★ Cinema of Austria
Cinema of Austria refers to the film industry based in Austria. Austria takes an active film industry since the beginning of the 20th century, when it was the Austro-Hungarian Empire and which continues to this day. Producer Sasha Kolowrat-Krakowsky, producer-Director-screenwriter, Louise Kolm and the Austro-Hungarian Directors Michael Curtiz and Alexander Korda were among the pioneers of early Austrian cinema. A few Austrian filmmakers working in Weimar Germany and later in the United States, among them Fritz lang, G. W. Pabst, Josef von Sternberg, Billy Wilder, Fred You, and Otto Preminger.
Between the two World Wars, Directors like E. W. emo and Henry Koster - the latter of whom emigrated from Austria, provided examples of Austrian film comedies. At the same time, Willi Forst and Walter Reisch founded the genre of the Wiener film. After Austria became part of Nazi Germany in 1938, in Vienna, the Vienna film production company became a major Studio, seemingly non-political productions. After the Second world war in Austrias film production soon restarted, partially supported by allied forces. Veteran and new Directors such as Ernst Marischka, Franz Antel, Geza von Cziffra, Geza von Bolvary, and Walter Kolm-Veltee reviewed Comedy, Heimatfilm of the province, and the biopic tradition, and started a new genre of luxury of the Imperial epic, for example Marischkas sissy movies and Antels Imperial era musicals that rivaled Hollywood entertainment in the international hire.
The 1950s brought Austrias largest film production boom in its history, but without neorealism and the New wave school, which had been intensified in other European cinemas during this era and without national subsidies, the Austrian commercial film industry collapsed in 1968, and experimental film, are still very limited. In the 1970s, the years television has become the medium for entertainment film, the short films of the radical Viennese actionism movement completely rejected the narrative structure, and Austrias Alpine landscape as well as some of its Directors and actors was used for West German sex Comedy production.
With government subsidies, arriving in 1981, a new generation of Austrian filmmakers proved themselves at domestic and international festivals in the 1980s and 90s, among them Axel Corti, Niki list, Paul Harather, Michael Haneke, Barbara albert, Harald Sicheritz, Stefan Ruzowitzky and Ulrich Seidl. In the first decade of the 21st century, Austrian cinema has found its long-awaited new wave and international success.
Austrian or Austro-identification of subjects who achieved international success from 1920-ies to the present, include Erich von Stroheim, Elisabeth Bergner, Joseph Schildkraut, Paul Henreid, Hedy Lamarr, Walter Slezak, Oscar Homolka, Nadia tiller, Senta Berger, Klaus Maria Brandauer, Maximilian Schell, Maria Schell, Romy Schneider and Oscar Werner, Vanessa brown, Gusti Huber, Kurt Jurgens, Lotte Lenya, Kurt Kasznar, Marisa Mel, Helmut Berger, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Christoph waltz.
1.1. History. Until 1918. (До 1918 года)
Between 1896 and 1905 the only films produced in Austria were newsreels, mostly by French companies such as pathé frères and Gaumont. The first films by the Austrian Director was a series of short erotic films such as I am Sklavenmarkt produced by the photographer Johann Schwarzer, who founded the Saturn-film company in 1906. Some of his works were found and restored in recent years, the Filmarchiv Austria.
The main production of the film began in 1910, when the company "Erste Austrian website KinoFilms-Industrie", later to Wiener Kunstfilm) was founded by Anton Kolm, his wife Louise Kolm, and Jacob Fleck. They started with a newsreel, but soon began to produce feature films. In 1912 count Sasha Kolovrat-Krakowsky, a wealthy nobleman from Bohemia, founded the Sascha-film company. In the period up to 1918, she grew up in a large industrial company in Austria, his main rival was the Wiener Kunstfilm. After the outbreak of world war I the Austrian film industry grew in strength, as many foreign companies, including Franciss powerful film industry, were no longer allowed to produce and distribute films in Austria. In the period from 1914 to 1918, nearly 200 movies were produced in Austria - twice as many as in all previous years.
