★ Shot (filmmaking)
In film and video production shot is series of frames that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. Film footage are an important aspect of a movie where angles, transitions and cuts are used to further Express emotion, ideas and movement. The term "shot" can refer to two different parts of the filmmaking process:
- In production, a shot is the moment when the camera starts rolling until it stops.
- In the editing of the film is Shot continuous shooting or sequence between two edits or cuts.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
The term "shot" derives from the first days of film production when cameras were hand-cranked, and operated similarly to the hand-cranked machine guns of the time. That is, the operator will "fire" download the film how someone would "shoot" bullets from a machine gun.
2.1. Category personnel. The size of the field. (Размер поля)
The field size explains how much of the subject and its surroundings are visible in the field of view of the cameras, and depends on two factors: the distance of the object from the camera "camera-object distance" and the lens focal length. Please note that the shorter focal length lens, the wider its angle of view, so the same idea can be expressed so that the lance angle of view plus camera-subject distance ranges from the cameras field of view.Caution: In this context, the focal length value differs with each film gauge and CCD size for optical reasons, but the angle of view is the same for any of them, so its easier comparing the angle of view with lenses for different formats than their focal lengths. The same angle of view always gives the same field size at the same camera-subject distance no matter what format youre using, but the same focal length does not. For in-depth information behind the laws of optics regarding the influence that focal length and different formats have on field sizes, see 35 mm equivalent focal length, crop factor, image sensor format, and Digital photography: Sensor size and angle of view.
The same field size can be achieved by different camera-subject distance when using a lens with a compensation of the focal length, and at different focal lengths, selecting compensating the camera-object distance. Field size differs from the frame that in a professional environment, where the Prime lenses are dominant, the latter applies only to the placement of cameras, including camera angle, not focal length.
However, maintaining an identical field size at different camera-subject distances and focal lengths must be handled with caution as it applies different amounts of perspective distortion in the photo: wide-angle lenses expand a perspective, while longer lenses compress perspective. The famous Dolly zoom with a variable focal length of the lens, vivid, intuitive demonstration of this effect. Thus, it is more common in photography and cinematography to determine an image field size by changing only one of the two factors.
The size of the field, along with specific perspective distortion greatly affects the narrative power of a shot. There are a number of standard sizes of fields, whose names are often derived from different camera-subject distances without changing the lens. Four basic kinds of field sizes marked with an asterisk* in the gallery below:
- Full shot. (Полный кадр)
- Medium shot. (Средний выстрел)
- A long shot is often used as an establishing shot.
- Closeup. (Крупным планом)
Three less often used field sizes, see the gallery below:
- American also 3 shot / 4 shot, a slight change in the medium shot to also include OWB handgun holsters in Western movies, a characterization from French film criticism for a type of shot in certain American films of the 1930-ies and 1940-ies it is also called a "Cowboy shot" with reference to the gun holster being just above the bottom frame line.
- "Italian shot" or extreme close-up ECU or XCU, where only the persons eyes are visible, named after the genre of Italo-westerns, particularly the dollars trilogy by Sergio Leone, who created at this size field.
- Extremely unlikely to be used for epic views and panoramas.
There are other options, such as medium close-up medium close-up, and moving to such as "lean" and moves like "lean out".
2.2. Category personnel. By placing the camera. (Поместив камеру)
"Shots" referring to camera placement and angle rather than field size include:
- Low angle shot. (Низкий угол выстрел)
- Aerial shot. (Воздушная выстрел)
- Birds-eye, sometimes shooting, carried out as a crane shot.
- Views. (Вид)
- Two shot where two people are in the picture.
- Point of view shot.
- On shoulder. (На плечо)
- The return stroke is defined as a 180-degree rotation of the camera. in the previous figure, common in point of view and over the shoulder in the latter, care must be applied to avoid continuity errors, breaking the 180 degree rule.
2.3. Category personnel. Other criteria. (Другие критерии)
- The insert shot is created in editing by replacing a picture with another, and the audio remains unchanged common in interviews to illustrate topics.
- Dolly shot a shot in which the camera moves towards or away from the object during shooting. Traditionally, Dolly shots filmed with a camera Dolly, but the same movement may also be performed using a Steadicam, gimbal, etc. Dolly shot is usually described in terms of "dollying In" or "dollying out." Road and is also a common synonym.
- The creation of a shot is determined by giving the definition of "broad overview" over a scene, whether performed by a wide shot with a fixed camera, zoom, a few large plans is achieved by movement of the camera, or a sequence of independent objects-the angle of the shot to edit directly to each other.
- The master shot the scene done in one take, without editing.
- Freeze frame, created in editing by displaying a single frame for an elongated period of time.
