★ Cinema of Hungary
Hungary has had a notable cinema industry from the beginning of the 20th century, including Hungarians who affected the world of cinema, both inside and outside the countrys borders. The former can be characterised by Directors Istvan Szabo, Bela Tarr, or Miklos Jancso, the latter by William Fox and Adolf Zukor, founders of Fox studios and Paramount pictures, respectively, or Alexander Korda, who played a leading role in the early period of British cinema. Examples of successful Hungarian films include merry-go-round, Mephisto, Werckmeister harmonies and control.
1.1. The first decades of the. 1896-1901
The history of the Hungarian cinema begins in 1896, when the first films of the Lumiere brothers took place on may 10 in the hotels café of Budapest. In June of the same year, Arnold and Zsigmond Sziklai opened the first Hungarian movie theatre at the 41. Andrássy street, named Okonograph where lumière films are shown with French techniques. The residents of the luxury district despised this new form of entertainment, and the theatre soon closed. But the screenings in cafes, malls of Budapest public life, became more and more common, and by 1911, more than 100 cinema had in the capital.
The first shooting in the movie took place in 1896, recording the festivities of the celebration of the Millennium. Employees Lumiere recorded the March in the Buda castle. The first Hungarian cameraman was Zsigmond Sziklai.
The first consciously made Hungarian film was tanc dance Director Bela Zsitkovszky that came to life in an illustration to one of the exhibitions scientific "Urania". Gyula Pekar asked moving pictures of Bela Zsitovszky, projectionist Urania. Zsitovszky originally the eye doctor, did the on the terrace on the roof of the theater, with famous actors and dancers of the theatre district. 24 cinematic short films premiered on April 30, 1901.
1.2. The first decades of the. 1901-1920
The infrastructure of the Hungarian movie scene was built in the first decades of the 20th century. By 1910, 270 permanent theatres operated in the country, including large capacity movie palaces, Royal Apollo. The distribution was organized in the end of the decade. The first company to Lend the shot the camera was Projectograph based Mor Ungerleider in 1908. The company has also filmed many documentaries and newsreels, thereby making the first steps for a country the film industry.
Literary scene with enthusiasm for a new form of expression. Writers Nougat round saw the movie as a sign of closure to modern European literature, and became an avid cinema-goers. Fridges hotel include even became a playwright, Alexander Korda, the first prominent film Director and movie critic.
As early critics believed most of the films are vulgar, boring and frivolous, the filmmakers emphasized information, education advantages of technology, even during their first creations could not really reinforce these requirements. The first company to have artistic goals was the Hunnia Studio, founded in 1911, formed as an offshoot of the Vigszinhaz theatre.
The characteristic style of early Hungarian cinema was a sketch of a cinema, a hybrid form of theater and cinema. Each short projection is held or interrupted for stage actors, often acting their own characters from the screen. The genre has inspired many prominent writers of that time, including Ferenc molnár and Fridges the hotel offers. Comedians also often used this form to perform various jokes and scenes, using his hybrid nature, a famous artist, as Gyula Gozon.
Undergleider Moore and started a professional magazine on the theme of the movie, called Mozgofenykep Hirado news of the moving image. The journal published articles by many famous writers, filmmakers, and scientists aestheticans about the movie, including innovative film-Theory articles 18-year-old Alexander Korda. However, theoretical intuitions and abilities described in Mozgofenykep Hirado were not implemented later in the country is slowly unfolding film.
During the 1919 March–August, under short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Hungarian film industry was the first to be fully nationalized. Journal Voros movie Red film started to popularize the shift. A number of filmmakers welcomed change, as the government provides protection from competing foreign films.
2.1. The interwar period. 1920-1931
After the First world war left the germination of the Hungarian cinema in the ruins. Native experts as Directors Michael Curtiz or Alexander Korda left the country during or after the disorder, often making a significant career abroad, like in Hollywood. In the twenties, foreign, mainly American companies use the economic crisis is gaining momentum in almost all the theaters in the country. French, American and Italian films that were banned during the war was for all Hungarian screens, leaving little ground for immature Hungarian production. The few companies that operated in that time, as the Corvina Studio drifted towards bankruptcy.
The fall was avoided largely by government support, creating protective laws. In 1925 was created the Fund of the Hungarian film industry, and a new law forced distributors to Finance a Hungarian movie after every 30 imported one. Theatres were forced to air the footage, created the office of the Hungarian film. In 1929, the government of istván Bethlen was the tax on imported films enriching the Fund industry, but the fees were significantly reduced for companies that produce Hungarian movies short film was awarded with 20 tax-free import of film.
