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★ Pincushion proteas - p ..




Pincushion proteas
                                     

★ Pin cushion protea

Leucospermum is a genus of evergreen erect, sometimes prostrate shrubs assigned to the Proteaceae, with the forty-eight known species. Almost all animals are easily recognizable, as Leucospermum because of the long styles protruding from the thickened pollen-presenter, which together give the flower head the appearance of a pillow, its a common name. Pads can be found in Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique.

The bushes are mostly a single stem at their base, but some species sprout from underground rhizomes from which the plant can be grown after the fire killed the above-ground biomass. In a large group of species, individuals die from fire, and their survival depends on the seed. In all species, seeds collected ants, who take them into their underground nests to feed them with the bread of the ant, the strategy of seed dispersal known as myrmecochory. This ensures that seeds do not burn, so new plants can grow from them.

Leucospermum species mostly sitting, simple, mostly coriaceous, often softly pubescent leaves, put in the form of a spiral, with entire margins or, more often, with 3-17 blunt teeth with thickened bone ends, and without stipules at the base. The flowers are organized along with many in heads with bracts at the under - or beyond. Hermaphrodite flowers themselves are located on a common frame, which may be cylindrical, conical or flat, and small bracts at their base. The flowers have a perianth that hairy on the street, especially at the tip, and consists of four leaves, which merge into the pipe. As a rule, the four anthers are merged individually with the tip of perianth lobes, and only in a few species, very short filament is present, which is then impossible to distinguish from the leaves. While still in the Bud, the pollen is transferred from anthers to the pollen presenter, thickening at the tip of the style. At this stage the style grows significantly and rips through the seams between the two perianth lobes in the direction from the center of the head flower. The perianth lobes, all four remain attached to each other, or three, or all four free petals curl back on itself, like a lighted crowded, rimming the top of the tube. Superior ovary composed of one carpel and contains one ovary and subtended by four small weights. The fruits are oval or nearly spherical nuts.

Most species have very restricted ecological ranges and distribution, and many rare or endangered. Often attractive, large flower heads and evergreen foliage, with straight stems, combined with a long flowering period, making Leucospermum species and hybrids are cultivated as garden ornamental and cut flowers.

                                     

1. Description. (Описание)

Most pads are erect shrubs and even small trees 1-5 m 3.3–16.4 FT high that usually have one main stem. However, some species have only a finite branch and form low mats, m 1-5 3.3–16.4 feet in diameter. Another set of species growing a few stalks directly from the rootstock in the ground. This is an important character in distinguishing some species. Dried samples pedunculatum L. and L. prostratum may be difficult to distinguish, but though both are creeping species, growth characteristics in the field differ considerably. In Los Angeles pedunculatum many horizontally spreading branches develop from about 30 cm 12 in main stem, in L. prostratum branches rise from an underground woody rhizomes. The leaves are arranged alternately along the stem, pulled back and slightly directed towards the tip of the branch or overlap, mostly without, sometimes with a leaf and stem, but always without stipules at their base, 1½–14 cm 0.6–5.6 in long and linear, elliptic, oblanceolate, oval, inverted egg-shaped or spatula, the edges entire or with 17 teeth towards the tip, smooth or covered with soft cringy one-celled hairs, sometimes interspersed with more straight silky hair.

The flower heads sit or have a short stalk, and grows individually in Appearance, with large heads, or with two to ten together with small heads in the axils of leaves near ends of branches. The General shape of the head is flat, round, ovate or conical region 2-15 cm 0.79–5.91 inch in diameter. Position not on the tip of the branch helps to distinguish Leucospermum from close genera, such as Diastella, while more than one head per branch, and helps to distinguish sections Diastelloides and Hamatum from other sections. The bracts are green in fresh samples, and discreet. They can take various forms, such as linear or ovate, acute or pointed tip. In most of the bracts have a tough rubbery consistency and usually soft pubescent, overlapping and tightly pressed to the head of the flower. L. parile, L. tottum and L. vestitum on the other hand is thin, the bracts paper. Common base colors, which together make up a single flowerhead much called vessel varies depending on the species. It can be flat, spherical, conical pointed or cylindrical, blunt. This symbol may be seen by cutting the flower heads lengthwise into two equal halves.

