★ Cinema of Australia
Film Australia had its beginnings with the 1906 production story Kelly gang, earliest feature film ever made. Since then, the Australian crews have made a lot of movies, some of which have received international recognition. Many actors and filmmakers started their careers in Australian films, many of which have gained an international reputation, and many of which have received great financial benefits in the quarries in large film-forming centers such as in the United States.
The first public screening of films in Australia took place in October 1896, the year the worlds first screening in Paris by lumière brothers. The first Australian exhibition was held in the Athenaeum hall on Collins street, Melbourne, to provide alternative entertainment for the dance-hall patrons. Commercially successful Australian films include: Crocodile Dundee, baz Luhrmanns Moulin Rouge!, and Chris Noonans baby. Other awards performances: picnic at Hanging rock, Gallipoli, tracker, Shine and ten canoes.
Famous Australian actors include Errol Flynn, Peter Finch, rod Taylor, Paul Hogan, Jack Thompson, Bryan brown, Judy Davis, Jacki weaver, Geoffrey rush, Hugo weaving, Eric Bana, guy Pearce, Hugh Jackman, cate Blanchett, Ben Mendelsohn, Anthony Lapaglia, David Wenham, Nicole Kidman, Toni Collette, rose Byrne, Sam Worthington, Heath Ledger, Abbie Cornish, Chris Hemsworth, Sarah snook, MIA wasikowska and Margot Robbie.
Cinema in Australia is subject to censorship, called classification, while movies can be refused classification, which was actually forbidden.
1. History. (История)
The history of Australian film has been described as one of boom and bust due to the unstable and cyclical nature of the industry, was deep troughs when few films were made for decades and high peaks when a glut of films reached the market.
1.1. History. Pioneer days – 1890–1910. (Пионер дн – 1890-1910)
At the Athenaeum Hall in Collins street, Melbourne was a dance hall from the 1880s, which from time to time to provide alternative entertainment for visitors. In October, 1896, he exhibited the first movie shown in Australia, during the year the first public film screening in Paris on 28 December 1895 the French Lumiere brothers. The Athenaeum will continue screenings, but these first impressions were short films.
Some of the earliest film shot in Australia consisted of films dancers-aboriginal people in Central Australia shot by the anthropologist Baldwin Spencer and F. Gillen between 1900 and 1903. They examined recording sound on wax cylinders and shot their films in very difficult circumstances.
he early full-length, feature film in the world was the Australian production the story of the Kelly gang 1906, shown at the Athenaeum. The film was written and directed by Charles Tate and included several of his family. The film was also exhibited in the United Kingdom, and has been commercially very successful.
Melbourne was also the home of one of the worlds first film Studio, in the Department of attention, performed by the Salvation Army between 1897 and 1910. Attention the Department produced Evangelical material for use in the Salvation Army, and private and public contracts. In his 19 years of work of the Department of attention produced about 300 films of various lengths, making it the largest film producer of its time. The main innovation in the Department of attention, was published in 1899 when Herbert Booth and Joseph Perry began work on soldiers of the cross, described by some as the first feature film ever created. Soldiers of the cross fortified the Department attention as a major player in the early film industry. Department of attention was requested the film Federation of Australia.
1.2. History. Boom and bust – 1910-1920. (Бум и бюст – 1910-1920)
In 1910-ies was the "boom" period in Australian cinema. It began slowly in the 1900s, and 1910 saw 4 narrative of the film, then 51 in 1911, 30 in 1912, and 17 in 1913, and back to 4 in 1914, when the outbreak of the First world war marked the end of the film. Although these numbers may seem small, Australia was one of the most prolific film-producing countries at the time. Overall, between 1906 and 1928, 150 narrative feature films, of which almost 90 were made between 1910 and 1912.
There was a General consolidation in the early 1910-ies in the areas of production, distribution and exhibition of films in Australia which saw by 1912 the merger of numerous independent producers of Australian films and Union theatres now known as event cinemas, which established control over film distributors and cinemas and required smaller producers to deal with the cartel. Some type of agreement as a way for American distributors in the 1920s, years in sign exclusive deals with Australian cinemas to exhibit only their products, thereby shutting out the local product and crippling the local film industry.