Frame length is an important factor that can significantly affect the film. The purpose of editing any given scene is to create a view of what can be perceived "the storyteller." Shots with a longer time can make a scene seem more relaxed and slower paced whereas shots with a shorter duration can make a scene seem urgent and faster paced.
The average length of shot of ASL films is one of the measures cinemetrical. For example, fog has a length of 117 minutes and consists of 1292 shots, so the sea level is 5.4 seconds, and "Russian ark" is a single 96-minute take, as the ASL of 96 minutes, or about 5.760 seconds, a factor of 1.000 difference.
Shots with extremely long hard to do because any error in the frame will force the filmmaker to restart from scratch, and therefore only occasionally used. Movies were famous for their long cuts include Francis Ford Coppolas the Godfather in which the entire first scene in a long Bonasera describing the assault on his daughter, and Alfred Hitchcocks rope, which only cuts at the end of each reel, and does so surreptitiously so that it seems as if the entire movie is one take. Health Orson touch of evil begins with a long tracking crane shot, as does Robert Altmans the player.
In addition to "Russian ark", which was made in 2002 using digital recording technology, other films known for its extremely long takes include figures of participants Kubrick, Stanley 2001: a Space Odyssey and the works of Andrei Tarkovsky, starting with Solaris. Bela Tarr is also known for a long time always does in his films. Joss Whedons the feature film "serenity" introduces the main characters with long.
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- study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities
- often used in pornographic filmmaking and to sexual intercourse. Continuity editing Cutaway filmmaking Insert Shot - Filmsite Filmsite.org. Retrieved
- Guerrilla filmmaking refers to a form of independent filmmaking characterized by low budgets, skeleton crews, and simple props using whatever is available
- In photography, filmmaking and video production, a long shot sometimes referred to as a full shot or wide shot typically shows the entire object or
- ISBN 0 - 7357 - 1258 - 1. Alexander, Victor 29 May 2008 Filmmaking A to Z: The Guide to 35 Millimeter Filmmaking Victor Alexander. ISBN 1 - 4382 - 0963 - 0.
- crews operate in pre - production, production, or post - production stages of filmmaking For example, the film editor may work solely in the post - production stage
- always be the same as that on the miniature making it possible to shoot in a variety of different lights during the day. Shot filmmaking Filmmaking
- filmmaking and television production refers to the technique of changing the focal length of a zoom lens and hence the angle of view during a shot
- In filmmaking and video production, shot logging is the process by which shoot metadata is captured during a film or video shoot. During the shoot, the
- shot with another. Cross - cutting Cutting between different events occurring simultaneously in different locations. Especially in narrative filmmaking
- A close - up or closeup in filmmaking television production, still photography, and the comic strip medium is a type of shot that tightly frames a person
- sometimes perform a double function as an establishing shot Usually, the master shot is the first shot checked off during the shooting of a scene - it is the
- of commercial filmmaking in the 1920s, most notably the Hollywood studio system, those seeking to learn the technical skills of filmmaking most often started
- In filmmaking a pick - up is a small, relatively minor shot filmed or recorded after the fact to augment footage already shot When entire scenes are redone
- The legacy of filmmaking technique left by Akira Kurosawa for subsequent generations of filmmakers has been diverse and of international influence. The
- A two shot is a type of shot in which the frame encompasses two people the subjects The subjects do not have to be next to each other, and there are
- Donald G. Jackson developed known as Zen Filmmaking This film is shot entirely in the documentary style of filmmaking using a hand - held camera and all of
- Mattes are used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image. Usually, mattes are used
- Feature Filmmaking Rockville, MD: Wildside Press. p. 82. ISBN 9780809556908. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Learning materials related to Filmmaking at Wikiversity
- Stuart, Olga Lindo and Howard Marion - Crawford. It marked Zampi s return to filmmaking after he had been interned during the Second World War. John Stuart as
- In film or video, an over the shoulder shot also over shoulder, ab tu, OTS, or third - person shot is a shot of someone or something taken from the perspective
- In filmmaking found footage is the use of footage as a found object, appropriated for use in collage films, documentary films, mockumentary films and
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- In film and video, a cutaway shot is the interruption of a continuously filmed action by inserting a view of something else. It is usually followed by
- for no - budget films is often shot on location, either with permission, or without permission i.e. guerrilla filmmaking using sites such as the home
- In filmmaking a long take is a shot lasting much longer than the conventional editing pace either of the film itself or of films in general. Significant
- response to what is said. Buffer shot Cutaway filmmaking Dissolve filmmaking Fast cutting Jump cut Match cut Shot reverse shot Slow cutting cross - cut
- Dogme 95 was a filmmaking movement started in 1995 by the Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, who created the Dogme 95 Manifesto and
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