The individual flowers are subtended by bracts or bracteoles, Wally at his feet and softly hairy or hairless near the tip. Sometimes it grows a flower in bloom and eventually becomes woody. While still in Bud, the perianth is a tube of 1½–5½ cm 0.6–2.2 in length. During flowering, the perianth yellow, orange, crimson, pink or white, straight or curved to the center of the flower head. The perianth consists of four leaves, which are fused into a tube 0.3–1.0 cm 0.12–0.39 in either a uniform width or widening to the tip, but there are also several species where it is inflated closer to the tip, such as L. utriculosum, L. hamatum and L. harpagonatum. Over the tube, three of the lobes can be merged into a sheath, open in the direction outward from the flower head and petal in front of the rim on the head of the flower free. At the top of the perianth or limb all four blades can stay fused, or only three, which has remained fused in the middle part. In Diastelloidea the four petals free at top and curl back, forming a rim around the top of the tube. The anthers do not differ much between the species Leucospermum and usually merges with the tips of the perianth lobes and the filaments can not be identified, but the types that are section Brevifilamentum, thread 1–1⅛ mm 0.2–0.3 in long makes communication between the dust boot and oil seal. Buds ripped along the seam from the center of the flower is the style that the increase in length rapidly, ultimately reaching a length of from 1 to 8 cm 0.39–3.15 in straight or curve towards the center of the flower, 1-2 mm 0.039–0.079 inch in diameter, often closer to the tip or thread-shaped, mostly the same color as the perianth. End style sometimes only slightly thickened and contains pollen that is transferred to the Bud break. There are significant morphological changes in this so-called leading pollen between species. Pollen presenter can be cylindrical, oval or conical in shape, or not divided into two blades near the tip, or oblique. The tip has a groove which functions as a stigma, which is in the center or inclined orientation. Finely powdered ovary 1-2 mm 0.039–0.079 inch in length, and gradually merges into the basic style. It consists of a single carpel and contains one pendulous ovule. At the base of the ovary are four linear or subulate scales 1-3 mm 0.039–0.118 inches long, that secrete large amounts of nectar.

In prescribedin the fruit consists of a single cavity containing one oval globe-shaped seed 4-8 mm 0.16–0.31 in long, wide indent where it was attached, bald or covered with fine dust, and, typically partially covered with a pale elaiosome.

Sixteen species of Leucospermum, which analyzed all the diploids and twelve sets of homologous chromosomes 2n=24, which is consistent with the rest of the tribe Proteinae.

                                     

1.1. Description. Sections. (Разделы)

Currently the genus is divided into nine sections, depending on the morphological shared aspects and differences.

                                     

1.2. Description. Brevifilamentum

Six types Brevifilamentum section is sometimes called ostentatious pads, and includes several garden types. The types are all separate character, which is unique in the genus Leucospermum: their anthers are top short, 1–1½ mm 0.02–0.06 in a long filament that holds the anthers on the perianth, while in all other sections of the anthers are fused directly with the branches of the perianth lobes. Common base colors in one head, or the wrapper of the vessel, as can be seen by cutting the length through the head is a very narrowly conical, with acute apex. Pollen presenter ovoid, obliquely egg-shaped or hoof-shaped.

                                     

1.3. Description. Cardinistyle

The six species that are assigned Cardinistyle section is sometimes called the fireworks pads. They are all large erect shrubs, and only one main stem. Common base colors is a narrow cone with a sharp tip. Flowers styles 5½–8 cm 2.2–3.2 In long that move downward when the flowers open, and pollen with slim lead, ending in a sharp tip. L. reflexum has an oval or narrowly oval, grayish, Felty leaves 2-5 cm long, 0.8–2.2 in length and ½ to 1⅓ cm of 0.2–0.55 in width. Perianth yellow or bright red, 4-5 cm 1.6–2m in length, style, clearly pointing down when the flower is open.

                                     

1.4. Description. Conocarpodendron

Three species and one subspecies Conocarpodendron section sometimes referred to as pads of the tree. They are all small trees up to 4 m 13 ft in height with a single trunk. Common base colors in one head is conical or narrowly conical with a pointed tip. Styles 5-6 cm 2.0–2.4 In long, which is narrowly conical pollen presenter with a sharp tip. The bracts which accompany the flower heads are pointed and, perhaps, a hooked tip.

                                     

1.5. Description. Crassicaudex

Four species assigned to section Crassicaudex sometimes called cylindrical pads. All these four have a cylindrical shape, a common base colors in one head. All erect shrub with several main stems that rise from a woody rhizome under the ground. This makes the species very tolerant of fire. The leaves are wedge-shaped. All three species, what happens outside the Cape region are related to this section.