There are various explanations for the decline of industry in the 1920-ies. Some historians point to the fall in the number of viewers, lack of interest in Australian product and narratives, and Australian participation in the war. In addition, there is an official ban on bushranger films in 1912. With the suspension of local film production, Australian cinema chains to seek alternative products in the United States and realised that Australian films were much more expensive than imported products which were priced cheaply as production expenses are compensated on the domestic market. To resolve this imbalance, the Federal government imposed a tax on imported film in 1914, but this was removed by 1918.
Whatever the explanation, by 1923, American films dominated the Australian market with 94% of all exhibited films coming from that country.
1.3. History. 1930s-1960s years. (1930-х-1960-х годов)
In 1930, F. W. Thring 1883-1936 established Efftee studios in Melbourne to make talking films using optical sound equipment imported from the United States. The first sound films was 1931, when the company produced diggers 1931-respondents course of 1931, the haunted barn 1931 and 1932 sentimental guy. In the five years of its existence, Efftee produced nine features more than 80 shorts and several theatrical productions. Notable collaborators included C. J. Dennis, George Wallace and Frank Harvey. The production of the film lasted only until 1934, when it ceased to protest against the refusal of the Australian government to set quotas Australian film, soon followed by Thrings death. It is estimated that Thring lost over £75.000 of his own money on his movies and theatrical enterprises.
Cinesound Productions was established in 1931 with Ken G. hall as its main driving force. The company was one of the first facilities in Australia, the film company, which operated in the early 1940s and has become an Australian leading domestic Studio, based on the Hollywood model. The company also used the Hollywood model to promote their films and tried to promote a star system. He was particularly successful in our collection 1932 Comedy series based on the popular works of the writer Steele Rudd, which showed the adventures of a fictional Australian cattle family, the rudds, and the perennial father and son Duo, dad and Dave. Despite its ambitions, Cinesound produced 17 feature films, of which Director Ken Hall. The company was financially successful. The company ceased the production of feature films with the outbreak of the Second world war.
In 1933, in the Wake of the "bounty", directed by Charles shavel, cast Tasmanian born Errol Flynn in the lead role, before he went on the famous Hollywood career. Shavel has released several successful Australian films, including 1944s world war II classic the rats of Tobruk which starred Peter Finch and chips Rafferty and 1955s jedda, which was notable for being the first Australian film to be shot in color, and the first to feature aboriginal actors in lead roles and to be entered at the Cannes film festival.
The 1927 cinematograph films act sets a quota of films shown in British cinemas, which will be filmed in the UK, and Nations in the British Empire, which stimulated the Australian film industry. However, the films act 1938 to reassure the British film industry, putting only movies shot and filmed in the UK will be included in the quota that removed Australian films from British filmmakers quotas, which saw the loss of a guaranteed market for Australian films.
The first Australian Oscar was won by 1942s frontline Kokoda!, directed by Ken G. Hall. Chips Rafferty and Peter Finch was a prominent international stars of the period. Home screen image as a lanky, laconic Bushman struck a chord with the audience and he appeared in the beginning of the famous Australian films like forty thousand horsemen, the rats of Tobruk, the overlanders and Eureka stockade, the overlanders and Eureka were part of a series of Australian themed films produced in the UK, the iconic Ealing studios. In Hollywood, Rafferty also appeared in Australian themed films, including the desert Rats, in the sun, and mutiny on the bounty. Similarly, Peter Finch played in the quintessentially Australian roles, such as digger or Stockman through a series of popular science films and a successful and diverse screen career in Britain and the United States.
As Ron Randall and rod Taylor started his acting career in Australia, initially on radio and on stage before appearing in such Australian films as the forge of 1946 and the former long John silver 1954 for the latter before transferring to the United States to become a Hollywood male lead in several films of the late 1940s years Randall and the like from the 1950-ies Taylor with starring roles in "the time Machine" in 1960 and 1963 birds, as well as several American TV shows such as Hong Kong.
Several well-known films based on stories from Australian literature, as a rule, with a strong rural themes was made in Australia in the 1950-ies – but in English and American production companies, including a town like Alice 1956 which starred Virginia McKenna and Peter Finch in the shiralee in 1957 starring Peter Finch Australian actors Charles Tingwell, bill Kerr and ed Devereaux in a supporting role, robbery with a weapon in his hands, again in the lead role of Finch in 1957 and the summer of the seventeenth doll 1959, starring Ernest Borgnine, John mills and Angela Lansbury, and in 1960 At sunset was filmed partially in the snowy mountains of New South Wales with overseas customers Deborah Kerr, Robert Mitchum, Peter Ustinov, but the cast of support, including from Australia chips Rafferty, John Meillon and Leonard teel.
