destroying the weak national cinemas.
In this context, was an active Romanian film industry, but a dream. About 250 theaters, which then existed in Romania can not even generate the amount of money needed for one film, with profits out of the question. Specialist training for crew members does not exist, and Romanian actors were unknown abroad so their work may not be sold outside Romania. Neither the state to pay any attention to film production. His only concern in this regard was the collection of the tax on screenings, which provided a steady income, its proceeds at one time amounting to 2 / 3 of the total volume of revenues from this tax.
All of them were added two other catastrophes: Leon Popescu died in 1918, after which his "Studio" in fact, some improvised sets in warehouses on the territory of the lyric theatre burned down, miraculously, out of all the movies only one was saved: a copy of the Independența Romaniei is incomplete, with about 20 minutes missing.
In 1920, a film Studio, Soarele sun, began producing PE valurile fericirii on the waves of happiness, which starred the Hungarian actress lya de Putti, and the Romanian actors Maria Filotti, ion Manolescu, Gheorghe Storin, Alexander Mihalescu and tantzi hotel Cutava-Barozzi. It was directed by Dolly A. Sigetti and the script was based on the play by K. Williamson. The film was not completed. However, there were a few sequences shown in the trailer.
In 1921 marked the production of the first Romanian animated film, more precisely of the first Romanian animated cartoon, conceived by Aurel Petrescu and called pakala PE Luna on the moon. Surprisingly, all the animated films of this Director and artist that he has produced in the era of sound film, will be lost. Showing foresight, Aurel Petrescu created an album about 80 cubes, today, owned by A. N. F. and from which we can get an idea about the methods used by Petrescu in animating. Some of the shots on their edge of a black stripe indicating the sound that has led researchers to confirm that in his last phase, Petrescu sound cartoons.
Jean Michael entered in the turbulent environment is the movie at this time. He was one of the pioneers of Romanian cinema and began his career through his participation as assistant Director at the German Alfred Hallm, Director of iatac Țigancușa Dean little Gypsy girl in the bedroom. The film, shot on locations such as the Palace Mogoșoaia, poultry monastery, and Minovici Vila, was the script by Victor Beldiman, in turn written after a novel by F. Radu rosseti. It was a Spera-film Berlin and Rador-film Bucharest co-production. It starred Dorina Heller, E. Popescu ion Iancovescu, Mitzi Vecera, tantzi Elvas hotel Ekaterina Vigny, Leon Lefter, Petre Sturdza, Petrescu Fly and premiered on 30 December 1923. Unfortunately, the film is lost today.
The absence of a permanent flow of financial resources is a constant obsession, constantly pursuing Directors of Romanian cinema. The absence of a "Leon Popescu", a wealthy man, ready to invest their income in the production of the film, called the Director and a few actors passionate about the new art to seek financiers who were as passionately and unselfishly. Its like the young actor-Director Jean Georgescu found a retiree in the year 1925 who, for more or less artistic reasons, invested his savings in the film production called Nabadaile Cleopatrei Cleopatras whims. Ion Șahighian made his directorial debut on this film, which starred Jean Georgescu, ion Finteșteanu, A. pop Marțian, Giugaru Alexander, Soreanu N., Brandușa Grozavescu and others. It premiered on 5 October 1925 in the theater Lux. In the same way, Jean Georgescu produced the film Milionar for output zi Millionaire for one day in 1925 in Bucharest cabaret, since the owner wanted to advertise the house.
Jean Mihail directed lia 1927, the screenplay by Mircea Filotti financed by a German businessman who wanted to fulfill the wish of his wife, the famous actress Lilly Flohr. In addition, he made cooking a burden in Vienna in 1928 with the money lady wants to see her name listed in the credits as Director.
At the request of the firms that sold coffee, radio, etc., Marcel blossoms and Micu Kellerman directed the film the garden in the harem 1927 Valet in the harem.
In other cases, because of lack of money, film enthusiasts would form of cooperation: one is to contribute in the camera, the other in the lab, another scenario, other areas, the actors were easily obtained due to their desire to see themselves on the screen, and finally they had to find a lender willing to lend them some money on the assurance that it will be returned to him after the "huge success of the premiere". This is how there appeared under Jeans direction Mihails Pacat sin of Manasseh 1924 and 1925. Actor Ghița Popescu directed Legenda the Duas crusade the legend of the two crosses 1925, Vitejii neamului bravest of our men 1926 and 1927 Napasta disaster. Jean Georgescu directed Maiorul Moore mayor Moore 1928, financed by collecting money from friends.