The movie industry Fund bought the bankrupt Corvina Studio in 1927, founded the Hunnia film company with the intention to produce feature films. The Studio has become a cornerstone for specialists in subsequent years. His mission has become difficult with the economic crisis of 1929 and the spread of costly sound film, requiring further investments.
Film to produce a scene slowly emerged again, marked by the beginning of the log Filmkultura with the editor Andor Lajtha in 1928. New technology from the vein started appearing on the sets, also leaving room for innovation: with Projektophone determines Mihaly was one of many inventors loud movie, but he couldnt sell the patent. During the shooting of Csak kislany van a vilagon Egypt, the crew members had the opportunity to borrow equipment from Fox movietone news, everyone whose employees worked in Budapest that day, recording a few musical and speaking scenes. While the movie was one of the last of the undecideds, ironically, he also became the first to use voice. The first announced show of the film took place on 30 September 1929 in Pushkin theatre will present the American Singing fool. Announced, speaking scenes were inserted in more and more films, as in Mihaly Kerteszs "Noahs Ark", which showed a narrated introduction. The first feature film with sound was Hunnia film Studio 1931 film Balvan KEK.
2.2. The interwar period. 1931-1945
Because of its reputedly alien American storyline and setting, Keck Balvan, was only a mild success, unlike hyppolit, a lakaj, which premiered only two months and became the first box office hit and one of the most successful and well-known paintings in the country. Directed by Steve Sekely, who was recalled from Berlin to work in the movie a comedic tone and bourgeois installation became a standard for native film production in the next ten years. The actors fell sycamore and Gyula kabos became sought-after performers, appearing in almost every major production of the decade. As a sound film, yet spontaneous performances, popular artists became more drawn to the big screen, but many of them are unable to adapt to different working conditions or to new phenomena of action, lives with the pressure from the media and fans.
By 1932, more than 500 theatres operated in the country, a quarter of them located in Budapest. Playback support sound travels, about half of the objects owning the necessary equipment. The maximum shooting time was 12 days, after which make the company Director fined for each additional day. After the problems of the 1920-ies, a Hungarian film boomed in the 1930-ies, rising from 6 films in 1932 to 36 in 1937.
Since 1935, far-right groups were formed throughout the country. They criticized the movie industry as "full of Jews" and products "containing obscene, immoral content". The number of protests grows and premiers were thwarted, as in the case of Lovagias Mac. As Horthys government formed closer ties with Nazi Germany, the press also began to exert pressure on members of the Jewish cast. Article XV. the first "Jew law" introduced in 1938 maximalized Jewish members of the Guild of film critics to 6%. Later anti-Semitic laws restricted Jews from Directors, actors, writers and heads of film studios, film distributors and cinemas over 6%. This made work nearly impossible for a large number of Directors and actors, and many of them, like Gyula kabos, fled the country. The second world war slowly showed signs in the country with the increasing number of air raids and bombing that the production of the film is extremely difficult. In the last years of the war, there were only a few films, but most of them-the haste of work. During the war of the cinemas do not play American and Soviet features, so professionals of the industry and some viewers were able to watch films such as gone with the wind only in a small, hidden, improvised shows at high prices.
2.3. The interwar period. 1945-1947
The war caused huge damage to property in the industry, but production resumed relatively early, in 1945. Three films produced in that year, the largest of this new venture, as Marton Keletis in Tanitono. They tried to resurrect production and mechanisms of pre-war history of cinema, with private investment and the old way of story, but their failure seemed to prove that audience needs have changed and a small number of new cinemas not provide sufficient sales. The private sector gradually abandoned the production of the film, with the result that no Hungarian film was made in 1946. Work resumed in 1947, with the government offering assistance 200.000 m kinoproizvodstva company average film budget of 500.000 feet. Companies were started, but most of them were backed by political forces. Mezei Profeta was funded by the peasant party to konnyu muzsa Independent party of smallholders, Valahol Europaban of the Communist party, and Beszterce ostroma Social democratic party. Alarm tough situation, many of these films were banned, causing moral and financial losses of the desired fractions.
Most films of this transitional period continued the tradition of literary adaptations, but some of them tried to introduce some social criticism. Two outstanding pictures were Valahol Europaban on Geza Radvany, showing a realistic story of children in post-war country and Enek in buzamezokrol at Szots Istvan, originally scripted in 1942, focusing on the peasant characters and the society that corrupts them. The last film had little impact on the industry, as it was banned in 1948 until the seventies.