In 1958 was created the Australian Institute of film and in the same year began awarding the Australian film Institute.
The Australian film industry reached the decline with several notable performances in the 1960-ies. In the 1966 Comedy theyre a weird mob, starring Walter Chiari, chips Rafferty and Clare Dunne was a rare hit of the period, which also documented something of the changing face of Australian society: telling the story of a recently arrived Italian immigrant who, working as a labourer in Sydney, becoming mates, with colleagues, despite some difficulties with Australian slang and culture. The film foreshadowed the successful approaching "new wave" of Australian cinema of the 1970s, which often will showcase colloquial Australian culture.
Continued to receive treatment for Australian actors in Hollywood as "action-men" on the casting of Australian George Lazenby to replace Sean Connery portraying the superspy James bond in the 1969 film on Her Majestys secret service.
1.4. History. The film Revival of the 1970 – ies and 1980-ies. (Возрождение кино в 1970 – х и 1980-х годов)
John Gorton, Prime Minister of Australia from 1968-1971, initiated several forms of government support of film and art. The government 1972-75 Gough Whitley continued to support Australian film and the state government has also established assistance programs. These measures led to the revival of Australian film called the Australian New wave, which lasted until the mid-late 1980-ies. The era also marked the emergence of the "Ozploitation" style – characterised by the exploitation of colloquial Australian culture.
Films such as picnic at Hanging rock Peter Weir, 1975 Sunday too far away Ken Hannam, 1975 had an impact on the international arena. In the 1970s and 80s, many considered the Golden age of Australian cinema, with many successful films, from dark illusions Mad max George Miller 1979 romantic Comedy Crocodile Dundee Peter faiman, 1986 and the emergence of such film directing filmmakers as Gillian Armstrong, Phillip Noyce and Bruce Beresford.
The main theme of Australian cinema which matured in the 1970-ies was one of survival in the harsh Australian landscape. A number of thrillers and horror films dubbed "Outback Gothic" have been created, including Wake in fright, walking, the cars that ate Paris and picnic at Hanging rock in the 1970-ies, a pig and a disgrace in the 1980s and Japanese story, the proposition and wolf Creek in the 2000-ies. These films depict the Australian Bush and its creatures as mortals, and its people as outcasts and psychopaths. They are combined with futuristic post-apocalyptic themes in the Mad Max series. 1971s hike was a British film set in Australia, which was the forerunner to many Australian films related to indigenous themes and introduced gulpilil to cinematic audiences. 1976s Song of Jimmie Blacksmith directed by Fred Schepisi was an excellent historical drama from the book by Thomas Keneally about the tragic fate of the fugitive natives.
Classic stories from Australian literature and Australian history continued to be popular subjects for cinematic adaptation during the 1970s and 1980s years. Gillian Armstrongs my brilliant career 1979 presented by Judy Davis and Sam Neil in the beginning of the main roles. 1982s we never followed the theme of womens experience of life in the Australian Bush. 1982s man from snowy river starring: Tom Burlinson, Sigrid Thornton and is dramatized classic banjo Paterson poem of the same name and became one of the all-cash successes of Australian cinema. In addition to the serious historical dramas popular in the 1970s, was made during the decade, including: the adventures of Barry McKenzie 1972, 1973 Alvin purple and Barry Mackenzie holds his own 1974 a number of films celebrating and satirizing Australian colloquial culture. Barry McKenzie films saw performing-artist and writer Barry Humphries collaborating with Director Bruce Beresford. In 1976, Peter Finch was awarded a posthumous Oscar for Best actor for his role in the American network satire, becoming the first Australian to win the Oscar for best actor.
