★ Trailer (promotion)
The trailer is a commercial advertisement for a feature film that will be exhibited in the future at the cinema, the result of the creative and technical work. The term "trailer" comes to distributing movies on reels of film. Drums have always been common, UN-rewound. Therefore, the end of the film was the most accessible part for which preview has been spliced, "trailing" the movie.
Movie trailers have now become popular on DVDs and Blu-ray discs, as well as in the Internet and mobile devices. About 10 billion annually watched Internet videos, film trailers rank third, after news and user videos. The format of the trailer was also adopted as a promotional tool for TV shows, video games, books, and theatrical events / concerts.
1. History. (История)
The first trailer shown in a U.S. movie theater in November 1913, when Nils Granlund, the advertising Manager at a cinema chain Marcus Loew, he directed a short promotional film for the musical the pleasure seekers, opening at the Winter garden Theatre on Broadway. As reported in the Telegraph story is carried in the Lincoln, Nebraska daily star, the practice which is adopted Loew was described as "an entirely new and unique stunt", and that "moving pictures of the rehearsals and other incidents connected with the production will be sent out in anticipation of the exhibition that will be presented at the Loews pictures of houses and take the place of much of the bill Board advertising activities." Granlund was also first to introduce trailer material for an upcoming film, using a slide technique to promote an upcoming film featuring Charlie Chaplin at the Loews Seventh Avenue theatre in Harlem in 1914.
Trailers were originally shown after or "trailing" of the film, and this led them called "trailers". Practice proved to be very effective, is often ignored by the audience, who left right after. Later, the participants changed their practice so that the trailers were only part of the festival program, which included cartoon shorts, newsreels and serial adventure episodes. Today, more sophisticated trailers and advertising have largely replaced other forms of pre-feature entertainment and in major multiplex chains, about the first 20 minutes after the posted Showtime is devoted to trailers.
Until the late 1950s, years, trailers were mostly created by national screen service and consisted of various key scenes from the film being advertised, often augmented large, descriptive text describing the story, and an underscore generally pulled from Studio music libraries. Most of the trailers in one form or another of storytelling, and those who submitted voice.
In the early 1960-ies, the face of motion picture trailers changed. Without the text, montage trailers and quick-editing became popular, largely due to the arrival of "new Hollywood" and techniques that are becoming increasingly popular on television. Among the trend setters were Stanley Kubrick with his montage trailers for Lolita 1962, Dr. Strangelove or: how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb 1964, 2001: a Space Odyssey 1968. The main figure of participants Kubricks inspiration for Dr. Strangelove trailer was the short film very nice, very nice 1961 canadian film visionary Arthur Lipsett. Pablo ferro, who led the techniques Kubrick required as necessary elements for the successful conduct of his campaign, created the Dr. Strangelove trailer, and award-winning trailer for a Clockwork orange 1971.
Many home videos contain trailers for other movies produced by the same company, will be available shortly after the legal release of the video, because you do not have to spend money on advertising in video on TV. Most of the VHS tapes would play them at the beginning of the tapes, but some tapes that contained previews at the end of the film or on both ends of the tape. VHS tapes that contained the trailers at the end usually remind the viewer to "stay tuned after the feature for more previews". With DVDs and Blu-rays, trailers can operate as a bonus, instead of having to watch through the trailers before the movie.
2. Definition. (Определение)
Trailers consist of a series of individual frames from the film advertised. Because the purpose of the trailer is to attract an audience to the film, these excerpts are usually drawn from the most exciting, funny, or otherwise noteworthy parts of the film but in abbreviated form and usually without getting spoilers. The scenes are not necessarily in the order in which they appear in the film. The trailer must accomplish this in less than 2 minutes and 30 seconds, the maximum length of the MPAA. Each Studio or distributor is allowed to exceed this period once a year, if they feel that it is necessary for a particular movie.