Some Austrian filmmakers who have already emigrated and started his career in the United States at this time. Erich von Stroheim and Josef von Sternberg were just two of the natives of Austria who contributed to the first successes in Hollywood. Little-known filmmakers who began their careers in the USA, for example Henry Lehrman, who staged a few hundred slapstick movies, including the first four films with Charlie Chaplin. The founder of Fox film Corporation, William Fox, born Wilhelm Fuchs and the first independent producer in Hollywood, Sam Spiegel, were also native Austrians, was born in the German-speaking Jews in Austria-Hungary. Co-founder of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Marcus Loew, was born as the son of Jewish immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
1.2. History. 1918 to 1936. (1918 по 1936 год)
After the First world war, film production continued to grow, because the then Austrian currency, the Krone, was very weak. The result of Austrian films were cheaper than from other countries. In the years 1919 to 1922 Austrian Film production reached its peak with an annual capacity of from 100 to 140 films.
Many of the films produced in this period were of lower quality than those created by film-producing countries like France, UK, Denmark, Germany and Italy. But among the mass of low-grade productions were also the movies producers and Directors who attach great importance to quality. Consequently, the style of expressionism in film began not only in German but also in Austrian cinema, for example in gender Czinners Inferno 1920. The script is one of the most important German expressionist films, the Cabinet of Dr. Caligari 1920, was written by two Austrians, Karl Mayer and Hans takes out. They, along with Fritz lang and Paul Czinner, also worked in Berlin, while Berlin was the centre of the German film industry. Austrian Fritz Kortner, who worked in Germany and Austria - for example in Austrian pre-expressionist productions such as der Mandarin, 1918 - one of the most famous actors of expressionism. The most famous Austrian expressionist film it 1924 German Director Robert wiene which starred Conrad Veidt and Fritz Kortner.
Around 1923, the whole of European industry was in decline due to growing competition from the United States. American movies can be exported to Europe very cheap because production costs are already back in the American box office. In the European film industry is divided into many different countries and many different languages, can produce high-quality films at a low enough price to compete with the American imports. Another issue that has affected Germany and Austria was the successful curbing of hyperinflation. Austrian films were not particularly cheap, but exports fell. As a result, Austrian production, the film was shortened to mid-twenties from 20 to 30 films a year, comparable to new greatly reduced size after the First world war in a whole era of silent movies, about 1000 films were produced in Austria.
In the 1920-ies was also the age of the epic film, on the model of films of the pre-war period of the United States such as D. W. Griffith and Italy. In Austria the Austro-Hungarian Directors Michael Curtiz and Alexander Korda produced epic films for Sascha-film and Vita-film-the successor company to Wiener Kunstfilm, among them the Prince and Bettelknabe 1920, Samson and divided 1922, Sodom and Gomorrah 1922, 1923 der Junge Medardus, 1924 die Sklavenkonigin, Harun al-Rashid 1924 and 1925 Salammbo. These movies were the biggest ever built in Austria, with huge production costs, up to 10.000 costumed extras and huge sets such as the "Temple of Sodom", which was designed and built by the best Austrian designers during the period, Emil Stepanek, Artur Berger and Julius von Borsody. Whos-who of the Austrian film worked on these films. As the plane Franz and Hans Theyer made films and the Directors wife, Lucy Doraine Michael Curtiz and Maria Korda, Alexander Korda, became Actresses. The molds were filled Austrian film and theater stars, such as Hans Thimig, Walter Slezak, Oscar Beregi, Hans Marr. For example, some movie stars in later years, Willi Forst appeared in some of these films as extras.
Between 1933 and 1936 Austria was a refuge for many German Directors who emigrated from Nazi Germany, among them Directors Erich Engel and Werner Hochbaum.
1.3. History. 1936 to 1945. (1936 по 1945 год)
Although Austria was annexed to Germany until 1938, Jews were forbidden to work in the Austrian film industry in 1936, under pressure from Nazi Germany, where Jews were banned from working in film for several months, the Nazis take power. Germany was the most important export market for Austrian films and Germany have threatened to impose a complete ban on the import of Austrian film, if the Austrians completed their requirements. The only exception to this prohibition, for reasons unknown, episode film 1935 the Director of the Jewish Walter Reisch. Most Jewish Austrian Directors, actors and other film workers, along with many non-Jewish opponents of the Nazis emigrated in the following years in France, Czechoslovakia, great Britain and the United States. Some Jewish filmmakers, however, did not emigrate and many died in the Holocaust. Many of the Austrian immigrants went on to a successful career in the United States, in particular, Directors Billy Wilder, Fred You, Otto Preminger, Joe and Edgar G. Ulmer.