Attraction of the screen and a real desire to make a name for herself in the new art led to the creation of several film schools. Students tuition fees paid for the production of certain films. Of course, the students were unpaid actors, which allowed for widespread. These clips-film Studio produced, with this form of financing, the films Iadeș the wishbone 1926, 1927 Iancu Jianu, Haiducii Haiducs in 1929, Ciocoii boyars 1930 and, later, Insula Șerpilor snake island 1934, the penultimate of which has on the sound, and the last being the radio.
On the other hand, a film production society called Soremar, specializiruetsya mainly on documentary films and newsreels produced in 1928 the film has a love Symphony, directed by ion Șahighian. With the Director Niculescu Broome they have created a film Ekaterina Teodoroiu in which there appear clips filmed during the First world war of the great figures of the time, mother Catherine Teodoroiu appeared as herself. These films were produced in Vienna studios.
Other films from this period include Gogulica C. F. R. 1929 unfinished, and Haplea Berk animated by Marin Iorda in 1928 - the first Romanian animated film preserved archivally.
From a technical point of view, making these films was very difficult. If the movie camera might be received from photographers newsreel, the seal was prepared with them also. The problem is to find a set to use was very difficult, with the Director of search among all the nearby warehouses, granaries, stables or dance halls. Sometimes the filming was done in different apartments or in homes owned by those who are willing to help. Lights, as a rule, gathered from the Studio photographers. Often, due to overcrowding in the hostels, the movies would randomly display a light or the camera operator is reflected in the mirror or furniture. The best places were those that suggest different theatres on the occasion that work is carried out at night. Another solution for them to shoot interiors outdoors. They built their "interiors" on sets exposed to thus, the solar light, removing the artificial lighting and is built on a platform that could rotate and thus to make full use of sunlight. Technical crews, unlike those found abroad, should be masters of all trades, but in the end, the workers: the operator will prepare for printing in the lab, the Director can be a makeup artist as well as manufacturer support-actor, assistant Director. Regarding distribution, it depends on the participants willingness to work for free. To all this was added the fact that the negatives were scarce, meaning that sequence was shot in one take, regardless of the quality of the result.
The lack of innovation in this area, due to the lack of materials and sometimes information, the cause of these suffering devotees of the new Muse to play things by ear, with many films showing weak artistry.
Even if the conditions in which these people worked and created did not allow them to reach the level equal to wider contemporary standards on a technical level, they still managed to record a pretty page in the annals of the history of the Romanian cinema, despite all the inherent artistic lapses at the beginning.
On the other hand, the intellectuals still considered cinematographic art to be a lowly SideShow, not according it its due importance. It is true that a press was also pretty thin on content and sometimes boring. In 1928 Tudor Vianu wrote in the article "theatre, cinema and radio broadcaster in the politics of culture": "the cinematic press, created in the first place, in order to sustain the interests of cinematographic capitalism.No actor, no matter how mediocre, was declared star of the first magnitude the cinematic press and there is no film, no matter how boring or trivial, has not been declared an incomparable achievement."
In the late 1920s and early 1930-ies, the cinema entered the minds of some Romanian writers and cultural figures, such as Tudor Vianu, Liviu Rebreanu, Victor Eftimiu, Camil Petrescu and Dimitrie Gusti, who all realized this new way of expression and culture. As Rebreanu observed in 1930,
During this period, the film critic D. I. Suchianu made his debut, first in Newspapers, then in 1929 on the radio. Later on the critic ion Filotti Cantacuzino also began broadcasting.
It is worth noting what the Princess-poet Elena Vacarescu the Princess, who could become Romanias first-born Queen of king Charles I has not decisively intervened to stop her idyll with Prince Ferdinand said in 1930 about the importance of the seventh art: "having great power at its disposal, the movie should work.the greatest benefit of the people and what brings them together, that is, to the world."