21 March 1948 was a turning point for the production of the movie, as the state began to nationalize some parts of the industry, with a few extra steps in 1948-49 at the end of absorption.
3.1. Film in the era of socialism. 1948-1950
After the Communist nationalization, the only company allowed to produce feature films was the Hungarian national filmmaking company, while newsreels and documentary film production is driven by news and documentary film company, distribution is carried out through system MOKEP. Control over film production was centralized and considered by the authorities to determine the history of the topic and setting, the script was often rewritten several times to achieve the transmission of ideological messages. Nationalization solved a long-standing problem of funding, government resources have allowed more sophisticated, big-budget movies.
The first product of the nationalized industry was Fridges bans Talpalatnyi times, continuing the tradition of films that showed the real life of the country through folk literature. However, this realism was distorted in more severe by the presence of ideological content appeared that would leave a mark on Hungarian films in the next decade. Movies 1948-49, although different in genre, a change that was welcomed after the mostly comedic approach of the thirties – is designed to show past sins, and how they will change under the new socialist rule.
By 1950 a movie was under the total control of the government, plans for new movies produced only by Central command. Sabotage film shows the reaction figure from the "old regime", often an engineer or an intellectual, who works as an agent for the production of sabotage, sometimes collaborating with "Western forces". While their first attempt is successful, investigation wise party members uncovers the conspiracy. Both species used the traditional tools of filmmaking, either comedic or musical elements to show the joys of physical labor, or elements of the detective story to show about acts of sabotage. Historical films also showing revolutionary periods that the authorities considered to be Parallels with contemporary events, as Foltamadott in TenGer – the Hungarian revolution of 1848, Rakoczy hadnagya – peasant uprising led by Ferenc rákóczi.
3.2. Film in the era of socialism. 1953-1956
Since 1953, the weak attempts of democratization are also showing signs in the production of the film. The scenario plays out for the Directors work, and also gives the chance to young talents Karoly makk, Janos Herko. Political messages were softened, with the production of films to convert it into real Comedy with only marginal political elements such aruhaz, 2x2 neha OT, and sabotage movies turning into disaster movies, by showing a more realistic threat to the production of a natural disaster or human negligence, which requires the joint work of the community. Socially critical works began to appear, both in drama and Keseru igazsag ket emelet boldogsag comic form to tell about the abnormal side of the Communists.
Fueled by adequate funding and easing political climate, 1954-56 was the first years for cinema as an art form in Hungary. Two of the most influential Directors of the era were zoltán Fabri and Felix Mariassy. Although Fabry works with a dramatic-expressionist style that placed characters in extreme situations to face basic moral questions Korhinta, Hannibal tanar UR, Mariassy used a lyric, and strongly realistic tone, depicting events with high detail Budapesti tavasz, Egypt / egy pikolo vilagos. Another important Director Karoly makk, whose films, ranging from satirical Comedy Monsieur 12 talalatrol to expressionistic social drama HAZ in sziklak alatt presented more diversifitsirovat nature decades of filmmaking.
3.3. Film in the era of socialism. 1956-1960
In retaliation after the Civil war, in 1956, was seriously injured films of the world, several films were banned, and many industry experts and actors left the country. The decentralization of the countrys film production was halted, the planned reorganization became superficial, with the Hungarian national filmmaking company returns the name of Hunnia film Studio, as well as news and documentary film company was renamed to Budapest film Studio. The latter also received permission to release the movie, and while its budget and the machines were not ready to perform this task in the next few years, it has given fertile ground for many young talents, as Jancso Miklos. Political influences again took its place in production, so the filmmakers stayed away from modern or socially critical themes. Most of the films were set between the two World Wars, many of them literary adaptations. Taking the novels of such authors as Kalman mikszath the website or sándor Tatai, they showed the detailed lifestyle of peasants and common man, moderately realistic fashion.
3.4. Film in the era of socialism. 1960-1970
The sixties were years of rejuvenation for the Hungarian movie. After the harsh years after the events of 1956, the newly erected socialist government headed by Janos Kadar wanted to appear more liberal, resulting in softening rules and regulations in each region. Two former film studios was divided into four independent led by the filmmakers. These creative teams can approve or deny the plans themselves filming, the observation was only present in the form of a preview of the finished film. Instead of several stages of control over the scripts and plans, censorship was the process backwards. Was the censorship just a small number of films, not only because the government intend to support more broad-minded image, but the Directors tried to avoid more problematic issues. Socially critical films, often using crosstalk and allegorical elements re-emerged, many of them also were allowed to show at Western film festivals.