After the Anschluss some Directors agreed with the new Nazi leadership, while others preferred to leave the film business under the Nazis or subway - for example, the famous costume designer Gerdago who went on to create costumes for the Sissi films of the 1950s years.
The whole Austrian film industry was quickly integrated into one company Wien-film, which was the new name of Sascha-film, after its confiscation by the Nazis with the help of Creditanstalt Bank. Vienna-a film produced a few blatantly propagandistic films, most of his output was seemingly harmless comedies, which are often anti-democratic and anti-Semitic overtones. Although the Nazi censorship was strict, few movies contained hidden criticism on a metaphorical level, for example musical Comedy Willy Forst.
1.4. History. 1945 to 1970. (1945 по 1970)
Between 1945 and 1970 was the age of musical comedies that have become popular in the 1930-ies, and of Heimatfilme, sentimental films with a rural setting. After the Second world war, Austrian cities were devastated and filmmakers to set their work in the countryside to show the population the "good and beautiful" Austria. In the 1950-ies, the age of the Wirtschaftswunder were a few interesting challenges for serious or critical films, the public prefers movies that are displayed safe environment, to protect from the destruction of recent history. A Comedy of the period was set during the Austro-Hungarian Empire in this period is identified with luxury, elegance, romance and a vision of Austria, a Big, powerful and quiet. This explains the popularity of the Sissi films, starring Romy Schneider as Empress Elisabeth, which is found not only domestic but international success. These films were a model for many other Austrian films of that period. Apart from Schneider other Austrian film stars of the 1950s and 1960s, the years were Peter Alexander, Attila Hoerbiger, Magda Schneider, wolf Albach-Retty and Hans Moser. Among the Directors, a very prolific Franz Antel became a household name with his popular comedies.
1.5. History. From 1970 to 1990 − era of structural changes. (С 1970 по 1990 годы − эпоху структурных изменений)
In the 1970-ies were the period in which Austrian film production reached its lowest low tide from five to ten films produced every year. The reactionary Austrian film industry succumbed to the rise of television and at the same time, new, young, and critical generation of filmmakers - the Austrian Avant-garde came the performances, which were often experimental. Notable avant-garde filmmakers, some of whom began working in the late 1950-ies included Peter Kubelka, Franz Novotny, Ernst Schmid Jr., ferry Radax, Kurt roll, Valie Export, Otto Muehl, and Peter Weibel.
Around 1980 a new wave of mainstream film production began in Austria. Modern industry has to compete with other leisure activities like television and computers which did not exist in its heyday in the interwar period and the 1950s years to return to production levels of those times is highly unlikely. However, Austrian industry has started to discover different genres of movies that have been largely forgotten since the 1930s to the 1960-ies, when sentimental comedies dominated the domestic scene. While comedies remain popular in Austria to this day, has changed the nature of Comedy and drama has returned to popularity. Other genres such as action, Thriller, sci-Fi, and horror do not become established in Austria, not least due to their high cost of production and the use of costly special effects. Austrian films of the 21st century are rarely more than 1 to 2 million euros to produce as higher costs could not be recovered in the domestic market and several Austrian movies for successful international distribution. Simultaneously almost the entire distribution system in Austria is in the hands of large American companies that have their production for sale. As a result, there is a small marketing and advertising for the Austrian movie.
1.6. History. After 1990 – a new generation. (После 1990 – новое поколение)
In 1990-e years of the Austrian film industry has undergone several structural changes. Some Directors, both existing and upcoming have created a film to share resources and learn from each other. Other film companies, the largest of which is Dor-film and Allegro-film, as to produce at least two theatrical released films a year, to focus on commercially oriented productions such as Comedy with cabaret stars, who have a high profile in the Austrian market. Such comedies, in particular, Hinterholz 8 and Poppitz, as Director Harald Sicheritz, had the highest grossing of any Austrian movies of the last 25 years. These companies also produce more complex films, but only in limited quantities, as well as other industries, what comedies are financially risky in Austria, if the foreign distribution can be ensured.