3. Romanian talking films 1930-1947. (Говорим фильмов румынский 1930-1947)
The appearance of sound films opened a new stage in the development of world cinema and, in fact, in the weak cinema of Romania as well. The appearance of sound further complicated the complex problems of material-technical base, both in terms of production and design in theatre. Competition from abroad shattered dreams of Romanian producers, such that the number of films produced after 1930 in the cinema of Romania has fallen markedly. Therefore, until 1939, a total of 16 films were produced. The majority were "Romanian" foreign films shot in Paris, Prague or Budapest studios with a few Romanian technicians and some Romanian actors. Practically, they were involved in dubbing. Among them were Franco-American film "the parade" paramount on parade, Televiziune television 1931 and dubbed in Paris with George Vracas voice in the second movie, FUM smoke 1931, Trenul Phantom the Ghost Train 1933, prima dragoste first love and Suflete in Furtuna raging of the soul 1934, Hungarian films dubbed in Budapest.
The German Director Martin Berger, who in 1929 had directed the silent movie among recent Romanian films Venea o moara in a PE Siret Mill went on Siret through an official subsidy, came back and in 1930 directed the film based on the novel by Liviu Rebreanu with the same name, ciuleandra profile. It was the first conversation Romanian film. The film was an artistic fiasco because the famous German actors provoked laughter through the German accent they have when speaking Romanian. Even a few Romanian actors who appeared in the film oddly speaks as German manufacturers used to the cadence of the Romanian language, imposed a diction of key words with long pauses. Consequently, in one scene, the son climbed down the stairs, saying one word at every step: "how. are. you. father?" The answer is the same: "good. dear."!
In 1932 brought the production Visul lui Tanases Tanase Romanian dream screens. It was released in Berlin, Constantin Tanase. He was a film financier, screenwriter, and main stars next to some good Romanian actors, while the German side provided the Studio, direction, technicians, and a troupe of actors.
The great comedians of the interwar Romanian stage, stroe and Vasilache, managed by the Romanian engineer, Argani, who gathered the Audio device to produce the only fully domestic film of the period, called the Bing-Bang of 1934. As the film posters noted, it was "a humorous musical," written by Argani, stroe and Vasilache, photoshoot, I. Bartok, music N. stroe and Vasile Vasilache, musical arrangements by Mihai Constantinescu and Max Komar, in roles: N. stroe, Vasile Vasilache, Nora Piacenti, Grigore Vasiliu Birlic, titi Botez, S. Calmuschi silly Vassiliou, Nutzi Pantazi, Lucica of parvulescu, Richard called Alexander Brunetti, and Alexander Giovanni. It premiered on 7 February 1935 at the ARPA cinema inside the Bucharest Cercul Militar.
Enthusiastic Directors of Romania, due to lack of funds and interest from the ruling power, everything began to take other paths in my life. Jean Georgescu left for Paris, where he added sound in 1934 film, state La States Bucharest in Bucharest in the Gaumont studios, the film was originally made as a silent Comedy. Ion Șahighian retired from films in the theater. Eftimie Vasilescu worked as "Chronicles". Only Jean Michael remained a Director based in Romania, although it also had to do work abroad, participating in the dubbing of films at Hunia-film in Budapest and Barandov in Czechoslovakia.
The Nadir of Romanian cinema a ray of hope appeared. Politicians, and not only in Romania, understand the great influential power that cinema as a part of the media. Movie can be used for propaganda purposes to influence the masses in General, with different levels of culture. In addition, it has been proven that purposeful work of Romanian film Directors, despite all its imperfections, was well received by the audience, and began to prove wrong those who called for subsidies for the creation of Romanian films.
Thus, in early 1934, a law was passed establishing a National cinema Fund. It is funded by a tax of 1 LEU for the ticket and 10 lei per meter of imported film. Its stated goal was to create a material base for the production of Romanian film and, as subsequent revenue to Finance the production. The administration of the funds is in the hands of the Committee formed by Professor Tudor Vianu, Professor Alexandru Rosetti and the writer ion Marin Sadoveanu. These taxes provoked strong protests from importers of the film and theater owners, however, with the authorities brings, only hardens services.
After the adoption of this law, the Romanian filmmakers began a flurry of activity, planning all sorts of projects. The entrepreneur has brought the bell-close sound recorder and founded a company called Romanian sound film industry, from the production of newsreels. Together with Jean Mihail he began the production of documentary film in Romania.