In January 2014, the movie theater trade group National Association of theatre owners issued a Directive to the industry asking that film distributors supply trailers that run no longer than 2 minutes, 30 seconds shorter than the norm. The guide is not mandatory and also allows for limited exceptions of a few movies having longer trailers. Film distributors reacted coolly to the announcement. There is no visible disputes on trailer period of up to a guide that has surprised many.
Some trailers use "special shoot" footage, which is material that has been created specifically for advertising purposes and is not an actual film. The most notable film to use this technique was Terminator 2: judgment day, whose trailer featured elaborate special to the scene the effect of the terminator T-800 assembled at the factory, which was never intended to be in the film itself. Analyst films also shot extra scenes for their 2006 remake, Black Christmas - these scenes were utilized in promotional footage for the film and was absent in the film version. Trailer for the 2002 blockbuster Spider-Man all action sequences are specifically designed to involved the escape of the robbers in a helicopter caught in a giant web between the two WTC towers. However, after the September 11 attacks the Studio pulled it from theaters.
One of the most famous "special shoot" trailers is used for 1960-ies Thriller "Psycho," which showed the Director Alfred Hitchcock giving viewers a guided tour of the Bates Motel up the infamous shower. In this moment of quiet Hitchcock suddenly throws the shower curtain back to reveal Vera miles with a blood-curdling scream. As the trailer, in fact, was made after the completion of the movie, When Janet Leigh was no longer available for filming, Hitchcock had miles don a blonde wig for the fleeting sequence. Called "Psycho", instantly covers most of the screen, the switch went unnoticed by audiences for years until freeze-frame analysis clearly showed that it was Vera miles and not Janet Leigh in the shower during the trailer.
There are dozens of companies that spetsializiruyutsya on the creation of film trailers in Los Angeles and new York. The trailer can be established institutions during the film shrinking together in the Studio. Since the film does not exist at this point, the trailer Editors work from rushes or Newspapers. Thus, the trailer may contain footage that not in the final movie, or the trailer editor and the film editor may use different takes of a particular shot. Another common technique is including music on the trailer, which appears on the soundtrack of the films. It is almost always a requirement, as trailers and teasers are created long before the composer has even been hired for the film score - sometimes as much as a year before the films release date - while composers are usually the last creative people to work on the film.
Some trailers that incorporate material not in the film, is particularly coveted by collectors, especially trailers for classic films. For example, in the trailer for Casablanca the character Rick blaine says, "OK, you asked for it!" before shooting Major, this line of dialogue is not spoken in the final film.
3. Truth and error. (Истины и заблуждения)
Over the years there have been many instances where trailers give a false representation of his films. They can create the impression that a celebrity who only has a minor role in the film is one of the main actors, or the film as more action-Packed than. These techniques usually done to attract a wider audience. Sometimes the trailers include footage not from the film itself. This can be a choice, or because the trailer was put together before the final film cut, but at other times he is to give audience impression of the film. Then trailers could be misleading in the audience their own successful way, that a wider audience dont usually see such a film due to preconceptions, and bait and switching, they can allow the audience to have a great viewing experience that they usually dont have. However, the reverse is also true, with the promise of great trailers failed mediocre films. American sued the makers of drive because their film "failed to fulfill their advertising promises", although her claim was rejected. In August 2016, the American lawyer tried to sue the suicide Squad for false advertising for the lack of scenes, including the Joker.
4. Composition. (Состав)
Trailers tell the story of the film in a very compressed fashion for maximum appeal. In the decades since movie marketing has become a large industry, trailers have become highly polished pieces of advertising, able to present even poor movies in an attractive light. Some of the elements common to many trailers are listed below. Trailers usually consist of scenes from the movie that they are promoting, but sometimes contain deleted scenes from the film.
The key ambition in trailer-it is to impart an intriguing story that gets the audience emotionally.