                                     

1.6. Description. Crinitae

Four Crinitae section sometimes called flat pads. They are erect or sprawling shrubs. Rosette leaves are always smooth and 2-4 cm 0.79–1.57 in diameter with a Cup-shaped flower heads. Perianth lobes remain erect after flowering and not curl back as usual in the other sections. Styles thread-like flowers change color significantly with aging. Saxatile L. Is a creeper with 2-5 mm 0.079–0.197 in wide leaves and lime green flowers. L. gracile also prostrate shrub with 2-5 mm wide leaves, but the flowers are yellow. L. oleifolium has leaves 10 – the width of 85 mm, which is basically everything, but sometimes up to five teeth, and the flowers are pale yellow, but becomes bright crimson color with age. L. mundii is a upright shrub with two separate groups, one with leaves 10 – the width of 85 mm, which are 7 - 17 teeth at their tip, the flowers are pale yellow aging to orange.

                                     

1.7. Description. Diastelloidea

The types Diastelloidea section is sometimes called a louse pads. They may be erect, sprawling or prostrate shrubs, usually sharply pointed leaves without teeth at the tip. In capitate inflorescences small and globular, mostly with two to six together very close to the tip of the branches, 1-3 cm 0.39–1.18 inch in diameter. Leaflets of the vessel is not flat. Style 1–2½ cm 0.4–1.0 in long, topped by a club-shaped, cylindrical or rounded conical pollen presenter. The color changes as the flower ages, from cream to pink or from yellow to orange. All four perianth lobes curl back separately to form four small coils surrounding the style, and rolled these petals are said to resemble lice.

                                     

1.8. Description. Hamatum

The types Hamatum section is sometimes called pads crochet. Both species are trailing, Mat-forming species with stiff, narrow, erect leaves and small heads with between four and twelve flowers in a single whorl. Perianth tube inflated to the top end and styles are faced with very small teeth facing the base, strongly curved to the center of the head, making head, resembling a hook. L. hamatum, has linear leaves, mostly with three teeth at the tip, poorly developed or missing shell, but with four or five very large bracts, forming a pseudo-involucre subtending four to seven flowers per head. Perianth hairless. L. harpagonatum all narrowly linear leaves, well-developed involucre, consisting of 25-35 bracts subtending the flower head as a whole, eight, rarely twelve flowers per head; perianth tube densely woolly at the top.

                                     

1.9. Description. Leucospermum

Leucospermum species assigned to section is sometimes called the sandveld pads. Among her are upright, spreading and creeping shrubs, and leaf-shape varies from lines in the egg and wedge-shaped, but they all have a Felty pubescent leaves, even when aged. The kidneys usually straight, always with a sweet aroma and are colored bright yellow. In the open flower with three perianth lobes in the center of the head flower is attached, and the rest of the petal free of charge. The pollen presenter at the tip of the style cylindrical or clavate.

                                     

1.10. Description. Tumiditubus

Species assigned to section Tumiditubus sometimes called a wide test-tube pads. All eight of them are erect or sprawling shrubs with a single main stem. They all have a conical or broadly-conical General base colors in one head. The base is low, fully fused part of the flower is called the trumpet is narrow and widens towards the top.

                                     

2. Taxonomy. (Таксономия)

The earliest known description of the types we have now included in the genus Leucospermum was Paul Hermanns Paradisus batavus website, a book describing the plants of the Botanical garden of Leiden Botanical garden of Leiden University, which was published in 1689, three years after his death. He called it IVA conophora Africana African cone-bearing willow, based on his observation of Leucospermum conocarpodendron on the lower slopes of table Mountain. In the following six decades, several other descriptions were published, such as Leonard Plukenet, James Petiver, John ray and Herman Borham. However, names published before 1753, was chosen as a starting point for the binomial nomenclature proposed by Carl Linnaeus, is not valid.