Through the contribution of a private entrepreneur, Tudor Posmantir laboratory named Ciro-film was built in 1936-1937, equipped with devices of the jungle. It was a modern laboratory for developing and copying films, thus ensuring that modern methods of work will be used. In "the Studio" has also been built nearby–it was actually a large wooden hangar, and a well for the production of films. It is here ion Șahighian shot noapte de pomina unforgettable night, from a script Tudor Mușatescu, starring George Timica and Dina Cocea, in 1939. The film found great success with audiences and received favorable critical reviews. Thus, it is shown that good technical equipment can do for the industry.
With the help of various government decisions, the National cinema Fund were posted in the tourist office, where in the Movie was established to create notes. The created material base, which was originally specified as goals of projects and really good quality. In film cameras was the type of film, with portable sound equipment setup In the car, the work was soon finished on a sound recording room for documentaries, with minimal artificial lighting in the Studio. It all disappointed the creators of feature films, as they lacked appropriate sets for filming.
Also during this period in the 1930-ies, Oficiul Național Cinematografic ONC, national film office was formed, headed by the film critic D. I. Suchianu. In the beginning the office worked on a periodic program of newsreel and documentary production. Construction was also begun on a Studio and completed with difficulty due to the outbreak of the Second world war. In the PMC produced a documentary Țara Moților of the Earth, which received a prize at the 1938 Venice film festival. The film was shot by Director Paul Calinescu and marked the entry of the Romanian documentary in the field of cinematic art. During the war, then was transferred to the General staff of the army, the majority of operators were sent to the front, and technicians, employed exclusively for the needs of war propaganda.
Despite all these difficulties, the film is about noapte furtunoasa stormy night was completed between 1941 and 1942 in the PMC Studio. Producing the film in wartime and labor fit for Sisyphus, it is equally true of actors, operator, electricians, stage, script-girl, theatre artists and decorators. All exteriors had to be constructed in a small 18×11 m Studio, intended for music recording, since exterior shooting at night was impossible due to the need to maintain camouflage. For panoramic or travel shots, two or three scenes were shot on stage, which should be executed two or three times, and then combined to form the whole stroke. How this works in practice was that after the scene was filmed, the set was cleared, and the next design was sick. The only thing missing for them: photographic material. In the end, of 29.000 m were shot. The film o noapte furtunoasa was shot by Director Jean Georgescu, based on the eponymous Comedy by ion Luca Caragiale, assistant Director Ionel Iliescu, Virgil Stoenescu, I. Marinescu, P., Baleanu, the cameraman was Gerard Perrin of Paris, the engineers A. Bielisici, V. Cantunari, G. Marai, edit, Eero Yvonne from Paris and Lucia Anton; makeup at the Sturh couple Berlin, choreography by Emil Bobescu, music by Paul Constantinescu, set design Stefan Norris, storyboards and costumes by Aurel Jiquidi, and production direction by ion Cantacuzino. The film starred Alexander Giugaru, Maria Maximilian, Florica Demion of Radu Beligan, Iordanescu-Bruno, George Demetru, ion Baro, George Ciprian, Miluța Ghiorghiu, Leontina Ioanid, Doina Missir, Julian SIM, Cornelia Teodosiu, Elena Bulandra, Vasiliu Falti, face Radulescu, ion Stenesku, Nicolae Teodoru, A. Rocos, Iancu Constantinescu and Jean Moscopol. It premiered on March 22, 1943 in HARO theatre. It was the first and last film produced in the PMC for many years, she remained a reference point in the annals of cinematic art in Romania.
The production of the film, however, continued. In 1944, a Romanian-Italian company, Cineromit assigned to the production of the film Visul unei nopți de iarna winter nights dream directed by Jean Georgescu, the script of the play Tudor Mușatescu. The film was completed only at the end of 1945 due to the events of the war. For the most part, the technical staff were from o noapte furtunoasa, plus the French cameraman Louis Behrend. Actors George Demetru, Ana Colda, Maria Filotti, photino Mișu and Radu Beligan. It premiered on 2 March 1946 in Excelsior movie.