1980-ies breaker Morant starring Jack Thompson and Edward Woodward dramatised the controversial trial of Australian soldiers during the Boer war and the subsequent 1981s world war I drama Gallipoli Directed by Peter Weir and starring Mel Gibson. These films are considered classics of Australian cinema explored contemporary Australian identity through dramatic episodes in Australian history. Gibson went on to further success in 1982s the year of living dangerously before transferring to pursue his Hollywood career as an actor and Director. Many other Australian stars would follow his path to international fame in the coming decades. The year of living dangerously directed by Peter Weir, who also made the successful transition to Hollywood. Weirs contribution to the script with its original author, Christopher Koch, and playwright David Williamson. Williamson rose to prominence in the early 1970s, and has gone on to write several other original scripts and scenarios in successful Australian films including dons party 1976, 1981 Gallipoli, emerald city 1988, and, Balibo 2009.
Actor Paul Hogan wrote the screenplay and starred in the title role in his first film, Crocodile Dundee 1986, about down-to-Earth hunter who came from Australia to new York. The film became the most successful Australian film of all time, and it launched an international acting career. After the success of Crocodile Dundee Hogan starred in the sequel, Crocodile Dundee II in 1988. 1988 also saw the release of the drama evil angels released outside of Australia and New Zealand as a cry in the dark about the Lindy Chamberlain Saga, in which the child was taken by a Dingo at Ayers Rock and her mother was accused of murder of a child.
Nicole Kidman began appearing in Australian childrens TV shows and films in the early 1980s, including starring in BMX bandits and Bush Christmas. In the 1980-ies she starred in several Australian productions, including emerald city, 1988, and Bangkok Hilton 1989, and in 1989 Kidman starred in dead calm with Sam Neil and Billy Zane. The Thriller has received strong reviews and Hollywood roles followed.
1.5. History. 1990-2010
In the 1990s was a successful decade for Australian film and introduced several new stars to a global audience. Low-budget movies such as Comedy / drama Muriels wedding, starring Toni Collette, slightly satirical suburban Comedy castle Director Rob Sich, who threw Eric Bana in his first leading role in a movie, and baz Luhrmanns colorful dances of each received commercial and critical success, and explored quirky characters that inhabit the contemporary Australian suburb – marking something of a departure from the Outback and historical Saga that was popular in the 1970-ies and 1980-ies. Stephan Elliotts 1994 film the adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the desert mixed traditional Outback cinematography and landscape with contemporary urban subcultures: after three drag Queens on a trip to Central Australia.
While a number of major international stars gained early attention in Australia over this period, an important stable of established and emerging local stars with amazing film credits remained prominent, including screen veterans Charles Tingwell, bill hunter, Jack Thompson, Bryan brown and Chris Haywood.
Second world war drama blood Oath in 1990 he made his debut as Russell Crowe and Jason Donovan, in Minor cinematic roles. Crowe demonstrated his versatility as an actor in this early period of his career by starring soon after a gang of skinheads in Melbourne 1992s Romper Stomper and then as an inner-Sydney working class gay man in 1994 in the amount of translation in the United States to begin his Hollywood career.
George baby Melnikov 1995 was used new digital effects to make barnyard is alive and has gone on to become one of the popular tourist areas of highest grossing films. The 1996 drama Shine achieved the award "Oscar" in the nomination "Best actor" for Geoffrey rush and Gregor Jordans 1999 film two hands gave Heath Ledger his first leading role. After the books successful transition to Hollywood, Jordan and Ledger collaborated in 2003 with the book the game of the famous bushranger title role in the film Ned Kelly, which starred British actress Naomi watts.
The Canon of films related to indigenous Australians also increased compared to the period of the 1990s and early 21st century, with Nick Parsons 1996 film dead heart with Ernie Dingo and Bryan brown, Rolf de Heers the tracker, starring Gary Sweet and gulpilil and Philip Noyces Rabbit proof fence in 2002. In 2006, Rolf de Heers ten canoes became the first feature film to be shot in one of the indigenous languages and the film was recognised at Cannes and elsewhere.
Demographic shifts Australia after the war multicultural immigration was reflected in the Australian movie through the period and in the successful movies like 1993s the grief of a child, Looking for Alibrandi 1999s, 2003s fat pizza, WOG boy comedies and 2007s in Romulus, My Father, all dealt with aspects of the migrants or the Australian subcultures.