Most trailers have a three-act structure similar to a feature film. They start from the beginning of act 1, which sets out the background story. The average act 2 brings the story further and usually ends with a dramatic climax. Act 3 usually features a strong piece of "signature music" either a recognizable song or a powerful, sweeping orchestral piece. This last act, as a rule, consists of a visual montage of powerful and emotional moments of the film, and may also contain a cast run if there are noteworthy stars that could help sell the film.
Voice-over sometimes brief created the premise of the film and provide explanation if necessary, although this practice declined in the years after the passage of VoiceOver artist don Lafontaine. Since the trailer is in a very condensed format, voice-over is a useful tool to enhance the audiences understanding of the plot. Some of the most famous, modern trailer voice-over artists were the aforementioned Lafontaine, Hal Douglas, mark Elliot, John leader, Corey Burton, George DelHoyo, Peter Cullen, Morgan Freeman, Ashton Smith, Jim Cummings, John Garry, Tom Kane, Nick Schatzki, Ben Patrick Johnson, Tony Rodgers, Beau weaver, Brian Cummings. Classic voice-over in movie trailers of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s years included Howard Strickling for MGM, Lou Marcelli for Warner Bros, art Gilmore, Knox manning, reed Hadley, Les Tremayne for MGM, Fred Foy for MGM Carl MGM for Weber and Bob Marcato. Hollywood trailers of the classical era the film was a well-known cliches, such as "enormous!", "Amazing!", etc. Some trailers have used voice-over plates for satirical effect. This can be seen in trailers for films such as Jerry Seinfelds comedian and tenacious D in the pick of destiny.
Music helps to set the tone and mood of the trailer. Usually the music used in the trailer is not from the film Soundtrack may not have been invented. Music used in the trailer could be:
- Music from a dozen other films.
- Popular or well-known music, often chosen for its tone, appropriateness of a lyric or lack thereof, or recognizability. The most commonly used-O Fortuna, from Carmine Burana by Carl Orff, as well as in the works of E. S. Posthumus and Beethoven. Popular music may be selected for its tone, i.e., the hard rock action, easier to pop in a romantic Comedy, or anchoring, for example, the trailer of the film is set in the 1940s, it is possible to use the big bend.
- Specially composed music. One of the most famous Hollywood trailer music composers, credited with creating the musical voice of contemporary trailers, is John Beal, started scoring trailers in the 1970s, and during a thirty year career, created original music for over 2.000 movie trailer projects, including 40 of the best grossing films of all time such as Star wars, Forrest Gump, Titanic, Aladdin, Braveheart, Ghost, the Last samurai and the matrix.
- "Library" music previously written specifically for use in advertising by an independent composer. There are many trailer music library companies which produce trailer music, some of the most famous are reached, two steps from hell, immediate music and x-ray dog or SFX and music libraries like the ones from moss landing, Gerrit Kinkel productions or redCola.
Cast start the list of stars who appear in the film. If the Director or the producer, well-known or has made other popular movies, they often mention as well. Most trailers conclude with a calculation unit, which is a list of major cast and crew. This is the same list that appears on posters and printed promotional materials, and normally appears on the screen at the beginning or the end of the film. The Studio production logos are usually represented at the beginning of the trailer. Until the late 1970-ies, they were introduced only in the end of the trailer or not used at all, however, "paramount pictures" became the first Studio to use its logo in early trailers in the 1940-ies. Often there will be logos for the production company and distributor of the film.
Many trailers are mixed in Dolby Digital or any other multichannel sound. Therefore, the stage including sound effects and music, which amplified stereo sound focus of many of todays trailers.
Trailers of previous movies, usually presented in the same format as the feature, either 35 mm film or digital format. High bandwidth Internet connections allow funds to be distributed online at any resolution. With the advent of digital 3‑D, it has become common for 3‑D film will be preceded by one or more trailers that are also presented in 3‑D.