Followed in succession several productions completed in collaboration with Danish and Hungarian studios Balkan-film company Bucharest. To celebrate Hello Romanian Bucharest, Furtul DIN Arizona theft and "Lumi și o dragoste" two worlds and one love, all made in 1946.
It was also important in 1946 London production indragostiților lovers of the forest, produced at Doina-film, on which the technical staff of the PMC worked with the Director and the operator to be Cornel Dumitrescu.
4. Cinema during communism 1948-1989. (Кино во времена коммунизма 1948-1989)
November 2, 1948 will be a new beginning for Romanian cinema. In this day signed a decree 303, regarding "the nationalization of the film industry and the regulation of Commerce in cinematic products".
This can also be called the period of socialist cinema. After "the teaching of the great Lenin, the ideologue of the social formation of the proletarian class" which showed that "of all arts the most important for us is cinema", however, not as an art but as an instrument of ideological influence, the newly installed regime fully financed the production of films which, as a necessity, as an imperative, the spread of propaganda of socialist values.
The filmmakers sought to show the realities of a new society. Socialist films reflect the struggle of the "new man" against the "old retrograde society, a society in which man exploited his fellow man, full of capitalists and men of inherited status, who sucked the blood of the working classes". Many films had as their theme the attempts of the retrograde bourgeois-landowners class to render futile the new objectives of victorious socialism through their stooges, but these efforts will not succeed, because the Romanian workers, and later the Communist party, through its activists, would inspire, depending on the situation, workers or peasants toward victory. The same themes were found in documentaries and newsreels. These productions showed "the glorious achievements of the working class in Alliance with the working peasantry".
Also notable is the fact that the choice of actors for such productions was not random and was based on the usual appearance of the rich and the poor. Fat actors, especially those with a paunch, were chosen to play in the local nobility, while the poor peasants played by those actors who were thin but had piercing eyes and resolute step, to those who played party activists had to find the employee to be muscular, and intellectual expression. The choice of actors was very important in determining the characters that they play.
As there are frames ready to fill necessary positions in the industry, Institutul de Arte and the Rome film Institute" was founded with the aim of training new personnel needed for the new cinema: actors, Directors, and operators. It was here that the "Golden generation" not only of Romanian film but also of the national theatre graduated: the actors Silvia Popovici, Iurie Darie, Florin peach as Constantin Diplan, Amza Pellea, Dem Radulescu Stela Popescu, Sebastian Papaiani, Leopoldina Balanuța and Draga Olteanu, along with Directors like Manole Marcus, geo Saizescu, Iulian mihu, Gheorghe Vitanidis, and many others.
Now Romania national cinema after a period when the old government has not invested anything in the new art. The socialist government, through investments, wanted to show the world and at the same time to prove how much he cared about the new art, "the seventh art" as a cultural commisars on the work in the film speaks with pride–men, also known as "gum-flappers" the new professionals who made films out of passion for art. These commisars were people that 90% of the time, had no connection not only with cinema but with culture, people who dont have even a middling amount of the drug, which came from all unrelated areas and who are themselves in the discussions labelling the film as "a pipe dream". At least in the distribution network, Director of cinematographic enterprises, at first regional, and then County, were activists who at a certain point in time was determined not to be able to perform "special demands" of party work. After all the real purpose for which these frames were put in place that suggested above. Here too there were exceptions which were the best act of the film. Even if when they entered the industry they had nothing to do with the movie, the wonderful world of the screen fascinated them, changed their conception about film and allowed them to make a beneficial contribution to the development of the industry in the future. They lobbied for funds to replace technically obsolete film equipment, they have changed the appearance of cinemas, installation of fine soft seats on the site of an early wooden, they have acquired the ventilation system and more necessary for a quality movie-going experience.
At the time of nationalization, the material-technical base of film production consisted of:
- The Studio, containing 200 m 2 2.153 sq. m stage, screening rooms, sound recording room and other applications.
- Laboratory preparation of a film print in mogosoaia, equipped with developing at copying machines for 35 mm black-and-white print that was used for the work of domestic and foreign production.
This fact led the leading party and state institutions to decide to found a center for the production of the film. In 1950, construction began in Butte that would come to be called the company centrul de producție Rome Butt in Buftea Studio, also known as S. R. S. Buftea today MediaPro studios. The project was completed in 1959. Technically speaking, S. P. S. Butte rivaled any Western European film Studio.