As technology has become cheap, large masses of people in this kind of entertainment. In the countryside, clubs, community houses were converted to viewing rooms, and in the cities, especially in Budapest, has opened hundreds of new cinemas. The price of a ticket to the premiere of the film was 8 feet and 2 feet for movies that played old movies in the working areas of all tickets cost 2 Ft – value, which almost every class can pay. Short animation, news reels played before and after movies, the film became a few hours of entertainment. Special theatres operated only show children movies or news reels the ticket was valid for 30 minutes.
The founding of balázs béla Studio was another important step in restructuring the industry. Although the Studio had only a small budget movie, there is no need for pre-selected external peer-reviewers, only those intended for a wider audience. Young professionals finishing the University got the opportunity to join live. The Studio became the main workshop for avant-garde and experimental filming, made a great contribution in the change of generations of the sixties. Was formed by the creative teams with different characteristics.
The era was greatly influenced by Western modernism, but, like the Czechoslovak and Polish cinema, new elements and styles, is rarely present in pure form, but mixed with cultural, historical and political topics. For example, a rebellious, youth-center of the French new wave was the inspiration for Istvan Szabos early work, as Almodozasok bark or Szerelmesfilm, presented in a nonlinear narrative, and experimental camera work. But in both cases, youth were combined with other basic questions like history, or the clash of generations.
Crossing trends of the fifties, the positive intellectual, there is a new type of hero, full of optimism and ideas, battling not only political barriers, but also with the bureaucracy and old generations of strict rules and positions. The intelligentsia became personified, with such characters often reflect their own situation and possible solutions in a long, preachy scenes of dialogue.
The demand for representation of rural life appeared, but these films were made with the worldview of the new generation. The heroes looked at the peasant life as in the past, and while they respect the old customs, and were nostalgic, they were critical about not only the social relations of the last decades, but the total helplessness of their predecessors, intimidating their submission and the lack of a riot. Reckoning with the past, breaking with the lifestyle of the father were the themes of numerous movies of the decade. Instead of the ballad type, detailed drawing of country life, new Directors used more stylized methods, signaling the standoff from the old parties. The theme of the conflict of generations appears in a more light-hearted, entertaining forms in the second half of the decade, often in collaboration with popular pop group in Ezek a fiatalok, Szerelmes biciklistak. Of Directors of the old generation were also concerned that looking into the past, and at that time, as part of the conflict of generations, they also explored the question of individual fate and history, historical determination, and moral decisions in such cases often use modern tools such as the parallel points of view and interpretations.
In the sixties was not only decades of modernist film, but since the era of the typical Directors movie. This can be observed in Hungary. After his debut movie, IGY jottem and Szegenylegenyek was the first movie where Miklos trademark Jancsos visual style – long, slow cuts and horizontal movement of the camera appear. Istvan Szabo directs his most personal films during this time, the connection of subjectivity with the first-person narrative. After 1956s Professor Hannibal, Zoltan Fabri further develops the theme of moral choice in historical times in many of his films from the 1960s years, like isten hozta, ornagy Hooray!, Ket Felido in pokolban, Nappali sotetseg. After trying several genres, the cinema károly makk becomes more unified, creating the most political, dramatic films of his career in an era with Megszallottak, Elveszett paradicsom as az utolso elotti amber.
Over the years, arts and entertainment films became more separated, and the latter passes through such updates, looking for new genres and actors. Most popular movies Zoltan Varkonyis adaptations of novels Mora Yochai and Marton Keletis Comedy Butasagom tortenete, a tizedes Meg tobbiek. Movies of the fifties were replaced by action movies, detectives in Hamis Izabella, a gyilkos in hazban Van and spy movies photo of Haber, fen in redony mogott. Wanted to continue the tradition of cabaret / Comedy films of the past, there was a satirical Comedy, often featuring popular Laszlo kabos in a vereb is Madar.
The end of the decade saw a new wave of austerity censorship, so the film evolved from the political, disgusting topics to the private sphere, often used stylized, lyrical motifs, the so-called estetiziruetsya to produce films.
3.5. Film in the era of socialism. 1970-1980
Objective and subjective form of the Hungarian film, developed in the sixties, goes through process of stylization in the seventies. The purpose of the film to try to write closer to the sociological description of social processes, trends recorded in the documentary, subjective, move on biographical elements, trying to highlight certain aspects of its form, marked by the slightly derogatory term aestheticism. In both cases the classical form of narration fell into the background, and in parallel with the loosening of the history, pictorial effects have been strengthened, often using allegorization.
