★ Soviet space dogs
During the 1950s and 1960s the Soviet space program used dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether space was impossible. During this period, the Soviet Union launched missions with passenger slots for at least 57 dogs. The number of dogs in space is smaller as some dogs flew more than once. Most survived, the few that died were lost mostly through technical failures, in accordance with the test parameters.
A notable exception is Laika, the first dog in orbit, whose death during the 3 November 1957 Sputnik 2 mission was expected from the beginning.
1. Training. (Обучение)
Dogs were the preferred animal for the experiments because scientists felt dogs were well suited to endure long periods of inactivity. As part of their training, they were confined in small boxes for 15-20 days. Stray dogs, not animals used to live in the house, was chosen because scientists believed that they will be able to endure harsh and extreme conditions of space flight better than other dogs. Female dogs were used because of their temperament and because the suit the dogs wore in order to collect urine and feces was equipped with a special device that is designed to work only with females.
Their training included standing for long periods of time, wearing space suits, are placed in simulators that acted like a rocket during launch, riding in centrifuges that simulated the high acceleration of the rocket and kept in gradually smaller cages to prepare them for the outside space of the module. Dogs that flew in orbit were fed a nutritious jelly-like protein. It is high in fiber and helped the dogs to get rid of for long periods of time, until their little space module. It is reported that more than 60% of dogs to go to space suffer from constipation and gallstones on arrival back to base.
2. Suborbital flights. (Суборбитальные полеты)
The dog was taken to a height of 100 km 62 Mi on Board 15 scientific flights on R-1 rockets from 1951 to 1956. The dog wore suits with acrylic glass bubble helmets. From 1957 to 1960, 11 flights with dogs were made on the R-2A series, which flew to about 200 km 120 mi. Had three flights at an altitude of about 450 km 280 miles on R-5A rockets in 1958. In R-2 and R-5 rockets, the dogs kept in a pressurized cabin.
2.1. Suborbital flights. Dezik, Tsygan and Lisa. (Дезик, цыган и Лиса)
Dezik and Tsygan "Gypsy" were the first dogs to make a sub-orbital flight of 15 August 1951. Both dogs were found unharmed after travelling to a maximum altitude of 110 km 68 mi. Dezik made another sub-orbital flight in 1951 with a dog named Lisa Fox, "Fox", although none survived, because the parachute failed to deploy. After the death of Dezik, Tsygan was adopted as a pet by Soviet physicist Anatoli Arkadyevich Blagonravov.
2.2. Suborbital flights. Bold and baby. (Смелый и ребенка)
Bold Brave, "brave" and "courageous" have to make a flight in September but ran away the day before the start. She was found the next day and went to make a successful flight with a dog named the Baby "baby", "baby". They both crashed after the rocket failed to deploy the parachute and was found the next day, the restore command.
2.3. Suborbital flights. Bobby and ZIB. (Бобби и ЗиБ)
Bobby escaped for a few days before his flight was scheduled for 15 September 1951. Replace the name ZIB, the Russian acronym for "substitute for missing Bobby", "Replacement of missing Bobby," replacement Ischeznuvshemu Bobik, who was an untrained street dogs running around the barracks, was quickly located and made a successful flight up to 100km and back.
2.4. Suborbital flights. Otvazhnaya and snowflake. (Otvazhnaya и Снежинка)
Otvazhnaya Courageous, " brave woman) flew on 2 July 1959 along with a rabbit named Marfusha Marfa, "Marfa" and another dog named Snezhinka "snowflake", "snowflake". She went on to make 5 other flights between 1959 and 1960.
2.5. Suborbital flights. Albina and tsyganka. (Альбина и цыганка)
Albina a real womans name and Gypsy "Gypsy" were both ejected from his capsule at an altitude of 85 km 53 miles and landed safely. Albina was one of the dogs nominated for "Sputnik 2", but never flew in orbit.
2.6. Suborbital flights. Damka and Krasavka. (Дамка и Красавка)
A king a King, "Queen of draughts" and Deadly "Little beauty" was to make an orbital flight on 22 December 1960 in the framework of the "East" which also included mice. But their mission was marked by a series of equipment failures.
The rockets upper stage failed and the craft re-entered the atmosphere after a suborbital apogee of 214 km 133 miles. In the event of an unplanned return to the surface, the ship was to eject the dogs and self-destruct, but the ejection seat failed and the primary destruct mechanism shorted out. The animals were still in the intact capsule when it returned to the surface. Backup self-destruct mechanism was installed on a 60 hour timer, so a team was quickly dispatched to locate and recover the capsule.
Although the capsule was reached in deep snow on the first day, there was not enough remaining daylight to disarm the self-destruct mechanism and open the capsule. The team could only report that the window frosted over in -43 °C, -45 °F degree temperatures and no signs of life were detected. On the second day, however, the dogs were barking as the capsule was opened. The dogs were wrapped in sheepskin coats and flown to Moscow alive, though all the mice aboard the capsule were found dead because of the cold.