5. Collection. (Коллекция)
National service contracts screen, be sure that the trailers will be returned at the expense of cinema or destroyed, however it required no proof of destruction and depositing them in counted in the waste bin. A market for trailers evolved as it became clear that some had commercial value to collectors. Many of the trailers for films like Star wars reportedly destroyed was taken back from the recycle bin and sold by cinema staff. They are about 60 $each to estimate 1981 and was hired to the cinema for $ 10, such losses led to NSS increasing its rental costs, which led to a reduction in the number of trailers rented and shown to the audience.
Some cinemas began to show "trailer trash programs" trailers without a main feature. Similarly, some DVDs containing nothing but trailers usually from the exploitation Genres of the Film, was released for sale.
6. Other types of trailers. (Другие типы прицепов)
In the early 1990-s and early 2000-ies, and with the development of the Internet and sites such as YouTube as well as animation techniques, more types of trailers began to be created due to easier and cheaper costs to produce and show trailers.
6.1. Other types of trailers. Video game trailers. (Видео игровые трейлеры)
Since the late 1990s to the early 2000s, video game trailers began to be produced, how they became mainstream. Used to entice viewers to go out and play in the game trailers are very useful. The process of content and the production of similar films, is complicated by the need to transfer ways to play. Trailer for aliens: colonial Marines, for example, featured graphics that were of a higher level than the game that was eventually sold. Hideo kojima, the Creator of the game heavily influenced by Hollywood films, edits, elaborate trailers for his own games from a special Studio in his office.
6.2. Other types of trailers. TV spots. (Телесюжеты)
TV spots trailers for movies shown on television, which is often shortened to 30-60 seconds. These trailers are similar to green band trailers and content "appropriate" for the channel.
6.3. Other types of trailers. TV show trailers. (ТВ-шоу трейлеры)
Although initially not common on television, TV show trailers began as a common form of advertising at the end of 2000-ies. They often are trailers advertising a new episode event, or marathon premiered on television. The trailers for the next episode of the show is often shown during or after the closing credits of the show.
6.4. Other types of trailers. Book trailer. (Книга трейлер)
The book trailer is a promotional video for a book which employs techniques similar to those of movie trailers to promote books and encourage readers. These trailers can also be attributed to "video-podcasts", with higher quality trailers called "cinematic book trailers". They are common on television and online in most common digital video formats. Common formats of book trailers include actors performing scenes from the book similar to a movie trailer, full production trailers, flash videos, animations or just pictures to music with text conveying the story. Unlike the author readings and interviews, which consist of a video of the author of narrative them to write or interview. Early book trailers consisted mostly of photos of the book, with some videos incorporating actors, Jon Farriss trailer for the 1986 novel Wildwood incorporating images from the book cover along with actors such as John Zacherle.
In September 2007, school library journal established the Trailie award for the best book trailers. There are three categories: author / publisher created, student created and librarian / adult education created. The award was announced at the summit school library journal leadership about the future of reading on October 22, 2010 in Chicago.
In 2014, Dan Rosen and CV Hearst established BookReels, a website dedicated to allowing publishers and authors to post book trailers and other multimedia, culminating in the annual BookReels awards. BookReels lets readers view trailers, rate, leave comments and feedback, participate in discussion groups and share BookReel discoveries.
6.5. Other types of trailers. Fan-made trailers. (Фан-мейд трейлеры)
For popular movies, Amateurs often make trailers of their own. This is unofficial video from fans using audio or video film, Studio trailers, animation techniques or the fan acted scene replacement video official trailer.
7. Awards. (Награды)
Every year there are two main events that give awards to outstanding film trailers: the key art awards "the Hollywood reporter", and the Golden trailer awards. Golden trailer awards in the arts the key to pick winners in all creative parts of film advertising, from trailers and TV spots to posters and print ads. Currently, the Golden trailer awards are expanding to add a sister event, the world trailer awards, to begin at the Cannes film festival in France, 2013. The annual key awards in the arts are often held at the Dolby theater in Hollywood. The film informant also recognizes movie marketing media and held the first annual TFI awards in early January 2012. The website is the first to officially start recognizing and rating movie marketing media on a daily basis.
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