Two pronounced trends of the seventies was the documentary, wanted to introduce a new dimension and change in shape and extends from the sixties, uncut movies. Other modern genres and forms, as grotesque, satire, or the so-called state-of-the-generation tapes can be connected to them.
The most influential trend of the decade was a documentary, creating the genre of fictional documentary or documentaries, a genre is seen as distinctly Hungarian Budapest school. Short and feature documentary films created in Bela Balazs Studio with the end of the sixties had a great influence on its creation. As producers of the film of the seventies was dissatisfied with the illusion of realism of the past, they felt that the usual action and drama is no longer offered new opportunities. Many of the eras most influential films enter, or attempt to surpass the documentary, by distancing from realist images to create custom scenes. In these films, including Jeless with Andras KIS Valentino, sociologically accurate, the world is becoming transparent, by giving a documentary, a kind of cinematic language showed. By the end of the decade, the documentary styling interchange lyrical, and at times grotesque, used in art films and experimental line, marked by BB Studio Filmnyelvi Sorozat, films K / 3 group, led by Gabor body.
Most films shot in the BB Studio and Academy of film used video as a way to identify socially significant issues, but unlike the external, the intellectual perspective of the sixties, they explored the inner conflicts of his subjects.
The era of mainstream and was created by analogy with the more artistic films documentary, in the form of state-of-the-generation movie. And partly continuing the tradition of the films public life of the sixties, they included the changed social relations of the seventies.
3.6. Film in the era of socialism. 1980-1989
Marta Meszaros Was Born 1931-09-19
Marta Meszaros, known for her film Diary for my children 1984, which won the Grand Prix at the Cannes film festival and is the first film in a trilogy of autobiographical films that also includes diary for my lovers 1987 diary for my mother and father, 1990.
4.1. Today Hungarian cinema. One thousand nine hundred ninety. (Одна тысяча девятьсот девяносто)
List of movies:
- Taxidermia 2006.
- A long weekend in pest and Buda, 2003.
- Johanna 2006. (Йоханна 2006)
- Werckmeister Harmonies 2000. (Werckmeister Распевки 2000)
- The maiden danced to death 2011.
- The kintz 2017. (В кинцо 2017)
- Hungarian Requiem 1991. (Венгерский Реквием 1991)
- Demimonde 2015. (Полусвета 2015)
- The Man From London 2008.
- Delta 2008. (Дельта 2008)
- Satantango 1994. (Сатантанго 1994)
- Even 2008. (Даже 2008 года)
- Children Of Glory 2006.
- District! 2004. (Район! 2004)
- Control 2003. (Контроль 2003)
- Profile rokonok 2006. (профиль rokonok 2006)
- Hukkle 2002.
- Player 1997. (Игрок 1997)
- Pleasant Days 2002. (Приятных Дней 2002)
- Abandoned 2001. (Заброшенный 2001)
- Just sex and nothing else 2005.
- I Love Budapest 2001.
- Katalin Varga 2009. (Каталин Варга 2009)
- Fateless 2005. (Без судьбы 2005)
- The Turin Horse 2011.
- Sauls Son, 2015. (Сыну саулову, 2015)
- The body and soul of 2017.
- Karoly Makk. (Кароли Макк)
- Laszlo Nemes Jeles. (Ласло Немеш Jeles)
- Nimrod Antal. (Нимрод Антал)
- Can Togay. (Может Тогай)
- Ildiko Enyedi. (Ильдико Enyedi)
- Marta Meszaros. (Марты Месарош)
- Istvan Szabo. (Иштван Сабо)
- Bela Tarr. (Бела Тарр)
- Lajos Koltai. (Лайош Koltai)
- Gyorgy Palfi. (Дьердь Пальфий)
- Endre Hules. (Hules Эндре)
Oscar nominees / winners since 1990:
Attila Zalai two other technical AA award for SpaceCam 1996?
Lajos Koltai, an AA nomination for best cinematography 2000s "Malena"
Geza M. Toth A 2007 nomination For best short film, animation: "Maestro"2005
Mark Jaszberenyi, Priskin tamás Perlaki and Gyula scientific Academy awards 2010 for the development of software "lustre", color correcting system that enables real-time manipulation of the digital intermediate process. Scientific Academy award 2014 was given for a solution box for total of five people three of whom were Hungarians: Tibor Madjar concepts and Csaba Kohegyi and Imre major for design.
Award-winning lászló Nemes Jeles Best foreign language film in 2016 with the son of Saul.
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