The share of Austrian films, domestic box-office is one of the lowest in Europe, only about 3% of hospital admissions movie going domestic production. Every year the annual top ten films at the Austrian box office usually all American.
High-quality Austrian films, which have won more and more critics in recent years, usually made by small production companies, often in co-production with other countries. Examples of this are the piano teacher and Cache by Michael Haneke, probably the most famous Austrian Director at the present time. Other successful Austrian films Austrian and fully joint production since 2000, we feed the world Erwin Wagenhofer, the Darwins nightmare by Hubert of Zauper, calling Hedy Lamarr Georg Misch, the film Grbavica Jasmila Zbanic, slumming Michael Glawogger, Silentium and KOMM SUSER TOD as Wolfgang Murnberger in the Edukators Hans Weingartner and the dog days Ulrich Seidl. Other notable contemporary Directors are Barbara albert, Andrea Maria Dusl, Elizabeth Scharang, Jessica Hausner, Stefan Ruzowitzky, Ruth Mader Kurt palm, Nikolaus Geyrhalter and living in the United States, Robert Dornhelm.
Modern Austrian cinema world known for its realistic social dramas, which enjoyed high attention and many awards at international film festivals since the late 1990-ies. About the film row of Austrian films in the Lincoln center, where films like dog days or Barbara albert Northern skirts Nordrand was shown to the new York times came down to the fact that Austria is currently the world capital of feel-bad cinema.
Narrative of the Holocaust die Falscher the counterfeiters received the award "Oscar" and "Oscar" for Best foreign film in 2007, and a rematch was nominated for the same award in 2009. Critical recognition of the Austrian new wave film has continued and in 2013 Michael Hanekes French film representing Austria, Amour, has won an Oscar and BAFTA for Best foreign language film.
2. Organizations. (Организаций)
Austrian film Commission AFC supports the promotion and export of Austrian films. This organization is the Austrian member of the European film promotion EFP is a pan-European network aimed at promoting European cinema.
3. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- Eleanor Lappin: Jews and film = Juden UND film: Vienna, Prague, Hollywood. Institut fur Hamburg der Juden in Austria, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-85476-127-9.
- Robert von Dassanowsky Austrian cinema - a history. Mcfarland, Jefferson and London 2005, ISBN 0-7864-2078-2.
- Robert von Dassanowsky and Oliver C. speck, EDS.: New Austrian Film. Berghahn, new York and Oxford 2011, ISBN 978-1-84545-700-6.
- Modern Austrian literature: special issue: Austria in film. International Association For Research Arthur Schnitzler, Riverside CA. 1999.
- Ernst Schurman: German Directors in Hollywood: film-emigration from Germany and Austria: an exhibition of the Goethe institutes of North America. 1978.
- Ulrich Rudolph: Osterreicher in Hollywood. Filmarchiv Austria, Vienna 2004, 623 pages, ISBN 3-901932-29-1 only available in German language.
- Walter Fritz: im Kino erlebe ICH Welt: 100 Jahre Film movie UND in österreich. The publishing house Christian Brandstatter, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-85447-661-2.
- Ruth Beckermann: Untertitel Ihne. Sonderzahl-Verlags-Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1996, ISBN 3-85449-090-9.
- Francesco Bono, Paolo Caneppele, Gunter publisher: Ingrid krenn: Elektrische shadow publishing Filmarchiv Austria, Vienna, 1999, ISBN 3-901932-02-x.
- The Filmarchiv Austria Austrian Film Archive is an organisation for the discovery, reconstruction and preservation of Austrian film record material:
- Australia Cinema of Austria Cinema of Azerbaijan Cinema of Bahrain Cinema of Bangladesh Cinema of Belarus Cinema of Belgium Cinema of Bhutan Cinema of Bosnia
- A list of the most notable films produced in the Cinema of Austria ordered by year and split by decade of release. For an alphabetical list of articles
- A list of the earliest films produced in the Cinema of Austria between 1907 and 1919 ordered by year of release. In view of more than 300 films produced
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1970s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1990s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1920s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1980s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1960s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1940s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1950s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 2010s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
- A list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 1930s ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films see Category: Austrian
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- list of films produced in the Cinema of Austria in the 2000s decade ordered by year of release. For an alphabetical list of articles on Austrian films
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