The first valid names have already been created in the same year with the publication of the first edition of the largest among tree species, with description of two types of Leucadendron conocarpodendron and Leucadendron hypophyllocarpodendron now Leucospermum conocarpodendron and L. hypophyllocarpodendron Linnaeus. In 1763, Michel Adanson describes some Proteaceae species, and did it under generic names Lepidocarpus and Conocarpus. Four species were described by Linnaeus Proteus and P. pubera Totta in 1771, now calligerum L. and L. tottum, Peter Jonas Bergius oleaefolium 1766 Leucadendron, Leucospermum oleifolium, and now Nicolas Laurens Burman cuneiforme Leucadendron, Leucospermum cuneiforme now, before Carl Peter Thunberg published in 1781 revision containing nine species now included in Leucospermum, including Proteus pseudostellaria P. and claw now L. heterophyllum and L. tomentosum. Additional species were added by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: Proteus vestita L. vestitum is now 1792, Thunberg P. eucalyptus in 1794, Now L. prostratum, Henry Charles Andrews: Proteus Formosa 1798 now L. formosum and P. candicans in 1803 now Leucospermum rodolentum a later homonym of P. candicans Thunb. 1800 now Paranomus candicans, and Paradisus Londinensis Botanical Illustrator William hooker and the botanist Richard Anthony Salisbury: grandiflora Leucadendrum in 1808 now Leucospermum grandiflorum.

Joseph knight published a book in 1809 entitled breeding plants belonging to the natural order Proteeae, which contains an extensive revision of the Proteaceae attributed to Salisbury. Salisbury appointed twenty-four species to his new genus Leucadendrum, with newcomers Leucadendrum cordifolium, gracile Leucadendrum parile, royenaefolium Leucadendrum, saxatile Leucadendrum and Leucadendrum truncatulum, which is now included in Leucospermum with the same name. It is assumed that Salisbury was based on his commentary on the project, he studied the paper called on the natural order Proteaceae plants called that Robert brown was to publish in 1810. Brown, however, called the genus Leucospermum, dear eighteen species and combinations Leucospermum lineare L. spathulatum. The names of the Salisburys were ignored nerds in favor of those that brown was created and it was decorated in 1900, when Leucospermum was given priority over Leucadendrum.

Johann Friedrich Klotzsch, L. pedunculatum described in 1845. Carl Meisner, who contributed the section on Proteaceae in 1856 in the series the Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle recognized twenty-three species, including seven new: L. gueinzii, L. mundii, L. reflexum, L. oleaefolium VAR. now bolusii L. brownii, L. zeyheri VAR. now truncatum L. truncatum, L. attenuatum VAR. and praemorsum VAR. ’ambiguum’ now L. praemorsum and L. erubescens’. Otto Kuntze has revised the genus in 1891 and called it Leucadendron, homonym names that have already been used by Linnaeus in 1753 to another group Proteaceae, which have separate sexes and very large bracts. Edwin Percy Phillips newly described L. glabrum, and L. muirii in 1910, Spencer Le Marchant Moore portrayed L. saxosum in 1911, while Otto Stapf added L. gerrardii in 1912. In 1912, Phillips and Otto Stapf revised Leucospermum and admits thirty-one species. Then Phillips described L. L. patersonii cordatum 1923 and 1928. Robert Harold Compton added wittebergense L. in 1931 and A. catherinae in 1933. This was followed by L. arenarium by Hedley Brian Rycroft in 1959. John Patrick Rourke in 1970, scored forty-seven species, eight of which are new to science: L. erubescens, L. fulgens, L. innovans, L. pluridens, L. praecox, L. profugum, L. L. secundifolium and utriculosum. He later added the newly discovered L. railroad in 1978, L. hamatum in 1983, and L. harpagonatum in 1994. Rourke built in 1970, among which Xericola, to which he appointed L. alpinum including subspecies amoenum, L. obtusum including albomontanum subspecies, and L. secundiflorum. In 1984, he erected a new genus Vexatorella, to which he moved these taxa, except for L. secundiflorum that it is included in Diastelloidea section.

The name of the genus Leucospermum consists of the Greek words λευκός leukos meaning white, and σπέρμα sperma meaning seed, as the "white seed," which is a reference to the pale elaiosome surrounding the seed. Species within the genus commonly known as pads.



                                     

2.1. Taxonomy. Genealogy. (Генеалогия)

Comparisons of homologous DNA is increased understanding of the phylogenetic relationship between the Proteaceae. Leucospermum belongs to a group which only consists of the genera endemic to the Cape floristic region, which together constitute potrebu Leucadendrinae. Leucospermum on Mimetes, which, however, monophyletic if both Diastella and Orothamnus will be included in it. Subgroup Paranomus, Vexatorella, Sorocephalus and Spatalla is the sister group Leucospermum - Mimetes subgroups. The following trees together represent these findings.