Rob Sich and working dog productions the success of the castle with period Comedy the dish, which was the highest grossing Australian film of 2000 and entered the top ten highest grossing Australian films. Big budget-Australian international co-production of Moulin Rouge! Baz Luhrmann, 2001 and "happy feet" which won an Oscar for Best animated feature for Director George Miller in 2006, also entered the top ten list during the first decade of the new century. Baz Luhrmann took a series of international hits and returned to Australia in 2008, the specialists of Australia, which included many Australian stars including Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman and David Wenham and went on to become the second highest grossing film in cinema history of Australia.
Lantana Director: ray Lawrence attained critical and commercial success in 2001 for the consideration of complex relations in the suburbs of Sydney, and events surrounding a mysterious crime. It won seven AFI awards, including Best film, Best Director, Best actor Anthony Lapaglia and Best actress for Kerry Armstrong.
Emerging star Sam Worthington had early lead roles in the 2002 mobster black Comedy dirty deeds and 2003s crime caper getting the area. Get square is also the rising star David Wenham who demonstrated versatility with a string of critically acclaimed roles, including the role in Paul Coxs 1999 biopic Molokai: story of father Damien and the 2001 Thriller the Bank, aimed at politically conscious film Director Robert Connolly.
In 2005 little fish marked a return to Australian film for actress cate Blanchett and won five Australian film Institute awards for Best actor Hugo weaving, Best actress for Blanchett and Best supporting actress for screen veteran Noni Hazlehurst.
In 2008, a documentary film celebrating the romps of the Australian New wave of 1970s and 1980s low-budget movie: not quite Hollywood: the wild, Untold story of Ozploitation! The film is directed by Mark Hartley and interviews filmmakers including Quentin Tarantino, Dennis Hopper, George Miller and Barry Humphries.
In the early 2000s were generally not successful years for Australian cinema, with some real drama, proving unpopular at the box office. In 2008, Australian films earned $3 million at the box office, but a conscious decision by Directors to expand the types of films being made as well as the range of budgets produced a series of box office hits for decades. Strong box office Performances were recorded in 2009-10 of Bruce Beresfords MAOS last dancer, the aboriginal musical bran Nue Dae, the adaptation of John Marsdens novel tomorrow when the war began, and crime drama "animal Kingdom", which showed major Australian stars Ben Mendelsohn, Joel Edgerton, guy Pearce and Jackie weaver. The animal Kingdom has achieved success in the 2010 Australian film Institute awards and has been appreciated at film festivals around the world. Tomorrow when the war began became the highest grossing domestic film of 2010 and was nominated for nine awards Australian film Institute.
Other award-winning films of the period included 2009, Balibo starring Anthony Lapaglia, middle Eastern crime film 2009 cedar boys Directed by Serhat Caradee, and animated Comedy-drama Mary and Max.
1.6. History. 2010–present. (2010–настоящее время)
World war I drama beneath hill 60 2010 Director: Jeremy Sims starring Brendan Cowell was nominated for many awards and won three.
Contemporary native filmmakers include Warwick Thornton, Wayne Blair, Tricia Morton-Thomas and Rachel Perkins.
2. Industry in the 21st century. (Промышленности в 21 веке)
The Australian film industry continues to produce enough films each year, but in other English-speaking countries, in Australia it is often difficult to compete with American cinema, the latter helped by having a much larger domestic market. The most successful Australian actors and Directors easily lured by Hollywood and rarely return to the domestic film industry.
As Rupert Murdoch, head of Fox Studio Australia and moved to the new Fox studios in Sydney, some us producers decided to film a Fox in the state of the art facilities as production costs in Sydney are significantly below costs. Studios established in Australia, like Fox Studio Australia and Warner Roadshow studios, host large international productions like the Matrix and Star wars II and III.
In the South Australian film Corporation continues to produce high-quality movies, and Adelaide was chosen as the location for films such as Mumbai Hotel 2019 and Escape from Pretoria 2020. James WAN reboot game mortal Kombat 2021 as a feature film will be the largest movie production in state history.
3. State support. (Государственная поддержка)
John Gorton, Prime Minister of Australia from 1968-1971, initiated several forms of government support for Australian cinema and the arts, establishing the Australian Council for arts, Australian Corporation film development and national film and television school. Prime Minister Gough Whitley continued to support Australian film. In the South Australian film Corporation was established in 1972 to promote and produce films, while the Australian film Commission was created in 1975 to Finance and production of internationally competitive films.