During this period, a series of films were produced in complex, low efficiency, which, in 1956, was captured by television to watch Romana Romanian television. This Studio was much larger than at the time of nationalization of 600 m2, it was a record number of additional technical facilities in applications, and laboratory to prepare the 35 mm prints in black and white and color Orwo color. Another Studio of about 320 m2 3.444 square feet was built in the Tomis cinema.
For the production of technical materials, as necessary to studios and film distributors, Intreprinderea de stat Tehnocin in Tehnocin state enterprise was founded in 1950 and in 1959 merged with the industry optics Romana Romanian optics industry. Projectors for 35 mm and 16 mm film were produced, and sound systems for cinemas, reflecting lenses, dollies and artificial light in the Studio.
In addition, to avoid technical personnel, well-trained to work in the Studio and in the work of movie projectors, professional schools for projectionists were founded at Craiova and târgu-mureş, while in Bucharest, a "technical school for technical personnel" was opened, intended to prepare movie theatre operators and Studio managers.
Documentary films and newsreels were necessary as feature films for promoting socialist values. For this purpose the Alex Sahia Studio was founded in 1950, equipped with the best materials available on the market: camera reporters mount arriflex, Klang, perfectone and Negra portable and fixed sound recording devices, Prevost editing tables, and other items. From 1954 another type of documentary began to be produced science-fiction films.
If, prior to 1948, the production of animated films practically does not exist, because this year, many such films began to be produced at the Bucharest Studio, with a total of 15 films in 1955. Particularly notable was the contribution of ion Popescu-Gopo, a father of a young man who appeared in Scurta istorie a short story in 1957, earned him the "Palme dor" Dor for Best short film in Cannes this year. The success of Romanias animated films convinced the authorities found the exhibition space of the Studio in 1964. Here, the "slides", slides for teaching use, has also been produced as TV commercials.
As for the distribution of movies is concerned, after the nationalization of cinemas around 35 mm, and 16 mm theaters did not exist, it was concluded that many had to close because of their decaying state or because of their obsolete equipment. The crisis followed, there is a lack of theatre administrators and projectionists who made films in some countries will be shown only in the open air. This situation caused of the Committee for cinematography to be formed on 7 June 1950, along with the Council of Ministers, and within the organization of the management of the distribution network was created. Later, this office ruled the County cinematographic state enterprises when they were created. The importance of these led to the allocation of funds required for the network of film to be developed. Implicitly, cinemas and the creation of 16 mm cinemas in rural areas was the goal–together, these were known as cineficare "filmification", by analogy with electricity. In the 1950s 1000 16 mm projectors and 100 film caravans, mobile theatres have been imported from the Soviet Union in order to facilitate the introduction of the film in rural areas. Changes have occurred in the next few years. Thus, in July 1952, Direcția Difuzarii Filmelor D. D. F. Directorate of cinema was founded. In 1956 it was merged with the film distribution network Directorate to form Direcția Rețelei Cinematografice si Filmelor in Difuzarii D. R. S. D. f distribution and management of screening, under the leadership of the Ministry of culture. The purpose of the Institute is to provide a uniform policy on Romanias cinemas, "control and management of political-ideological work of cinema, films based on political and technical requirements at different stages of the construction of socialism", as well as for making economic-financial plan that should be carried out.
If the reorganization continues, so in 1971, the Center for Romanian movie Romania-film Central was founded, having under its authority C. P. C. Buftea, the financing of film production in five studios, import-export and film screenings.
Although the technical vagaries of the industry at the moment have nothing to do with cinema of Romania as an art, it is also useful to recall how the distribution in cinemas took place. The production of Romanian film, as it was in 1948, almost was not. The timid beginnings of Romanian production of the film was started by Director Puiu Calinescu with taxi movie Valya valley resounds with themes similar to those discussed above. But, for such a "great national production" and other movies were essential in the repertoire of screening. Consequently, emphasis was placed on the import of films produced in the countries that turned to the path of building socialism. Many of them also had "rich Productions" and so everyone in the orientation of blocks East to the "country with the best and most educational films in the world, the USSR."