Damka was also known as joke is a Joke and a "joke" or pearl "pearl" and Krasavka was also known as Kometka Komeda, "small comet" or Ginny "crook." After this incident Krasavka was adopted by Oleg Gazenko, a leading Soviet scientist, working with animals used in space flights. She went on to have puppies and continued living with Gazenko and his family until her death 14 years later. After the incident Sergey Korolyov, who was the designer of the rocket, wanted to make the story public, but, because of state censorship.
2.7. Suborbital flights. Bars and Lisichka. (Бары и Лисичка)
Bars Pron. "BARSS", not "Barz", "Snow leopard") and Lisichka "Lisichka", "Fox" was also on mission in orbit in the framework of the "East", but died after their rocket exploded 28.5 seconds into the launch on 28 July 1960. Bars was also known as Chayka Chaika, "the Seagull."
Other dogs that flew on suborbital flights include haze of Smoke, "smoke", "fashionista" Fashionista, "fashionable" and Kozyavka Shrimp, "mosquito".
At least four other dogs flew in September 1951 and died two or more.
3.1. Orbital flights. Laika. (Лайка)
Laika "Barker" was the first of living on Earth-born creature other than microbes in orbit, aboard Sputnik 2 on 3 November 1957. Some call her the first living passengers to go into space, but a suborbital flight with passengers, the animal crossed the border of the space first, for example, macaque-rhesus albert II. She was also known as Zhuchka Bug "bug" and limonchik "the lemon". The American media dubbed her "Muttnik", play-on-words for dog trainers on the first orbital flight of Sputnik. She died five to seven hours of flight from stress and overheating. Her true cause of death was not made public until October 2002, informed officials reported that she died when the oxygen supply ran out. At a press conference in Moscow in 1998 Oleg Gazenko, a senior Soviet scientist involved in the project, said: "the more time that passes, the more I regret it. We dont quite learn on the mission to justify the death of a dog".
3.2. Orbital flights. Belka and Strelka. (Белка и Стрелка)
Belka and Strelka "little arrow" spent a day in space aboard the spaceship-Sputnik 2 Sputnik 5 on 19 August 1960 before safely return to Earth.
They were accompanied by a grey rabbit, 42 mice, two rats, flies and some plants and fungi. All of the passengers survived. They were the first on Earth-born creatures to go into orbit and return alive.
Strelka were six puppies with a male dog named Pushok who participated in many ground-based space experiments, but never made it into space. One of the puppies was named Fuzz "fuzzy" and was presented to President John F. Kennedy, Nikita Khrushchev in 1961. The cold war romance blossomed between a feather and a Kennedy dog named Charlie resulting in the birth of pups that JFK referred to jokingly as pupniks. Two of the pups, butterfly and streaker were given away to children in the Midwest. The other two puppies, white tips and Blackie, stayed at the Kennedy house on Squaw island, but in the end was given to family friends. Descendants Pushinkas was still alive, at least in 2015, a photo of descendants of some of the space dogs is on display at the Museum of Zvezda in Tomilino near Moscow.
Russian feature-length animated film Belka and Strelka: Star dogs all Star dogs was released in 2010.
3.3. Orbital flights. Pchyolka and Mushka. (Pchyolka и мушка)
Pchyolka, a Bee and fly "little fly" spent a day in orbit on 1 December 1960 aboard the ship-Sputnik 3 Sputnik 6 "other animals", plants and insects. Because of an error entry when the parachute-rocket system is not switched off when planned, their spacecraft was deliberately destroyed remote self-destruct to prevent foreign powers from the test capsule 2 December and all died. Fly was one of three dogs trained for Sputnik 2 and was used during ground tests. She will not fly on Sputnik 2, because she refused to eat properly.
3.4. Orbital flights. Nigella. (Чернушка)
Nigella "Blackie" has made one revolution on Board the ship-Sputnik 4 Sputnik 9 on March 9, 1961, cosmonaut dummy, whom Soviet officials nicknamed Ivan Ivanovich, mice and Guinea pigs. The dummy was extracted from the capsule during re-entry and made a soft landing using a parachute. Chernushka was recovered unharmed inside the capsule.
3.5. Orbital flights. Asterisk. (Звездочка)
Zvezdochka, which was named Yuri Gagarin made one orbit on Board the ship-Sputnik 5 on March 25, 1961 with a wooden cosmonaut dummy in the final practice flight before Gagarins historic flight on 12 April. Again, the dummy was extracted from the capsule, while Zvezdochka remained inside. Both were successfully repaired.
3.6. Orbital flights. And Ember breeze. (И Уголек ветерок)
Breeze "breeze", "breeze" Ember and Ember, "coal", was launched on 22 February 1966 on Board Cosmos 110, and 21 days spent in orbit before landing on March 16. This record flight duration was not surpassed by humans until Skylab 2 flight in 1974 and still stands as the longest space flight of dogs.
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