                                     

2.2. Taxonomy. Reassigned species. (Переназначены видов)

Species that were originally described as, or moved in Leucospermum or one of its synonyms, which later were transferred to the following:

                                     

2.3. Taxonomy. Names that cannot be assigned. (Имена, которые не могут быть назначены)

For filiamentosum Leucadendron, L. polifolium and L. bellidifolium, a single sample type can be found, and their descriptions are too generic to determine what Leucospermum species they are synonyms. For L. obovatum, no description has been provided, so is a nomen nudum.

                                     

3. Distribution. (Распределение)

Pads can be found only in a narrow band from South-Western Cape, along the Great escarpment in the Eastern Transvaal and Swaziland, and two isolated areas, one in the Chimanimani mountains on the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border and the other in Namaqualand. Only L. gerrardii, L. innovans and L. saxosum occur outside the Cape floristic region. Occurs extraordinary concentration of 30% of the species in a narrow strip about 200 km 120 mi long, on the South coast between Hermanus and Witsand. Most individual species of limited distributions, some the size of only a few square kilometers.

                                     

4. Habitat. (Среда обитания)

In the Cape, most Leucospermum species grow on soil acids that result from the weathering of the Sandstone mountains. Even in the East, several species are found on eroded deposits of Witteberg quartzites, which are also very poor in nutrients. L. arenarium, L. fulgens, L. hypophyllocarpodendron, L. muirii, L. parile, L. praecox, L. rodolentum and L. tomentosum can only occur on deep Sands. Several other species, such as L. grandiflora, L. guenzii and L. lineare can be found on heavy clay, which develops from Cape granite. Calligerum L. and L. heterophyllum sometimes grow on Malmsbury gravel. On the other hand, L. patersonii and L. truncatum professionals who can be found on the limestone ridge of the formation of Alexandria, parallel to the southern coast between stilbaai and dangerous point.

                                     

5.1. Ecology. Pollination. (Опыление)

During flowering, extended styles, stands far beyond the perianth tube. Initially the tip of the style carries the pollen on thickened tip which is called the pollen-presenter. The pollen brush on the heads and bodies of birds, mammals and large insects that are trying to reach a rich and thick nectar, which fills the tube of the perianth. In the old flower heads of Leucospermum most of the pollen will be transferred to bodies previously pollinators, and a small groove at the end opens the style. In most Leucospermum species of plants are completely sterile to their own pollen. Even a small amount of pollen of other individuals of the same species results in the development of the seed. In capitate inflorescences were also visited by many small insects, which are unlikely to pollinate Leucospermum, but birds eat insects in addition to nectar. The birds nesting season coincides with the flowering of Leucospermum and season for egg laying and rearing Chicks a large number of proteins are required where the nectar provides barely. Cape sugarbird appears to be present in all stands, not crawling Leucospermum species, but the malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa the southern double collar Sunbird cinnyris chalybeus and orange breasted Sunbird Anthobaphes violacea locally are also important pollinators. Red-winged Starling Onychognathus Morio Cape capensis Ploceus weaver casual visitors that can damage the perianth tube to extract the nectar, and probably much less effective pollinators. Large beetles, monkeys, as Trichostetha fascicularis, and T. capensis, T. albopicta, and Ursus Anisonyx can at times feeding on the nectar of Leucospermum in large numbers, and make transporting pollen on their long hair. This, however, only for a few weeks every year, and probably less important pollinators than birds. Some rodents can be responsible for the pollination of species that produce their flower heads to ground level. Hairy legs gerbil Gerbillurus paeba, and striped field mice Rhabdomys pumilio was observed to visit flowers of L. arenarium, and both carried its pollen on his forehead and chest. L. arenarium nectar thick and is present at the tips of the perianth lobes. Here, the mice can lick it without having to damage the flowers. The nectar produced by the scales subtending the ovary, as in other species of Leucospermum, but transporterowych capillary ducts to the tips of the perianth.



                                     

5.2. Ecology. Seed dispersal. (Распространение семян)

Leucadendron fruit, but the seed cavity that does not open, and contains only one seed, the fruit of a type of walnut. The fruit consists partially of a whitish, fleshy or gelatinous shell, the so-called elaiosome, which attracts ants because they contain chemicals that mimic pheromones. After the fall the seed pods from the plant, mainly Anoplolepis ants collect seeds and carry them to their nests, sinking their jaws into the fleshy elaiosome. In the underground nests, elaiosome is consumed. Smooth and hard seeds which are not suitable ants little fists, and threw, protected from fire and seed eaters. Survival seeds is enhanced by fungicidal and antibacterial substance that ants secrete to keep their nests in a healthy condition. In fanbase, the so-called myrmecochory is a strategy used by many plant species to survive fire. Invasive ant species, both in South Africa Linepithema humile, the Argentine ant, the destruction of nests by indigenous ants, elaiosomes is where the seed fell, so it is not protected against fire and can be found easily and eat mice and birds.