In addition to films on the new type of management and Economics, Directors made films that, without abandoning the "educational" value, also numbered among them subversive films, cloak and sword epics, and adaptations of, mainly Russian, literature. The films were even imported from countries that are not socialist government. The import of these films was done in a very strict manner for the topic. However, the public was not denied the opportunity to see some of the greatest works of cinema outside the European socialist bloc, including works of Italian neorealism and its successors in Nuremberg, guess whos coming to dinner, in the middle of the night, a series of westerns, gone with the wind USA, and many others from France, UK, Spain, Mexico, Japan and China.
After a series of films produced by Romanian studios rose, and import taxes were reduced, the quality of films shown, in particular, art films, suffered. At one point 40% of films shown were Romanian and 60% foreign, including from other countries of the Warsaw Pact.
5. Romanian cinema 1990–present. (Румынский кинематограф 1990–настоящее время)
The fall of communism changed the situation of Romanian cinema. Filmmakers visited the Communist period and the economic and spiritual crisis in the country. Production often depends on government grants, awarded by the jury, it turned out that many grants were awarded to a clique of earlier members of the jury, twisting the purpose of the system. It took the international success of the film to appeal to the jury to change the system. The new Millennium saw the revival of Romanian cinema. In 2001 and 2002, Romanian Directors competed in the parallel section Directors fortnight at the Cannes film festival with his first feature Christie Puius film stuff and dough to bania și aka Martha and Christian Mungius West, respectively.
In 2005, Puius the second feature, the Death of Mr Lazarescu, a journey through the Romanian health system, competed in a specific category of the United Nations in connection with the Cannes film festival and received the prize UN certain regard ". She then won many prizes worldwide, becoming the most awarded Romanian film ever made. American critics, previously rarely interested in Romanian cinema, were especially enthusiastic about the film, 93 percent of comments received were categorized rotten tomatoes as positive.
At the Cannes film festival 2006, Director of Romania Porumboiu, Corneliu won the camera Dor best first feature award for 12:08 East of Bucharest aka a Fost SAU n-a Fost? and Catalin Mitulescus how I spent the end of the world competed in the certain regard section of the United Nations. In 2007 Nemescus Christian posthumous California Dreamin won the prize "UN certain regard" of the UN, while Mungius 4 months, 3 weeks and 2 days received the "Palme dor" Dor at the Cannes film festival - the first time a Romanian filmmaker won that prize. In the 2008 Cannes film festival Marian Crișans Megatron received the Palme Dor for short film. In 2009 Katalin Varga with British film Director Peter Strickland won the new talent Pix at the CPH:Pix film festival. In 2010, if I want to whistle, I whistle vreau aka EU Cand SA fluier directed by Florin Șerban won the jury Grand Prix "Silver bear". The autobiography of Nicolae Ceausescu Director Andrei Ujica, which tells the story of the former dictator based on 1000 hours of recording with its own television archives, was shown out of competition at the Cannes film festival in 2010, when Corneliu Porumboius police, adjective Politist, adjectiv won in the program "Special view" prize. And in 2013 the Golden bear in Berlin has gone to Pozitia copilului childs is the Director Calin Peter Netzer.
Be my cat: a film for Anne, Romanias first found footage horror movie was released in 2015.
Romania has also been chosen by foreign filmmakers as a location for filming scenes, such as "Cold mountain", "Kazakh" in the village of Sacha Baron Cohens Borat French film Transylvania or 2004 American horror film Gargoyle: Wings of Darkness, to name just a few.
According to the European audiovisual Observatory for 2012-2016, domestic production accounts for only about 3% of all appeals to the cinema in Romania, with us productions dominate the market with 72%. As an example, 4 months, 3 weeks and 2 days was viewed by 350.000 people in France, 142.000 in Italy, but less than 90.000 in Romania itself.
6. Bibliography. (Библиография)
Sections covering up to 1947: "point DIN trecutul filmului romanesc" "moments from Romanian cinemas past", ion I. Cantacuzino, "movie Noah" edit newsletters for internal use Romania-film Central, memoirs and studies of Tudor Caranfil, Jean Mihail, Jean Georgescu and A. N. F., and issues of "cinema".
1948-1990 section: issues of "cinema", "movie Noi" bulletins edited for internal use by Romania-film Central, various articles and rules of distribution.
An extensive bibliography of Romanian cinema can be found here.
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