The Federal Australian government supports Australian movie through the funding and development agencies of film Finance Corporation Australia, Australian film Commission and film Australia. In 2008, three companies were merged into screen Australia.
An ongoing debate about the need and the role of government support for the Australian film industry. Some argue in favor of government support as being the only way that the local industry can compete against the hegemony of Hollywood. The argument against government support is that the industry is viable without support and will become stronger if increasingly global market forces are granted full and unhindered play. Others argue that the film industry itself has little value. The history of the industry in Australia to some extent the result of the domination of one position over another.
4. Top grossing Australian films. (Самых кассовых австралийских фильмов)
Other popular Australian films. (Другие популярные австралийские фильмы)
Grossing Australian films of the previous decades include:
- The 1920s for the term of his natural life 1927 more than $ 40.000.
- 1900-ies – the story of the Kelly gang 1906 gross £20.000.
- 1940-ies – forty thousand horsemen 1940 £130.000, Forge 1946 for £50.000, the overlanders 1946 £250.000, sons of Matthew 1949.
- 1950-ies – walk into Paradise 1956.
- 1930 years – on our selection in 1932 of £60.000, the silence of Dean Maitland 1934 of £50.000.
- 1910s – the fatal wedding £18.000 1911, the life story of John Lee, or the man they could not hang 1912 of £20.000, the martyrdom of nurse Cavell £25.000 1915.
- 1960s years – theyre a weird mob 1966 $ 2 million.
- 1970-ies – Alvin purple 1973 4.72 million$, picnic at Hanging rock 1975 more than $ 5 million, Mad Max 1979.
5. Actors. (Актеры)
The Australian film industry has produced a number of successful actors, Actresses, writers, Directors and cinematographers, many of whom were well-known at the international level.
6.1. Literature. Encyclopedias and reference books. (Энциклопедии и справочники)
- Reed, Eric. Australian silent films: a pictorial history of silent films from 1896 to 1926. Melbourne: Lansdowne Press, 1970.
- Moran, albert and Errol Fit. Historical dictionary of Australian and new Zealand cinema. The Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-8108-5459-8.
- Murray, Scott, Ed. Australian Film 1978-1994. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 978-0-19-553777-2.
- Pike, Andrew and Ross Cooper. Australian Film: 1900-1977. revised ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-19-550784-3.
- Mcfarland, Brian, Geoff Mayer and Ina Bertrand, EDS. Oxford companion to Australian film. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-19-553797-0.
- Verhoeven, Deb, Ed. Twin peeks: Australian and New Zealand feature films. Melbourne: Damned Publishing, 1999. ISBN 978-1-876310-00-4.
- Goldsmith, Ben, Ryan, mark David, and Leland, Jeff EDS. "Directory of world cinema: Australia and New Zealand 2". Bristol: Intellect, 2014. ISBN 9781841506340.
6.2. Literature. Criticism and comments. (Критика и комментарии)
- ORegan, Tom. Australian National Cinema. London: Routledge, 1996.
- - - -. The screening of Australia Volume 2: anatomy of a national cinema. Sydney: Currency Press, 1988.
- Stratton, David. The avocado plantation: boom and bust in the Australian film industry. Sydney: Pan Macmillan, 1990. 465p. ISBN 978-0-7329-0250-6.
- Moran, albert and Errol Fit. Film in Australia: an introduction Sydney: Cambridge University press, 2006.
- Ryan, Mark, David 2009,Where Culture? Australian horror films and the limitations of cultural politics, media international Australia: integrating culture and policy, no. 133, p. 43-55.
- Moran, albert and Tom Oregan, EDS. Australian Film Reader Australian Screen Series. Sydney: Currency Press, 1985.
- Dawson, Jonathan and Bruce Molloy, EDS. Queensland images in film and on television. Brisbane: University of Queensland press, 1990.
- Verhoeven, Deb. Sheep and the Australian cinema. Melbourne: MUP 2006. ISBN 978-0-522-85239-4.
- Collins, felicity and Therese Davis. Australian Cinema After Mabo. Sydney: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
- Dermody, Susan and Elizabeth with a hotel, EDS. The screening of Australia, Volume 1: anatomy of a film industry. Sydney: Currency Press, 1987.
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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!online intellectual game →