                                     

5.3. Ecology. Fire. (Огонь)

Periodic fires are an important factor in southern and Western South Africa. The occurrence of these fires, among other things, determines the degree of fynbos. All of the species that naturally occur in fynbos have adaptations that provide these types can survive in a natural fire, but different species have different strategies. This is also true for species of Leucospermum, even the few that occur outside the fynbos. The vast majority of Leucospermum species is killed by fire, because they have a single stem that branches only taller, and covered with a rather thin crust. However, a year after the fire, many of the seedlings took place. Therefore, all samples on the most recent fire, the same age. After three or four years, these plants will begin to flower and produce seeds that do not germinate, but remain in the soil seed Bank until they are activated during the aftermath of the fire. Instances belonging to these species are subject to biological aging or senescence, and lose their viability. The maximum life span varies from twenty-five to thirty years in smaller species, such as L. truncatulum and L. oleifolia, with fifty to eighty years in Los Angeles praemorsum. For this group of species, fire is a prerequisite for rejuvenation and to support the population. If fires occur as often as every two or three years, seed soil Bank is depleted, because without adding new seeds, and the species could disappear locally. A number of large species have a thick bark that allows them to survive fires if theyre not too intense, and therefore to stretch their life on a regular basis is beyond the interval between successive incidents. Fire survival in this group is estimated at 30-50 %. Because the fire destroys the lower branches, the growth occurs only from the upper branches, and plants to achieve the umbrella-shape. A small group of species of Leucospermum more effective way to survive a fire. The aerial parts of these species die, but new shoots emerge directly from the Ground from a woody tuber. This mechanism is best developed in species Crassicaudex sections, which mostly occur outside of the vegetation, in areas with a predominance of summer precipitation, where fires may be more frequent, but also present in L. hypophyllocarpodendron, L. prostratum and L. tomentosum. The survival rate in this group is estimated at 95% or more. Young plants of these species can be distinguished by the profuse development of side branches very low on the main stem.

                                     

6. Save

There are forty-eight species, two of which has two subspecies each. The other two have two species each. Survival eight is considered to be of least concern: L. calligerum, L. cuneiforme, L. oleifolium, L. pedunculatum L. royenifolium, L. truncatum, L. L. utriculosum wittebergensis. Twelve taxa are regarded as not threatened: L. bolusii, L. conocarpodendron subspecies. viridum, L. cordifolium, L. gerrardii, L. gracile, L. pluridens, L. reflexum two varieties have not been evaluated, and L. spathulatum, L. tottum VAR. tottum, L. truncatulum, L. vestitum and L. railway. Three species are rare: L. erubescens, L. mundii and L. secundifolium. Nine taxa that are considered vulnerable as a subspecies of L. hypophyllocarpodendron, L. lineare, L. patersonii, L. praecox, L. praemorsum, L. prostratum and L. rodolentum and L. tomentosum. Fifteen were assigned to the category of species under threat of extinction: L. catharinae, L. conocarpodendron subspecies. conocarpodendron, L. cordatum, L. formosum, L. glabrum, L. grandiflora, and L. gueinzii, L. hamatum, L. heterophyllum, and L. innovans, L. muirii, L. parile, L. profugum, saxatile L. L. saxosum. Finally, four taxa considered to be endangered: L. arenarium, L. fulgens, L. harpagonatum and L. tottum VAR. glabrum.

                                     

7. Growing. (Растет)

Breeding pads is an important export product in South Africa and several other countries. L. conocarpodendron, L. cordifolia, L. lineare, L. patersonii and L. vestitum and a number of hybrids the supply of cut flowers.

                                     
  • Linnaeus in 1753. Johann Jacob Reichard in 1779 reassigned the species to Protea creating the new combination P. conocarpodendron. In 1781, Carl Peter Thunberg
  • curled and the styles 2 2½ cm 0.8 1.0 in long, sticking out like pins from a cushion It is called arid pincushion or common louse pincushion in English
  • Protea Banksia, Embothrium, Grevillea, Hakea and Macadamia. Species such as the New South Wales waratah Telopea speciosissima king protea Protea

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